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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Accelerated stressing and degradation mechanisms for Si-based photo-emitters

30 Apr 2001-pp 200-205
TL;DR: In this paper, a silicon p-n junction biased in avalanche breakdown emits visible light and its integration offers the potential for VLSI-compatible optical interconnect systems, enabling next generation technologies and/or contactless functional testing.
Abstract: A silicon p-n junction biased in avalanche breakdown emits visible light and its integration offers the potential for VLSI-compatible optical interconnect systems, enabling next generation technologies and/or contact-less functional testing. The Si light emitters were stressed with AC and DC excitation and increased temperature to accelerate the aging. The results clearly show that the effects of AC and temperature stressing are negligible on light emission. DC stressing results in light coalescence for low values of current ( 40 mA), there is no significant variation of light emission. Changes in the light emission behavior for large and small values of DC excitation are consistent with a hydrogen migration model. The study revealed a strong dependence of light emission on the layout of test devices.
Citations
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2018
TL;DR: The novelty of this work is the use of highly sensitive single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) for photo-detection to compensate for the low IQE of AMLEDs.
Abstract: For on-chip data communication with galvanic isolation, a monolithically integrated optocoupler is strongly desired. For this purpose, silicon (Si) avalanche mode LEDs (AMLEDs) offer a great potential. However such AMLEDs have a relatively low internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and high power consumption. For the first time, in this work, data communication in a monolithically integrated optocoupler is experimentally demonstrated. The novelty of this work is the use of highly sensitive single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) for photo-detection to compensate for the low IQE of AMLEDs. We investigated our optocoupler realized in a standard 140 nm CMOS SOI technology, without postprocessing, for various LED designs and points of operation. The power consumption of the AMLEDs is minimized through a novel AMLED design and employment of a low power LED driver circuit. The advantages of AMLEDs over forward biased Si LEDs are also demonstrated. For the best AMLED design, the achievable data rate is few Mbps and the energy consumption a few nJ/bit. The active area of the proposed systems is < 0.01 mm2.

18 citations


Cites background from "Accelerated stressing and degradati..."

  • ...In a reliability study [61], the authors stressed AMLEDs with (a) a DC excitation, (b) an AC excitation and (c) a high temperature environment for accelerated aging....

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Journal ArticleDOI
13 Jul 2021-Sensors
TL;DR: In this article, a soft-error-tolerant successive-approximation-register (SAR) ADC using dual-capacitor sample-and-hold (S/H) control was proposed.
Abstract: For a reliable and stable sensor system, it is essential to precisely measure various sensor signals, such as electromagnetic field, pressure, and temperature. The measured analog signal is converted into digital bits through the sensor readout system. However, in extreme radiation environments, such as in space, during flights, and in nuclear fusion reactors, the performance of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) constituting the sensor readout system can be degraded due to soft errors caused by radiation effects, leading to system malfunction. This paper proposes a soft-error-tolerant successive-approximation-register (SAR) ADC using dual-capacitor sample-and-hold (S/H) control, which has robust characteristics against total ionizing dose (TID) and single event effects (SEE). The proposed ADC was fabricated using 65-nm CMOS process, and its soft-error-tolerant performance was measured in radiation environments. Additionally, the proposed circuit techniques were verified by utilizing a radiation simulator CAD tool.

3 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1996-Nature
TL;DR: In this article, the authors demonstrate the successful integration of silicon-based visible light-emitting devices into a standard bipolar microelectronic circuit by exploiting the thermal and chemical stability of porous silicon.
Abstract: MICROELECTRONIC device integration has progressed to the point where complete 'systems-on-a-chip' have been realized1–3. Now that optoelectronics is becoming increasingly important for information and communication technologies, there is a need to develop optoelectronic devices that can be integrated with standard microelectronics. Conventional semiconductor technology is largely based on crystalline silicon, which (being an indirect bandgap semiconductor) is an inefficient light-emitting material. This has stimulated significant effort towards developing silicon-based optoelectronic components and, of the several strategies explored so far4,5, the use of porous silicon appears the most promising; porous silicon produces high-efficiency, room-temperature, visible photoluminescence6, and its material and optical properties have been studied in detail7,8. But the extreme reactivity and fragility of porous silicon have hitherto prevented its integration with conventional silicon processing technology. We have recently shown9,10 that the thermal and chemical stability of porous silicon can be greatly enhanced — while retaining desirable light-emitting and charge-transport properties — by partial oxidation. Here we take advantage of these improvements in material properties to demonstrate the successful integration of silicon-based visible light-emitting devices into a standard bipolar microelectronic circuit.

