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Academic SAILERS: The Ford Foundation and the Efforts to Shape Legal Education in Africa, 1957-1977

01 Jul 2012-American Journal of Legal History (Oxford Academic)-Vol. 52, Iss: 3, pp 261-324

AbstractThis study examines a major law-and-development project in Africa undertaken by the New York-based Ford Foundation in the decades following the Second World War. By the 1960s, many countries in Africa freed themselves of colonial rule, and Ford eagerly sought to assist these newly emerging states in the nation-building process. One area towards which Ford contributed considerable resources was legal education. Labeling its program ‘SAILER’ – or the Staffing of African Institutions of Legal Education and Research – Ford engaged in a range of initiatives, including sending American lawyers to teach in several different African countries and bringing Africans to law schools in the United States to study. The research here evaluates this Ford initiative by relying primarily on three sources of original data: a review of all of Ford’s archival documents on SAILER; interviews with former affiliates of SAILER residing in the United States; and archival research and interviews conducted in Africa during parts of 2010 and 2011. As the findings reveal, the story of this project is more complicated than the conventional wisdom might suggest. To begin, SAILER was not a single, monolithic program; nor was its mission to advance some grand Cold War, American foreign policy objective. Furthermore, the Africans with whom SAILER-officials worked were not all desperately yearning for assistance from the United States; many were sophisticated individuals simply interested in finding ways to enhance the rule of law in their respective countries. SAILER thus was seen as one potential vehicle for achieving this goal. And importantly, the attitudes of, and strategies employed by, those involved with SAILER – both in the United States and in Africa – were not static; they were nuanced and they evolved throughout the course of the project. By 1977 SAILER officially ended, but as this study concludes, the reasons were layered, and they related to contextual factors within Africa as much as to the internal decisions within Ford itself.

Topics: Foreign policy (52%), Archival research (52%), Legal education (51%), Rule of law (51%)

Summary (3 min read)

INTRODUCTION

  • During the 1960s, the United States witnessed a series of defining moments, including the historic Civil Rights Movement, tragic political assassinations, and the rapid escalation of involvement in Vietnam.
  • Dating back to the mid-1950s, Ford had privileged legal education and had funded "cooperative programs"' between American and foreign law schools in countries like Turkey, Egypt, Pakistan, West Germany, and India.
  • The stated purpose of SAILER was to financially support law schools in African countries.
  • As it turned out, however, once in the United States the Africans, like they had in Africa, educated the Americans in important ways.
  • The findings below, thus, showcase two points.

A. The Initial Planning

  • Prior to the establishment of the Ford Foundation in 1936, the two major American philanthropic organizations that existed were the Carnegie Corporation and the Rockefeller Foundation.'.
  • 21 Still, the Ford Foundation then-and to this day-took great pains to emphasize its non-profit independence from the Motor Company, its humanitarian mission, and its sole desire to "strengthen democratic values, reduce poverty and injustice, promote international cooperation, [and] advance human achievement.".
  • There was also Francis X. Sutton, a sociologist with a Ph.D. from Harvard, who was serving as Ford's program associate for the Middle East and Africa.
  • In the summer of 1958, Howard dispatched Merillat first to Britain and then to Ghana to meet with a number of lawyers and scholars who were familiar with the Ghanaian legal education landscape.
  • 2 7 For Allott, the proposed Ghanaian scheme was ad hoc and piecemeal in nature, and it did not address two additional concerns: how the government planned to tackle corrupsubsequent documents show that the opening would be in fact set for November of 1958.

B. The Creation of the Program

  • Another key Ford player in the 1950s who was examining the developments from on the ground-this time in Lagos-was J. Donald Kingsley.
  • He had held a teaching post at Antioch College and thereafter served in the federal gov-ernment and at the United Nations on a combination of infrastructure and educational projects.
  • 5 4 According to Lombard, the three-day conference was divided into three concurrently held plenary sessions where, because of his status, he "was free to move from one committee to another,"ss which allowed him to witness "when particularly controversial points were being discussed."'.
  • For this reason, they urged Ford to financially support American scholars for extended, in-depth visits in order to gain greater 60 See "information and understanding about the problems of legal education in Africa.".
  • Plus, although Runyon and Stevens recognized that "[t]he time for any American university to act as [an] adviser for an African one is somewhat premature," 6 8 hope existed for the time when Ford could serve as an eventual conduit.

