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Journal ArticleDOI

A Wide-Angle E-Plane Scanning Linear Array Antenna With Wide Beam Elements

TL;DR: In this article, a wide-beam microstrip antenna with metal walls is proposed to improve the wide-angle scanning performance of the phased array antennas, and the beamwidth of the antenna is broadened by the horizontal current on the radiating patch and the vertical currents on the metal walls.
Abstract: In order to improve the wide-angle scanning performance of the phased array antennas, a wide-beam microstrip antenna with metal walls is proposed in this letter. The beamwidth of the antenna is broadened by the horizontal current on the radiating patch and the vertical current on the metal walls. The half-power beamwidth of the E- and H-planes is 221° and 168° at 4.0 GHz. Furthermore, the wide-beam antenna element is employed in a nine-element E-plane linear array antenna. The main beam of the E-plane scanning linear array antenna can scan from −70° to +70° in the frequency band from 3.7 to 4.3 GHz with a gain fluctuation less than 2.7 dB and variation in maximum sidelobe level less than −5.8 dB. The E-plane scanning linear array antenna with nine elements is fabricated and tested. The measured results achieve a good agreement with the simulated results.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A K-band antenna with ±60° beam scanning is proposed for a mmWave (millimeter-Wave) radar sensor and its wide-angle beam scanning performance is evaluated by the radar’s distance and angular detections.
Abstract: In this paper, a K-band antenna with ±60° beam scanning is proposed for a mmWave (millimeter-Wave) radar sensor. Especially, we take advantages of the magnetic dipole principle, and design the antenna by employing via holes in three sides, so as to form a cavity which can be equivalently considered as magnetic dipole, resulting in the 3 dB beam width as wide as 140° in E-plane. We cascade the mmWave antenna to 1×4 and 4×4 arrays for radar transmitting and receiving, respectively. The antenna array is fabricated and implemented to a K-band radar and its wide-angle beam scanning performance is evaluated by the radar's distance and angular detections.

26 citations


Cites background from "A Wide-Angle E-Plane Scanning Linea..."

  • ...Reference [8] proposes a wide-beam microstrip antenna with metal walls, and realizes beam scanning from −70 to +70....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a dual-polarized phased array antenna with wide-angle scanning capability is presented. And the proposed method can also optimize the array unit size and achieve a small inter-unit distance for wide-angles scanning capability.
Abstract: A dual-polarized phased array antenna is presented with wide-angle scanning capability in this paper. To improve the mutual coupling in the array, a current cancellation method (CCM) is proposed by changing the current distribution on the excited unit to induce a pair of the canceled currents on the adjacent unit. Meanwhile, this current distribution broadens the beam-width of the unit in the array. Besides, the proposed method can also optimize the array unit size and achieve a small inter-unit distance for wide-angle scanning capability. A low-profile dual-polarization antenna operating in the bandwidth from 4.4 GHz to 5.0 GHz is designed as a linear array and a planar array to verify the proposed method. Regardless of the linear array or planar array, the mutual coupling in the array is below -19 dB, which is better than that in conventional arrays. Meanwhile, the antenna unit in the array can radiate a wide-beam pattern. Two arrays can scan over ±60° for both polarizations. Within the scanning range, the realized gain reduction is less than 3 dB and the side-lobe level is lower than -7.5 dB. To verify the performance, two array antenna prototypes are fabricated and tested. The experimental results agree well with the simulation.

