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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/RADM.12460

Accelerated innovation through repurposing: exaptation of design and manufacturing in response to COVID-19

02 Mar 2021-R & D Management (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 51, Iss: 4, pp 410-426
Abstract: As the COVID‐19 pandemic spread across the globe in the first quarter of 2020, demand for specialised equipment in hospitals soared. As a result, firms from a variety of sectors repurposed their design and manufacturing to create new products in days. By examining 80 cases of this accelerated innovation, the research investigates how a shared purpose drives change in the innovation process. It applies the lens of exaptation – the discovery of unintended functions for technologies – to explain how product complexity and ecosystem structure affect accelerated innovation in this context. The research extends the application of exaption to manufacturing as well as product design; it identifies a relationship between complexity, exaptation and ecosystems. The research suggests that the ability to exapt design and manufacturing can determine a firm’s ecosystem role. These results lead to implications for theory and for practice, during the response to and recovery from the crisis.

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Topics: Exaptation (55%), Product design (54%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TECHNOVATION.2021.102368
Sorin Krammer1Institutions (1)
30 Jul 2021-Technovation
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted businesses worldwide by lowering demand, impeding operations, stressing supply chains, and limiting access to finance. Yet we still lack an understanding of how firms can successfully adapt to this disruption. We examine this issue theoretically by combining arguments around dynamic capabilities and managerial cognition and developing several hypotheses concerning firm innovation, knowledge sources, management practices, and gender issues in relation to firms’ adaptation to this crisis. We test these assertions using data from two rounds of surveys involving more than 11,000 firms from 28 countries both before and after COVID-19 was officially declared a global crisis. Our results provide prima facie evidence that innovators, in particular those who are younger (i.e. start-ups) and those who rely on internal sources of knowledge, are more likely to adapt to COVID-19 than non-innovators. Our results suggest that firms with better management practices have also greater ability to adapt. We did not find systematic gender differences upon examining firms managed by women versus men. Following these findings, we set out several implications for research and policy.

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Topics: Prima facie (52%), Dynamic capabilities (51%), Access to finance (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12063-021-00209-9
Abstract: Repurposing of an existing manufacturing plant is an emerging field due to the increase in emergencies of the covid-19 pandemic with the need of rapid responses which has a wide range of potential applications in sustainment of the manufacturing plant in these unfavourable times and helping of the economy. It makes the manufacturing plant adaptable to changes, makes it productive by manufacturing products that are currently in demand, prevents the dissolution of the plant and thus harvests the maximum potential of the manufacturing plant in the need of an emergency. However, not many industries and plants are suited to make the appropriate changes and lack knowledge on how to proceed to do so. The paper identifies the barriers that are faced in the transition for repurposing a general manufacturing plant to a more suited plant for current emergencies that need rapid response. These barriers hinder the repurposing of the manufacturing plant and impact the business decisions to establish a manufacturing plant suited for emergency situations. Surveys and information from various experts in this field are used to identify these barriers and document their interdependencies and influence on one another. The data is graphed and analysed utilizing TISM (Total Interpretive Structural Modelling) and MICMAC (Cross-Impact Matrix Multiplication Applied to Classification) methodology to further examine by classifying and ranking the relationships. Analysing the relationships between barriers leads to effective decisions towards the successful adoption of repurposing of manufacturing plant. A contextual relationship based structural table called interpretive table and structural model is made to pinpoint influential barriers. Thus, the research explains and explores significant barriers to the adoption of repurposing in manufacturing plant and not only provides a strong methodological and contextual contribution with the help of TISM and MICMAC but also gives research a sense of links of the barriers across various levels. On a practical level, the study is immensely useful to help manufacturing plants overcome repercussions due to disruptions by modifying existing practice and business model to a new model which synchronizes with the new normal to increase the efficiency and survivability of the plant. The result of the research points out that strategical, cultural, technological, and innovation barriers are the most influential barrier in repurposing of manufacturing plant.

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Topics: Repurposing (57%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/RADM.12480
19 May 2021-R & D Management
Abstract: This study adopts a resilience perspective to explain how companies managed to contribute innovative solutions to fight the COVID-19 crisis. We studied how five companies operating in different industries (three in automotive, one in printing, and one in rubber and plastic products manufacturing) managed to reorganize activities and employ their R&D and innovation capabilities to enhance their resilience. Simultaneously, they increased the health system?s capacity to cope with the outbreak. Through a qualitative inductive study, based on interviews with company managers, we found that the firms mobilized their resources and capabilities to expand their ability to adapt and cope with adversity at the organizational level. In addition, moved by the sensitivity to the extreme context and a perceived sense of urgency, the firms deployed the same endowments to strengthen the community?s response to a crisis. Our study shows that an organization can directly and positively foster the broader social system?s resilience. This study contributes to the innovation literature by identifying innovation capabilities as fundamental antecedents of resilience building for organizational response, paving the way for strengthening the link between resilience and innovation.