A. Moving Concretely to an Agenda

  • At Columbia his success came from being a practical administrator, someone who conceived of law as an action-oriented instrument, particularly as it related to exposing students, faculty, and staff to the changing international landscape.
  • First, there would be support for senior American legal scholars to travel and spend time on law faculties in Africa.
  • One is that there was indeed "arrogance" 9 7 among the SAILER designers, especially among those caught up in the "nationalistic view that first-rate young lawyers from the U.S. could well prove their worth to many new governments in Africa.".
  • This point will be discussed in further detail when looking at the three case studies.
  • John A. Harrington and Ambreena Manji have uncovered how Lord Denning, one of Britain's most famous experts on legal education, advocated reforms in the 1950s and early 1960s for Africa that were traditional and conservative.

B. Beginning the Real Work

  • The other reason for why the SAILER-team opted to participate heavily in these selected countries was because it was assured that its assistance in research-development would be welcomed, and that the different governments saw rigorous research as vital for improving their respective legal systems.
  • While he and Bainbridge remained "most friendly," id. at 94, the Dean faced political pressure as well as the reality that many of the Khartoum law students simply had intense difficulty succeeding under the American legal education model for various reasons.

Id.

  • 16 9 For the next eighteen months Paul continued attempting to strengthen the quality of education and diversify the faculty, although through the calendar year, 1966, the teachers remained predominantly Western-based.
  • But what would become of engaged, with other fine people, in a task which may truly yield tangible fruit in the course of time.").
  • "I The archival documents are unclear as to how much money specifically was allocated to Ethiopia.
  • At the same time, in a letter dated April 15, 1965 from Francis Sutton to James Paul, the former notes that Ford "has now approved a grant of slightly over $1,000,000 to continue the SAILER program and it is my understanding that appointment under that program will be available to you in Addis Ababa.".

2. The Post-Paul Era

  • Creativity, and as this lawyer stated, "hope"o 90 that law could be used as a means of bringing rationality, opportunity, and equality to the vast majority of Ethiopians who had been deprived of so much for so long.
  • Shortly after Thompson's departure, Paul left as well, and eventually, by1975, the SAILER initiative in Ethiopia ended.
  • That same year and in the years subsequent, the country was engulfed in violent political turmoil that resulted in the overthrow of Haile Selassie.'.
  • The political climate obviously did not auger well for aspirants of rigorous, independent legal education and there was little ambition from abroad to devote further resources for such a venture.
  • As will be seen next, macro-political factors affected the Ford Foundation's decision-making processes in two other African countries as well.

B. The Case of Ghana

  • As described in Sections I and II, Ford's involvement with Ghana dated back to the late 1950s.
  • Prior to his arrival, the University of Ghana awarded a four-year LL.B. degree, which was then followed by a one-year professional tutelage at the Ghana Law School.
  • See author correspondence with Robert Seidman (July 28, 2011).

C. The Case of Nigeria

  • With its vast territory, diverse linguistic, ethnic, and religious populations, and its own political upheaval, Nigeria posed arguably the greatest challenge for the SAILER project during the 1960s.
  • Even before the war, deep tensions along ethnic lines existed (the Vice Chancellorship controversy at Lagos was just one snapshot); now with actual fighting taking place, there was real question as to what would become of the Nigerian state.
  • See Bainbridge, THE SAILER PROJECT, supra note 9, at 83.

IV. "WE CAME TO AMERICA-AND WE TAUGHT THEM" 259

  • In 1967, Ford established a new funding wing in New York, the International Legal Center (ILC).
  • 2 64 Whereas SAILER's focus between 1962 and 1967 involved "the sending of more than fifty American lawyers to help staff new law faculties in ten African countries," 265 the emphasis changed after the ILC emerged.
  • Temple's program ran successfully for several years but then ended, perhaps not surprisingly, because of macro-political factors.

CONCLUSION

  • As SAILER wound down, the ILC leadership curiously asked a law student from Berkeley, Robert Listenbee, who was a summer intern, to provide a comprehensive analysis of the entire program.
  • 2 9 1 Yet Listenbee, by his own admission, "was not directly or indirectly involved with the project nor did he interview a representative cross section of its major participants.".
  • It would be unusual to place such individuals in front of American law students; that they were "good enough" for the Africans provided'an understandable sense of negativity from SAILER-critics.
  • Instead they were dedicated (albeit sometimes nalve and inexperienced) individuals who entrenched themselves in their communities and indeed tried to do their best serving people who they believed wanted their assistance.
  • While larger political forces may have affected their ability to make a long-term impact, the evidence marshaled above shows that among the Africans with whom they interacted, the SAILER-teachers by-and-large had a positive influence.