24 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a wide-angle scanning phased array antenna using high gain pattern reconfigurable antenna (PRA) elements and shows that even if the array antenna has large element spacing, the desired scanning performance can be obtained using the elements designed under the guideline.
Abstract: This paper presents a wide-angle scanning phased array antenna using high gain pattern reconfigurable antenna (PRA) elements. Using PRA elements is an attractive solution for wide-angle scanning phased array antennas because the scanning range can be divided into several subspaces. To achieve the desired scanning performance, some characteristics of the PRA element such as the number of switching modes, tilt angle, and maximum half-power beamwidth (HPBW) are required. We analyzed the required characteristics of the PRA element according to the target scanning range and element spacing, and presented a PRA element design guideline for phased array antennas. In accordance with the guideline, the scanning range was set as ±70° and a high gain PRA element with three reconfigurable patterns was used to compose an 8x1 array antenna with 0.9 λ0 spacing. After analyzing whether the active element patterns meet the guideline, the array antenna was fabricated and measured to demonstrate the scanning performance. The fabricated array can scan its beam from -70° to 70° by dividing the scanning range into three subspaces. It shows that even if the array antenna has large element spacing, the desired scanning performance can be obtained using the elements designed under the guideline.

20 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a novel mm-wave (mm-wave) binary coding antenna with broadband, dual-polarization, and wide beamwidth is proposed, and its broad-angle scanning array is also studied.
Abstract: A novel millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) binary coding antenna with broadband, dual-polarization, and wide beamwidth is proposed, and its broad-angle scanning array is also studied. The element employs the stacked patches, where the optimal middle parasitic patch and top driven patch are introduced to broaden the bandwidth and beamwidth. The driven and parasitic patches are realized by series of small units optimized by binary code. The measured results for the proposed antenna prototype agree well with the simulated ones, showing a wide impedance bandwidth and good port isolation from 21.8 to 33.2 GHz (FBW = 41.5%). The measured half-power beamwidth is between 128 $^{\circ }$ and 157 $^{\circ }$ over the operating bandwidth. The element was then extended to an eight-element phased array. The measured results demonstrate that the array with a broad scanning angle more than 100 $^{\circ }$ over the available band can be achieved.

20 citations


Cites methods from "A Wide-Angle E-Plane Scanning Linea..."

  • ...introducing the metal wall [12], and using the distributed patch structure [13]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a multimode patch element can provide broadside (TM01 or TM10 modes) and monopole-like (TM21 mode) patterns which are combined to obtain a joint wide-beam coverage in both xoz and yoz planes.
Abstract: In this letter, we report the results of an investigation of multimode microstrip patch resonators and their applications for designing dual-polarized wide-angle scanning phased arrays. The proposed multimode patch element can provide broadside (TM01 or TM10 modes) and monopole-like (TM21 mode) patterns which are combined to obtain a joint wide-beam coverage in both xoz and yoz planes. By interactively selecting these modes, the formed 8 × 8 planar phased array can scan its main beam from −64° to +64° in the two orthogonal planes. Measured results validate some notable features, such as the dual-plane wide-angle scan with the same polarization and high realized gain with low sidelobe levels.

19 citations


Cites methods from "A Wide-Angle E-Plane Scanning Linea..."

  • ...To overcome this scanning angle bottleneck, many solutions have been suggested to expand the scanning angles, such as the image theory [2], wide beam-width microstrip antenna with metal walls [3], matching network and reduced mutual coupling technique [4], pattern reconfigurable technique [5]–[7], and the solution of grating lobe reduction in scanning phased arrays [8]....

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References
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Book
01 Jan 1981
TL;DR: The CEM for Antennas: Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTDM) as mentioned in this paper is a CEM-based method for measuring the time domain of an antenna.
Abstract: Antenna Fundamentals and Definitions. Some Simple Radiating Systems and Antenna Practice. Arrays. Line Sources. Resonant Antennas: Wires and Patches. Broadband Antennas. Aperture Antennas. Antenna Synthesis. Antennas in Systems and Antenna Measurements. CEM for Antennas: The Method of Moments. CEM for Antennas: Finite Difference Time Domain Method. CEM for Antennas: High-Frequency Methods. Appendices. Index.