780 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
N. Akil1, S.E. Kerns1, D.V. Kerns1, A. Hoffmann, Jean-Pierre Charles 
TL;DR: In this paper, a multimechanism model fitting measured spectra and spectra measured by other researchers is presented and justified, and the success of the model indicates that indirect recombination of electrons and holes is the dominant emission mechanism below the light intensity peak (/spl sim/1.8-2.0 eV), that indirect intraband recombination dominates at intermediate energies up to /spl sim 2.3 eV, and that direct interband recombination between high-field populations of carriers near k=0 dominates above 2.4-3.4 eV
Abstract: Light emission from three device types ((1) commercial silicon JFETs, (2) bipolar transistors, and (3) a custom diode) with p-n junctions biased in controlled avalanche breakdown, has been measured over the photon energy range 1.4-3.4 eV, Previously published models are compared with these data to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for avalanche light emission in silicon. A multimechanism model fitting measured spectra and spectra measured by other researchers is presented and justified. The success of the model indicates that indirect recombination of electrons and holes is the dominant emission mechanism below the light intensity peak (/spl sim/1.8-2.0 eV), that indirect intraband recombination dominates at intermediate energies up to /spl sim/2.3 eV, and that direct interband recombination between high-field populations of carriers near k=0 dominates above /spl sim/2.3 eV. For junctions with overlayer passivation, an interference model must be applied to model measured spectra.

127 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the reverse I-V characteristics of silicon alloyed junctions with breakdown voltage in the range of about 2-60 V have been studied in the light of Zener and avalanche breakdown mechanisms.
Abstract: Reverse I–V characteristics of silicon alloyed junctions with breakdown voltage in the range of about 02–60 V have been studied in the light of Zener and avalanche breakdown mechanisms By using the expression for indirect tunnelling probability derived by Keldysh, a study of reverse current in narrow p-n junctions has been made Satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment has been found for junctions with breakdown voltage VB up to about 3 V Ionization rates for electrons and holes have been used to calculate the avalanche multiplication as a function of applied voltage and this in turn has been used to calculate the form of reverse characteristics of junctions with avalanche breakdown Reasonable agreement between measured and calculated values is found only for junctions with VB greater than about 14 V; these studies show that below 3 V the voltage breakdown is due to internal field emission, above 14 V due to avalanche mechanism and between these limits both mechanisms are effective Avalanche multiplication of field omitted carriers is found to occur at an applied voltage slightly in excess of 3 V and this information is used to estimate the threshold energy for electron-hole pair production

88 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Avalanche hot carrier induced bipolar device degradation as a function of temperature, current density, and time is reported in this paper, where the observed drift in emitter−base breakdown voltage (Vebo) is well correlated to changes in forward base (Ib) and collector (Ic) currents.
Abstract: Avalanche hot carrier induced bipolar device degradation as a function of temperature, current density, and time is reported. The observed drift in emitter‐base breakdown voltage (Vebo) is found to be well correlated to changes in forward base (Ib) and collector (Ic) currents. The model of hydrogen release from the Si‐SiO2 interface and its subsequent passivation of base dopants during hot carrier stress is proposed to account for such a correlation.

29 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the evolution of photon emission from the emitter-base junctions of bipolar transistors during electrical aging is monitored for the first time, and both electrical and optical characteristics are analyzed.
Abstract: The evolution of photon emission from the emitter-base junctions of bipolar transistors during electrical aging is monitored for the first time. Both electrical and optical characteristics are analyzed. Local variations of light emission intensity are observed for junctions biased at avalanche breakdown. During aging, regions of emission coalesce into small, bright regions; the total emission for the entire junction remains stable and relatively high. Changes in transistor current gain and breakdown voltage correlate with changes in light emission, and are consistent with a hydrogen migration model.

17 citations