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Maurer School of Law: Indiana University Maurer School of Law: Indiana University
Digital Repository @ Maurer Law Digital Repository @ Maurer Law
Articles by Maurer Faculty Faculty Scholarship
2012
Academic SAILERS: The Ford Foundation and the Efforts to Shape Academic SAILERS: The Ford Foundation and the Efforts to Shape
Legal Education in Africa, 1957-1977 Legal Education in Africa, 1957-1977
Jayanth K. Krishnan
Indiana University Maurer School of Law
, jkrishna@indiana.edu
Follow this and additional works at: https://www.repository.law.indiana.edu/facpub
Part of the Legal Education Commons
Recommended Citation Recommended Citation
Krishnan, Jayanth K., "Academic SAILERS: The Ford Foundation and the Efforts to Shape Legal Education
in Africa, 1957-1977" (2012).
Articles by Maurer Faculty
. 795.
https://www.repository.law.indiana.edu/facpub/795
This Article is brought to you for free and open access by
the Faculty Scholarship at Digital Repository @ Maurer
Law. It has been accepted for inclusion in Articles by
Maurer Faculty by an authorized administrator of Digital
Repository @ Maurer Law. For more information, please
contact rvaughan@indiana.edu.

ABSTRACT
This
study
examines
a
major
law-and-development
project
in
Africa
undertaken
by
the
New
York-based
Ford
Foundation
in
the
decades
following
the
Second
World
War.
By
the
1960s,
many
countries
in
Africa
freed
themselves
of
colonial
rule,
and
Ford
eagerly
sought
to
assist
these
newly
emerging states
in
the
nation-building
process.
One
area
towards
which
Ford
con-
tributed
considerable
resources
was
legal
education.
Labeling
its
program
"SAILER"-or
the
Staffing
of
African
Institutions
of
Legal Education
and
Research-Ford
engaged
in
a
range
of
initiatives,
including
sending American
lawyers
to
teach
in sev-
eral
different
African
countries
and
bringing
Africans
to law
schools
in
the
United
States
to
study.
*
Professor
of
Law
and Charles
L.
Whistler
Faculty Fellow,
Indiana
University
Maurer
School
of
Law.
The
author
currently
serves
as
the
director
for
a
separate
Ford
Foundation
project
examining
the
lower
courts
in
India.
He
wishes
to
express
his
gratitude
to
the
Ford
Foundation
for
access
to
its
historical
archives.
Also,
for
their
assistance
at various
points
of
this project,
the
author
thanks:
Richard
Abel,
Ernest
Abotsi,
Elizabeth
Bainbridge,
John
Bainbridge
Jr.,
Kevin
Brown,
David
Brown-
wood,
Kaikhosrou
Framji,
Paolo
Galizzi,
Thomas
Geraghty,
Samuel
Gyandoh,
Je-
remy Harrison,
Frederick
Hitz,
Quintin
Johnstone,
Ajay
Mehrotra,
Chi
Mgbako,
Fali
Nariman,
Idelle
Nissilla-Stone,
Uzoamaka
Nzelibe,
Ruth
Okediji,
Christian
Okeke,
Vernon
Palmer,
James
Paul,
Lauren Robel,
Peter
Sand,
Ann
Seidman,
Robert
Seid-
man,
Peter Sevareid,
Peter
Strauss,
Francis
Sutton,
Susan
Tanner,
Danny
Thiemann,
Patrick Thomas,
Cliff
Thompson,
and Terry
Wood-Lavine.
The
author
also expresses
his
gratitude
to
the
lawyers,
judges,
educators,
law
students,
and
government
offi-
cials
who
were
interviewed
in
Ethiopia,
Ghana,
and
Nigeria.
(Upon
request,
their
identities
have
been
protected.)
For
their
institutional
support, the
author
thanks
the
University
of
Addis
Ababa
Law
Faculty,
the
University
of
Ghana
(Legon)
Law
Faculty,
the
Ghana
School
of
Law,
the
University
of
Lagos
Law
Faculty,
and
the
Nigerian
Law
School.
This
project
was
kindly
funded
by
a
grant from
the
Office
of
Vice-Provost
for
Research,
Indiana
University-Bloomington.