3,854 citations

Book
02 Dec 2009
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an overview of the history of connected arrays and their applications in the field of pattern synthesis, and present a detailed analysis of the connections and their properties.
Abstract: Preface to the First Edition. Preface to the Second Edition. 1 Introduction. 1.1 Array Background. 1.2 Systems Factors. 1.3 Annotated Reference Sources. References. 2 Basic Array Characteristics. 2.1 Uniformly Excited Linear Arrays. 2.2 Planar Arrays. 2.3 Beam Steering and Quantization Lobes. 2.4 Directivity. References. 3 Linear Array Pattern Synthesis. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Dolph Chebyshev Arrays. 3.3 Taylor One-Parameter Distribution. 3.4 Taylor N-Bar Aperture Distribution. 3.5 Low-Sidelobe Distributions. 3.6 Villeneuve N-Bar Array Distribution. 3.7 Difference Patterns. 3.8 Sidelobe Envelope Shaping. 3.9 Shaped Beam Synthesis. 3.10 Thinned Arrays. Acknowledgment. References. 4 Planar and Circular Array Pattern Synthesis. 4.1 Circular Planar Arrays. 4.2 Noncircular Apertures. Acknowledgment. References. 5 Array Elements. 5.1 Dipoles. 5.2 Waveguide Slots. 5.3 TEM Horns. 5.4 Microstrip Patches and Dipoles. Acknowledgments. References. 6 Array Feeds. 6.1 Series Feeds. 6.2 Shunt (Parallel) Feeds. 6.3 Two-Dimensional Feeds. 6.4 Photonic Feed Systems. 6.5 Systematic Errors. Acknowledgments. References. 7 Mutual Coupling. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Fundamentals of Scanning Arrays. 7.3 Spatial Domain Approaches to Mutual Coupling. 7.4 Spectral Domain Approaches. 7.5 Scan Compensation and Blind Angles. Acknowledgment. References. 8 Finite Arrays. 8.1 Methods of Analysis. 8.2 Scan Performance of Small Arrays. 8.3 Finite-by-Infinite Array Gibbsian Model. References. 9 Superdirective Arrays. 9.1 Historical Notes. 9.2 Maximum Array Directivity. 9.3 Constrained Optimization. 9.4 Matching of Superdirective Arrays. References. 10 Multiple-Beam Antennas. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Beamformers. 10.3 Low Sidelobes and Beam Interpolation. 10.4 Beam Orthogonality. Acknowledgments. References. 11 Conformal Arrays. 11.1 Scope. 11.2 Ring Arrays. 11.3 Arrays on Cylinders. 11.4 Sector Arrays on Cylinders. 11.5 Arrays on Cones and Spheres. Acknowledgments. References. 12 Connected Arrays. 12.1 History of Connected Arrays. 12.2 Connected Array Principles. 12.3 Connected Dipole Currents. 12.4 Connection by Reactance. 12.5 Connected Array Extensions. References. 13 Reflectarrays and Retrodirective Arrays. 13.1 Reflectarrays. 13.2 Retrodirective Arrays. References. 14 Reflectors with Arrays. 14.1 Focal Plane Arrays. 14.2 Near-Field Electromagnetic Optics. References. 15 Measurements and Tolerances. 15.1 Measurement of Low-Sidelobe Patterns. 15.2 Array Diagnostics. 15.3 Waveguide Simulators. 15.4 Array Tolerances. Acknowledgment. References. Author Index. Subject Index.