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Topics: Resilience (network) (60%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10479-021-04397-2
Abstract: Disruption from the COVID-19 pandemic has caused major upheavals for manufacturing, and has severe implications for production networks, and the demand and supply chains underpinning manufacturing operations. This paper is the first of its kind to pull together research on both—the pandemic-related challenges and the management interventions in a manufacturing context. This systematic literature review reveals the frailty of supply chains and production networks in withstanding the pressures of lockdowns and other safety protocols, including product and workforce shortages. These, altogether, have led to closed facilities, reduced capacities, increased costs, and severe economic uncertainty for manufacturing businesses. In managing these challenges and stabilising their operations, manufacturers are urgently intervening by—investing in digital technologies, undertaking resource redistribution and repurposing, regionalizing and localizing, servitizing, and targeting policies that can help them survive in this altered economy. Based on holistic analysis of these challenges and interventions, this review proposes an extensive research agenda for future studies to pursue.

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Topics: Manufacturing operations (57%), Supply chain (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPUBH.2021.678768
Maha El Akoum1, Mahmoud El Achi1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH) hosts two innovation competitions as part of its biennial healthcare conference. During the COVID-19 pandemic, WISH received more than 350 applications for both competitions, of which 31 were shortlisted to showcase at the WISH 2020 virtual summit. Of the 31 showcasing innovations, 11 (35.5%) had suggested an alternative use to their innovation as a contribution to the global fight against COVID-19. As such, this article explores the apparent and urgent need for the repurposing of healthcare innovations to reduce the costs and time associated with the conventional approach, in order to best respond to the demands of the global pandemic.

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Topics: Summit (51%)
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48 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.5465/AMR.1989.4308385
Kathleen M. Eisenhardt1Institutions (1)
Abstract: �Traditional, hierarchical views of leadership are less and less useful given the complexities of our modern world. Leadership theory must transition to new perspectives that account for the complex adaptive needs of organizations. In this paper, we propose that leadership (as opposed to leaders) can be seen as a complex dynamic process that emerges in the interactive “spaces between” people and ideas. That is, leadership is a dynamic that transcends the capabilities of individuals alone; it is the product of interaction, tension, and exchange rules governing changes in perceptions and understanding. We label this a dynamic of adaptive leadership, and we show how this dynamic provides important insights about the nature of leadership and its outcomes in organizational fields. We define a leadership event as a perceived segment of action whose meaning is created by the interactions of actors involved in producing it, and we present a set of innovative methods for capturing and analyzing these contextually driven processes. We provide theoretical and practical implications of these ideas for organizational behavior and organization and management theory.

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Topics: Organizational behavior (51%)

22,211 Citations



Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1017/S0094837300004310
01 Jan 1982-Paleobiology
Abstract: Adaptation has been defined and recognized by two different criteria: historical genesis (fea- tures built by natural selection for their present role) and current utility (features now enhancing fitness no matter how they arose). Biologists have often failed to recognize the potential confusion between these different definitions because we have tended to view natural selection as so dominant among evolutionary mechanisms that historical process and current product become one. Yet if many features of organisms are non-adapted, but available for useful cooptation in descendants, then an important concept has no name in our lexicon (and unnamed ideas generally remain unconsidered): features that now enhance fitness but were not built by natural selection for their current role. We propose that such features be called exaptations and that adaptation be restricted, as Darwin suggested, to features built by selection for their current role. We present several examples of exaptation, indicating where a failure to concep- tualize such an idea limited the range of hypotheses previously available. We explore several consequences of exaptation and propose a terminological solution to the problem of preadaptation.

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Topics: Exaptation (63%), Natural selection (50%)

3,756 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.5465/AMR.1995.9507312922
Abstract: The literature on product development continues to grow. This research is varied and vibrant, yet large and fragmented. In this article we first organize the burgeoning product-development literature into three streams of research: product development as rational plan, communication web, and disciplined problem solving. Second, we synthesize research findings into a model of factors affecting the success of product development. This model highlights the distinction between process performance and product effectiveness and the importance of agents, including team members, project leaders, senior management, customers, and suppliers, whose behavior affects these outcomes. Third, we indicate potential paths for future research based on the concepts and links that are missing or not well defined in the model.

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Topics: Product management (65%), New product development (61%), Scrum (60%) ... show more

3,730 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1509/JMKR.39.1.61.18935
Robert V. Kozinets1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The author develops “netnography” as an online marketing research technique for providing consumer insight. Netnography is ethnography adapted to the study of online communities. As a method, netnography is faster, simpler, and less expensive than traditional ethnography and more naturalistic and unobtrusive than focus groups or interviews. It provides information on the symbolism, meanings, and consumption patterns of online consumer groups. The author provides guidelines that acknowledge the online environment, respect the inherent flexibility and openness of ethnography, and provide rigor and ethics in the conduct of marketing research. As an illustrative example, the author provides a netnography of an online coffee newsgroup and discusses its marketing implications.

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Topics: Netnography (74%), Marketing research (55%), Online advertising (53%)

3,040 Citations