The
paper
here
evaluates
this
Ford
initiative
by
relying
pri-
marily
on
three
sources
of
original
data:
a
review
of
all
of
Ford's
archival
documents
on
SAILER;
interviews
with
former
affiliates
of
SAILER
residing
in
the United
States;
and
archival
research
and
interviews
conducted
in
Africa
during
parts
of
2010
and
2011.
As
the
findings
reveal, the
story
of
this
project
is
more
complicated
than
the
conventional
wisdom
might
sug-
gest.
To
begin,
SAILER
was
not
a
single,
monolithic
program,
nor
was
its
mission
to advance
some
grand
Cold
War,
Ameri-
can
foreign
policy
objective.
Furthermore,
the Africans
with
whom
SAILER-officials
worked
were
not
all
desperately
yearn-
ing
for
assistance
from
the
United
States;
many
were
sophisti-
cated
individuals
simply
interested
in
finding
ways
to
enhance
the
rule
of
law
in
their
respective
countries.
SAILER
thus
was
seen
as
one
potential
vehicle
for
achieving
this
goal.
And
im-
portantly,
the
attitudes
of
and
strategies
employed
by,
those
involved
with
SAILER-both
in
the
United
States
and
in
Africa-were
not
static; they
were
nuanced
and they
evolved
throughout
the
course
of
the
project.
By
1977,
SAILER
officially
ended,
but
as
this
study
concludes,
the
reasons
were
layered,
and
they
related
to
contextual
factors
within
Africa
as
much
as
to
the
internal
decisions
within
Ford
itself
INTRODUCTION
During
the
1960s,
the
United
States
witnessed
a
series
of
defining
moments,
including
the
historic
Civil
Rights
Movement,
tragic
po-
litical
assassinations,
and
the
rapid
escalation
of
involvement
in
Vietnam.
According
to
historians
Maurice
Isserman
and
Michael
Kazin,
those
on
the
left
and
the
right
in
this
tumultuous
decade
"hotly
disputed
the morality
of their
opponents'
values,
language,
and
behavior
and
differed
sharply
and,
at
times,
violently
about
how
to
build
a
society
of
individuals
at
peace
with
themselves
and
the
rest
of
the world."
1
In
another
part
of
the
world-Africa-the
1960s
similarly
served
as
a
pivotal
period
for
a
great
many
people
who
had
been
challenging
colonial
norms
and
seeking
to
pave
new
See
MAURICE
ISSERMAN
&
MICHAEL
KAZIN,
AMERICA
DIVIDED:
THE
CIVIL
WAR
OF
THE
1960s,
293
(2000).