1,117 citations


"A Wide-Angle E-Plane Scanning Linea..." refers background in this paper

  • ...For traditional phased array antennas, the main beams can scan from −45° to +45° with a gain fluctuation of 4–5 dB [1] because the beamwidths of the elements are limited, and mutual coupling between elements is strong when the beam is scanned at low elevation (near endfire) angles....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a phase array model based on the principle of dividing the space in front of the array into parallel tubes or waveguides, one for each element cell in the sheet or array.
Abstract: The simplest concept of a phased array is an infinite planar current sheet backed by a reflecting boundary. The electric current sheet, or resistance sheet, is the limiting case of many small electric dipoles, closely spaced, and backed by an open-circuit boundary. If this array is viewed as a receiver, a plane wave incident on the array at some angle ( \theta ) meets a boundary resistance varying in proportion to \cos \theta for angles in the H plane, and 1/\cos \theta for angles in the E plane. If the array is matched at broadside ( \theta=0 ), the corresponding reflection coefficient has the magnitude (\tan \frac{1}{2}\theta)^{2} . While the electric current sheet is realizable, the open-circuit boundary is not. However, a magnetic current sheet can be simulated by a conductive sheet with holes utilized as magnetic dipoles, such a sheet providing the backing equivalent to a short-circuit boundary. The latter case is related to the former by electromagnetic inversion or duality. Therefore, an incident plane wave meets a boundary conductance varying in proportion to \cos \theta for angles in the E plane, and 1/\cos \theta for angles in the H plane. The predicted behavior is verified qualitatively by tests of such a model with elements of a practice size. The derivation is based on the principle of dividing the space in front of the array into parallel tubes or waveguides, one for each element cell in the sheet or array. This is one of the principles published by the author in 1948. A related principle enables the simulation of an infinite array by imaging a few elements in the walls of a waveguide. This latter principle is utilized for making tests of the array.

304 citations


"A Wide-Angle E-Plane Scanning Linea..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The structure is put over the array antenna, and it predicts that the element resistance associated with the array will vary with cos θ and 1/ cos θ in the E- and H-planes, respectively [6]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Past and present technological developments in microstrip antenna arrays are summarized and emphasis is on exploring the potential of such arrays for satisfying the requirements of advanced military and commercial applications.
Abstract: Past and present technological developments in microstrip antenna arrays are summarized. Emphasis is on exploring the potential of such arrays for satisfying the requirements of advanced military and commercial applications.

276 citations


"A Wide-Angle E-Plane Scanning Linea..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In contrast to the restructured antenna [7], it is simple to adequately perform the wide scan coverage....

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  • ...The beam shape can be controlled by changing the antenna structure of the antenna unit when the beam scans to one side [7]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1954
TL;DR: In this article, two complementary sources are combined in the proper amplitude and phase to obtain desirable radiation characteristics for feeding a circular aperture, and it is shown that the back radiation from the feed is down 30 dB from that in the forward direction, minimizing interference effects between feed and aperture.
Abstract: When two complementary sources are combined in the proper amplitude and phase, desirable radiation characteristics for feeding a circular aperture are obtained. It is shown that when the feed is achieved there results a circular beam cross section which optimizes the efficiency of illumination of a circular aperture. The back radiation from the feed is down 30 db from that in the forward direction, minimizing interference effects between feed and aperture. It is the purpose of this thesis to show how a feed composed of complementary sources has been physically realized and to present and discuss experimental radiation and impedance data. It is well known that the radiation pattern of an electric dipole is a circle in the H plane and a figure 8 in the E plane. An open-ended coaxial line carrying the TE_{11} mode is similar to a magnetic dipole; i.e., the E plane is nearly circular while the H plane is like a figure 8. These two sources have been combined to produce a feed whose E - and H -plane patterns are of equal width. The complementary source idea has been applied to feeds of both linear and circular polarization. The linearly polarized feed is excited from rectangular waveguide and is simple to fabricate. It can be easily matched over a broadband. This feed has been used to illuminate a 20-inch parabola with the result that the secondary E and H planes are of equal width and the side lobes are 30 db down from the main radiation. The circularly polarized feed is excited from a circularly polarized TE_{11} mode in coaxial line. The radiating structure maintains circular symmetry and the axial ratio remains essentially constant over a large portion of the beam.

211 citations


"A Wide-Angle E-Plane Scanning Linea..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The horizontal current and vertical current on the antenna with the metal walls are given by [13]...

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