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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/00223891.2020.1737093

Abbreviated Three-Item Versions of the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Harmony in Life Scale Yield as Strong Psychometric Properties as the Original Scales

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Personality Assessment (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 103, Iss: 2, pp 183-194
Abstract: The cognitive components of subjective well-being can be measured with the Satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) and the Harmony in life scale (HILS), which both comprise five items each. The aim of ...

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01 Jun 2019-
Abstract: Against the broader backdrop of histories and debates sketched out in earlier chapters, Chapter 3 focuses in detail on the life and work of Mouloud Feraoun, touching on other important figures including Jean Amrouche and Albert Camus. Feraoun was a successful novelist who remained dedicated to his work as a teacher in a French primary school, even when his work placed his life at threat from both sides in the Algerian war of independence (during which the FLN at one point called a boycott of French schools). He finished his life working for the CSEs (Centres sociaux 裵‎catifs) established by the French authorities during the war. The chapter tries to shed light on this heroic/anti-heroic commitment to education, and how we can understand, and perhaps justify, his decision to remain part of the colonial education system in the context of a violent anti-colonial war, despite his commitment to Algerian independence. [150]

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12 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7717/PEERJ.9193
09 Jun 2020-PeerJ
Abstract: Background Subjective Well-Being (SWB) is usually conceptualized in terms of an affective (i.e., judgements of biological emotional reactions and experiences) and a cognitive component (i.e., judgements of life satisfaction in relation to a psychological self-imposed ideal). Recently, researchers have suggested that judgements of harmony in life can replace or at least complement the cognitive component of SWB. Here, however, we go beyond that suggestion and propose that harmony in life should be seen as SWB's social component since it is the sense of balance between the individual and the world around her-a process that comprises acceptance, adaptation, and balance. By adding judgements of one's social interactions (i.e., harmony in life) to judgments of one's life satisfaction (psycho) and judgements of one's emotional reactions (bio), we propose a tentatively biopsychosocial model of SWB. As a first step, we used different factorial models in order to determine if both a general factor and specific sub-factors contribute to the biopsychosocial model of SWB. Method A total of 527 participants responded to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; 20 items), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; five items), and the Harmony in life Scale (HILS; five items). We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to validate the biopsychosocial model of subjective well-being and a general factor (SWBS). Results The 20 PANAS items reflected a mixture of general latent structure saturation and specific latent structure saturation, but contributed to their respective specific latent factor (PA: 48%; NA: 49%) more than to the general latent SWBS factor (positive affect: 25%; negative affect: 32%). The five SWLS items contributed to a larger degree to the general SWBS factor (72%) than to life satisfaction itself (22%), while the five HILS items contributed to even a larger degree to the general SWBS factor (98%) than to harmony in life (0%). The bifactor model was the best model compared with all other models we tested (χ2 = 1,660.78, df = 375, p Conclusion Our study suggests SWB as a general factor in a multidimensional biopsychosocial model. Indeed, as much as 64% of the variance of SWB was explained by this general factor. The SWB components, however, contributed to a different degree to each corresponding factor in the model. For instance, while the affective and cognitive components seem to be their own constructs and also part of the general SWB factor, the social component tested here contributed 0% to its own variance but 98% to the general factor.

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9 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH17155392
Abstract: Background: This study analyzed the role of global self-esteem and selected sociodemographic variables in predicting life satisfaction of nursing students in Poland, Spain and Slovakia. Methods: The study subjects were full-time nursing students from three European countries. A diagnostic survey was used as a research method, while the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (SES) and the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) were used to collect data. Results: The research was performed on a group of 1002 students. The mean age of those surveyed was 21.6 (±3.4). The results showed significant differences both in the level of the global self-esteem index (F = 40.74; p < 0.0001) and in the level of general satisfaction with life (F = 12.71; p < 0.0001). A comparison of the structure of results demonstrated that there were significantly fewer students with high self-esteem in Spain (11.06%) than in Poland (48.27%) and in Slovakia (42.05%), while more students with a high sense of life satisfaction were recorded in Spain (64.90%) than in Poland (37.87%) or in Slovakia (47.44%). A positive, statistically significant correlation was found between global self-esteem and satisfaction with life in the group of Slovak students (r = 0.37; p < 0.0001), Polish students (r = 0.31; p < 0.0001) and Spanish students (r = 0.26; p < 0.0001). Furthermore, a regression analysis proved that three variables explaining a total of 12% output variation were the predictors of life satisfaction in Polish students. The regression factor was positive (seta = 0.31; R2 = 0.12), which indicates a positive correlation and the largest share was attributed to global self-esteem (9%). In the group of Spanish students, global self-esteem explained 7% (seta = 0.27; R2 = 0.07) of the output variation and 14% in the group of Slovak students (seta = 0.38; R2 = 0.14). Conclusions: The global self-esteem demonstrates the predictive power of life satisfaction of nursing students, most clearly marked in the group of Slovak students. The measurement of the variables under consideration may facilitate the planning and implementation of programs aimed at increasing self-esteem among young people and promoting the well-being of nursing students.