futures.
In
1960
alone,
seventeen
African
countries
gained
their
freedom,
and
between
1961
and
1970
another
fifteen
followed
suit.
2
The
vast
majority
of
these
African
states
had
as
their
rulers
either
Britain
or
France,
with
other
Europeans
exercising
influence
elsewhere
as
well.
3
The
developments
occurring
in
Africa
did
not
go
unnoticed
among
interested
observers
in
the
United
States.
At
the
New
York-
based
non-profit
organization,
the
Ford
Foundation,
officials
had
begun
taking
a
serious
interest
particularly
in
Anglo-phonic
Africa.
Ford's
traditional
mission
had
been
to
provide
financial
resources
and
human
capital
to
governments
and
civil
society activists
for
the
purposes
of
improving
political
stability,
access
to
justice,
and
eco-
nomic
and
social
welfare.
4
Given
the
linguistic
ability
to
work
in
Anglo-phonic
Africa,
Ford
policymakers
started
to
contemplate
how
best
to
offer
assistance
in
meaningful
ways
that
would
also
mesh
with
the
Foundation's
agenda.
One area
that
soon
became
of
focus
was legal
education.
Dating
back
to
the
mid-1950s,
Ford
had
privileged
legal
education
and
had
funded
"cooperative
programs"'
between
American
and
foreign
law
schools
in
countries
like
Turkey,
Egypt,
Pakistan,
West
Germany,
and
India.
6
Ford,
during
the
'50s,
also
financially
supported
foreign
stu-
dents
and
foreign
academics
with
fellowships
to
visit
law
schools
in
the
United
States;
and
there
was
funding
provided
for
delegation-
exchanges
between
American
lawyers
and
foreign
bar associations.
7
The
theory
behind
Ford's
legal
education
initiatives
was
simple:
for
these
former
colonies
that
now
were
free,
strong
legal
systems
were
required
in
order
for
democracy
to
flourish.
To
that
end,
there
needed
to
exist
educational
institutions
that
rigorously
trained
law
2
See
Chronological
List
of
Independence
Dates
for
Africa,
AFRICAN
HISTORY:
EXPLORE
THE
HISTORY
OF
AFRICA,
http://africanhistory.about.com/library/timelines/bllndepen
denceTime.htm
(last
visited
Nov.
18,
2011).
Id.
4
See
Mission
Statement,
FORD
FOUNDATION,
http://www.fordfound.org/about-us/
mission
(last
visited
Nov.
18,
2011).
1
See
DON
PRICE,
SPECIAL
REPORT
TO
THE
OFFICERS:
INTERNATIONAL
LEGAL
STUDIES
(Oct.
16,
1955)
(report
on
file with
author);
see
also Jayanth
K.
Krishnan,
Professor
Kingsfield
Goes
to
Delhi:
American
Academics,
the
Ford
Foundation,
and
the Development
of
Legal
Education
in
India,
46
AM.
J.
LEGAL
HIST.
447, 450
(2004).
6
Id.
at
both
cites.
Id.
at
both
cites.

students
to
enter
the
legal
profession
with
the
necessary
skills
and
values
to
uphold
the
rule
of
law.
And
with
a
vibrant
legal
profession
and
a
democratic
system
of
government,
the likelihood
of
these
societies
experiencing
greater
economic
prosperity
only
increased.
This
"law-and-development"
model,
as
it
soon
came
to
be
known,
was
one
that
Ford
followed into the
1960s
and 1970s.
It
also
served
as
the
basis
for
its
legal
involvement
in
Africa.
In
1962,
Ford
officially
launched
an
initiative
known
as
the
Staffing
of
African
Institutions
of
Legal
Education
and
Research-or
SAILER.
The
stated
purpose
of
SAILER
was
to
financially
support
law schools
in
African
countries.
As
importantly,
it
was
to
aid
those governments
that
made
"an
ex-
press
request
for
assistance
.
..
[and]
to
assist
only
those
institutions
where
SAILER
teachers
would
be
welcome
and
where
their
teaching
and
research
would
add
special
dimensions
or
fill
vital
needs.""
These
SAILER-teachers
would
be
comprised
of
lawyers, law
professors,
and
recently-minted
law graduates,
mainly
from the
United
States.
The
duration
of
stay
for
these
teachers
was
not
inconsequential.
The
project
"urged
that
each
teacher
contemplate
a
minimum
as-
signment
of two
years,"
0
with
the
idea
being
that
the
Americans
were
supposed
to
help
not
just
train
good
lawyers
but
also
immerse
themselves
fully within
the
communities
in
which
they
worked.
So
how
did
the
SAILER
project
fare? That
is
the
question
this
article
seeks
to
address.
Although
SAILER
was
most
prominent
dur-
ing
the
1960s,
it
was
not
officially
discontinued
until
1977,
and
its
effects
can
be
seen
still
today.
This
article
evaluates
the
history,
per-
formance,
and
influence
of
this
Ford-Africa
project.
Along
with
a
review
of
the
existing
literature
on
this
subject,
the
article
relies
on
three
sources
of
original
data.
First,
the
Ford
Foundation
in
New
York
City
granted
the author
unfiltered
access
to
all
of
its
SAILER-
related documents
(spanning
several
hundred
pages).
Second,
over
the
course
of
several
months
in
2010
and
2011,
the
author
inter-
8
For
a
discussion
of
this
point
on
law
and
development,
see
Thomas
F.
Geraghty
&
Emmanuel
K.
Quansah,
African
Legal
Education:
A
Missed
Opportunity
and
Sug-
gestions
for
Change:
A
Callfor
Renewed
Attention
to
a
Neglected
Means
of
Secur-
ing
Human Rights
and
Legal
Predictability,
5
Loy.
U.
CHI.
INT'L
L.
REV.
87, 93
(2007).
9
See
JOHNS.
BAINBRIDGE,
THE
SAILER
PROJECT:
1962-1967,
FORD
FOUNDATION
DOCUMENT
7
(July
1967) (on
file
with
author).
See
generally
JAMES
A.
GARDNER,
LEGAL
IMPE-
RIALISM:
AMERICAN
LAWYERS
AND
FOREIGN
AID
IN
LATIN
AMERICA,
43-50;
211-
12
(1980).
10
Id.
at
8
(although
also
noting
that
exceptions
could
be
made
for
one
year
or
less).