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Topics: Life satisfaction (55%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPSYG.2021.601679
Abstract: Different types of well-being are likely to be associated with different kinds of behaviors. The first objective of this study was, from a subjective well-being perspective, to examine whether harmony in life and satisfaction with life are related differently to cooperative behaviors depending on individuals' social value orientation. The second objective was, from a methodological perspective, to examine whether language-based assessments called computational language assessments (CLA), which enable respondents to answer with words that are analyzed using natural language processing, demonstrate stronger correlations with cooperation than traditional rating scales. Participants reported their harmony in life, satisfaction with life, and social value orientation before taking part in an online cooperative task. The results show that the CLA of overall harmony in life correlated with cooperation (all participants: r = 0.18, p 0.05). No significant correlations (measured by the CLA or traditional rating scales) were found between satisfaction with life and cooperation. In conclusion, our study reveals an important behavioral difference between different types of subjective well-being. To our knowledge, this is the first study supporting the validity of self-reported CLA over traditional rating scales in relation to actual behaviors.

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Topics: Rating scale (53%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/AGEING/AFAB172
10 Nov 2021-Age and Ageing
Abstract: BACKGROUND Many older adults experience decline in function, but maintain high levels of life satisfaction. The factors associated with high life satisfaction among those with functional impairment are not well understood. OBJECTIVE Examine the proportion of older adults with functional impairment reporting high life satisfaction and the predictors of high life satisfaction. DESIGN Cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING Health and Retirement Study. SUBJECTS A total of 7,287 community-dwelling participants, 65 years or older, who completed the leave-behind questionnaire in 2014 or 2016. METHODS The main predictor was having difficulty or needing help in performing Activities of Daily Living (ADL). The primary outcome was reporting high life satisfaction, defined using a three-item Diener scale. Significant factors were identified using modified Poisson regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics. RESULTS Those with no ADL impairment were more likely to report high levels of life satisfaction than those with ADL difficulty or ADL dependence (54.4 vs 38.6 vs 27.6%, P < 0.001). Among those with ADL dependence, we identified several factors associated with high life satisfaction, including: not being lonely (38.2 vs 23.2%, ARR = 1.6 (1.2, 2.2)), satisfied with family life (35.1 vs 12.8%, ARR = 2.7 (1.6, 4.4)), and satisfied with financial situation (40.8 vs 16.6%, ARR = 2.5 (1.8, 3.6)). Similar associations were present among those with ADL difficulty. CONCLUSIONS A substantial proportion of older adults with ADL impairment report high life satisfaction, and it is associated with social and economic well-being. Understanding the factors associated with high life satisfaction can lead to clinical practices and policy guidelines that promote life satisfaction in older adults.

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Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.

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18,785 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1207/S15327752JPA4901_13
Abstract: This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.

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17,915 Citations


01 Dec 2010-
Abstract: A guide to using S environments to perform statistical analyses providing both an introduction to the use of S and a course in modern statistical methods The emphasis is on presenting practical problems and full analyses of real data sets

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16,174 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.17265/2159-5313/2016.09.003
28 Sep 2016-Philosophy study
Abstract: There has been a shift from the general presumption that “doctor knows best” to a heightened respect for patient autonomy. Medical ethics remains one-sided, however. It tends (incorrectly) to interpret patient autonomy as mere participation in decisions, rather than a willingness to take the consequences. In this respect, medical ethics remains largely paternalistic, requiring doctors to protect patients from the consequences of their decisions. This is reflected in a one-sided account of duties in medical ethics. Medical ethics may exempt patients from obligations because they are the weaker or more vulnerable party in the doctor-patient relationship. We argue that vulnerability does not exclude obligation. We also look at others ways in which patients’ responsibilities flow from general ethics: for instance, from responsibilities to others and to the self, from duties of citizens, and from the responsibilities of those who solicit advice. Finally, we argue that certain duties of patients counterbalance an otherwise unfair captivity of doctors as helpers.

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Topics: Nursing ethics (83%), Medical ethics (65%)

9,859 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/ARCHINTE.166.10.1092
Abstract: Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common mental disorders; however, there is no brief clinical measure for assessing GAD. The objective of this study was to develop a brief self-report scale to identify probable cases of GAD and evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods A criterion-standard study was performed in 15 primary care clinics in the United States from November 2004 through June 2005. Of a total of 2740 adult patients completing a study questionnaire, 965 patients had a telephone interview with a mental health professional within 1 week. For criterion and construct validity, GAD self-report scale diagnoses were compared with independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals; functional status measures; disability days; and health care use. Results A 7-item anxiety scale (GAD-7) had good reliability, as well as criterion, construct, factorial, and procedural validity. A cut point was identified that optimized sensitivity (89%) and specificity (82%). Increasing scores on the scale were strongly associated with multiple domains of functional impairment (all 6 Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey scales and disability days). Although GAD and depression symptoms frequently co-occurred, factor analysis confirmed them as distinct dimensions. Moreover, GAD and depression symptoms had differing but independent effects on functional impairment and disability. There was good agreement between self-report and interviewer-administered versions of the scale. Conclusion The GAD-7 is a valid and efficient tool for screening for GAD and assessing its severity in clinical practice and research.

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9,723 Citations


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