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Book
14 Dec 2017
Abstract: Globally, the methodologies of legal education have not changed in any fundamental way, some methods dating back hundreds of years. Law schools have relied, for too long, on passive learning methods such as lectures or cases. Clinical legal education provides an alternative that is more than just another pedagogical method. It provides a way for students to experience their emerging professional selves, while providing services or projects with poor and underrepresented clients. This book documents both the historical origins of clinical experiments in the earliest days of US university legal education, and the now-global reach of clinical pedagogy as a proven tool for effective training of legal professionals.

34 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Legal education plays an important role in developing lawyers who act as social engineers and work towards the cause of nation building. In a globalized world, law schools face the challenges of increased foreign competition and reduction of the role of the state. At the same time, globalization affords space for re-examining higher education systems by affording opportunity for establishing global universities with international collaborations and programs. This article examines the role of law schools in India and proposes reforms in Indian legal education system in the light of globalization. It examines how the private sector in India can contribute to imparting legal education in public service. Keeping in tune with the developments brought about by globalization, the article proposes setting up global universities with global curricula, faculty, and programs. This article also examines the challenges before the Indian legal education system, including the need to develop good infrastructure, the difficulties in hiring good quality faculty and attracting young lawyers to a career in academia, the lack of research initiatives within Indian law schools, and the lack of academic freedom available to faculty members. The article addresses how a global university can overcome these challenges, creating an environment that promotes teaching, learning, and researching in a manner that inspires future lawyers to work toward establishing a rule of law society in India.

17 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: n this review to mark the 25th anniversary of Social and Legal Studies (SLS), we offer an assessment of the evolution of socio-legal scholarship on the Third World. We seek to locate the journal in the broader history of socio-legal studies and legal education in the United Kingdom and to consider its engagement with the work of Third World scholars. In order to do this, we recall the founding commitment of the journal’s first editorial board to non-western perspectives on law and locate this commitment both historically and biographically. We explore a number of important interventions concerned with socio-legal studies in the Third World, but also point to significant gaps and omissions since 1992. To end, we argue for a reassertion of SLS’s founding commitments to anti-imperial scholarship and the challenges posed by critical, non-western perspectives.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Influenced by processes of globalization and localization, many fields of social and commercial practice – including legal services – across Africa are undergoing rapid transformation. It should come as no surprise that these processes of globalization and transformation include the ongoing transformation of corporate lawyering. Lawyers from Johannesburg to Algiers – not to mention Khartoum and Ouagadougou – are experiencing and participating in rapid global change in their profession and everyday work. This article identifies some of the questions and issues that emerge from this process, as well as providing a vignette of the South African corporate legal sector and tentatively outlining the emergence of an African corporate lawyering field. It does so in order to propose a research agenda into the trends and potential pathways of growth in this field. It does so in four steps, moving from a theoretical frame to one of the Global South to a portrait of the South African jurisdiction and ending w...

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Brazil today has a legal market that allows for foreign lawyers and foreign firms, but existing regulations are restrictive. Foreign lawyers cannot practice domestic law or litigation, nor can Brazilian-licensed lawyers working for foreign firms or partnering with foreign lawyers. This was not always the case, however. Until 1963, there was little regulation of the legal profession. Beginning in 1913, elite US lawyers traveled to Brazil, with some even becoming prominent domestic practitioners. They partnered with local elite lawyers (who maintained their domestic privileges) and served as key brokers for US businesses seeking market entry. Drawing on the elite theory literature, and on ethnographies, interview data, and over 1,000 pages of rare Portuguese and English archival sources, this study's thesis is that sophisticated US and Brazilian legal elites capitalized on the lack of regulation to advance their financial interests, and in the process transformed Brazil's corporate legal sector.

7 citations