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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIIMMUNOL.ABD0359

Acetylcholine production by group 2 innate lymphoid cells promotes mucosal immunity to helminths

05 Mar 2021-Science immunology (American Association for the Advancement of Science)-Vol. 6, Iss: 57
Abstract: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are critical mediators of immunological and physiological responses at mucosal barrier sites. Whereas neurotransmitters can stimulate ILCs, the synthesis of small-molecule neurotransmitters by these cells has only recently been appreciated. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) are shown here to synthesize and release acetylcholine (ACh) during parasitic nematode infection. The cholinergic phenotype of pulmonary ILC2s was associated with their activation state, could be induced by in vivo exposure to extracts of Alternaria alternata or the alarmin cytokines interleukin-33 (IL-33) and IL-25, and was augmented by IL-2 in vitro. Genetic disruption of ACh synthesis by murine ILC2s resulted in increased parasite burdens, lower numbers of ILC2s, and reduced lung and gut barrier responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection. These data demonstrate a functional role for ILC2-derived ACh in the expansion of ILC2s for maximal induction of type 2 immunity.

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11 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIIMMUNOL.ABE3218
Coco Chu1, Christopher N. Parkhurst1, Wen Zhang1, Lei Zhou1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
05 Mar 2021-Science immunology
Abstract: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) reside in multiple tissues, including lymphoid organs and barrier surfaces, and secrete type 2 cytokines including interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-9, and IL-13. These cells participate in multiple physiological processes including allergic inflammation, tissue repair, metabolic homeostasis, and host defense against helminth infections. Recent studies indicate that neurotransmitters and neuropeptides can play an important role in regulating ILC2 responses; however, the mechanisms that underlie these processes in vivo remain incompletely defined. Here, we identify that activated ILC2s up-regulate choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of acetylcholine (ACh)-after infection with the helminth parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis or treatment with alarmins or cytokines including IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). ILC2s also express acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), and ACh administration promotes ILC2 cytokine production and elicits expulsion of helminth infection. In accordance with this, ChAT deficiency in ILC2s leads to defective ILC2 responses and impaired immunity against helminth infection. Together, these results reveal a previously unrecognized role of the ChAT-ACh pathway in promoting type 2 innate immunity to helminth infection.

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Topics: Innate lymphoid cell (63%), Innate immune system (55%), Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (55%) ... show more

12 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/INTIMM/DXAB039
Abstract: The pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves immunological, genetic and environmental factors. Through its ability to sense environmental stimuli, the autonomic nervous system plays a key role in the development and persistence of IBD. The vagus nerve (VN), which contains sensory and motor neurons, travels throughout the body to innervate the gut and other visceral organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. Recent studies show that the VN has anti-inflammatory effects via the release of acetylcholine, in what is known as the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAIP). In the gut immune system, the CAIP is proposed to be activated directly by signals from the gut and indirectly by signals from the liver, which receives gut-derived bioactive substances via the portal vein and senses the status of the gut. The gut-brain axis and liver-brain-gut reflex arc regulate a wide variety of peripheral immune cells to maintain homeostasis in the gut. Therefore, targeting the neural reflex by methods such as VN stimulation is now under investigation for suppressing intestinal inflammation associated with IBD. In this review, we describe the role of the VN in the regulation of intestinal immunity, and we discuss novel therapeutic approaches for IBD that target neuroimmune interactions.

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2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41385-021-00443-1
01 Sep 2021-Mucosal Immunology
Abstract: The enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract interacts with the local immune system bidirectionally. Recent publications have demonstrated that such interactions can maintain normal GI functions during homeostasis and contribute to pathological symptoms during infection and inflammation. Infection can also induce long-term changes of the ENS resulting in the development of post-infectious GI disturbances. In this review, we discuss how the ENS can regulate and be regulated by immune responses and how such interactions control whole tissue physiology. We also address the requirements for the proper regeneration of the ENS and restoration of GI function following the resolution of infection.

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2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SMIM.2021.101532
Henry J. McSorley1, Danielle J. Smyth1Institutions (1)
Abstract: IL-33 is an alarmin cytokine which has been implicated in allergy, fibrosis, inflammation, tumorigenesis, metabolism, and homeostasis. However, amongst its strongest roles are in helminth infections, where IL-33 usually (but not always) is central to induction of an effective anti-parasitic immune response. In this review, we will summarise the literature around this fascinating cytokine, its activity on immune and non-immune cells, the unique (and sometimes counterintuitive) responses it induces, and how it can coordinate the immune response during infections by parasitic helminths. Finally, we will summarise some of the ways that parasites have developed to modulate the IL-33 pathway for their own benefit.

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Topics: Immune system (52%)

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.757967
Abstract: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the most recently described group of lymphoid subpopulations. These tissue-resident cells display a heterogeneity resembling that observed on different groups of T cells, hence their categorization as cytotoxic NK cells and helper ILCs type 1, 2 and 3. Each one of these groups is highly diverse and expresses different markers in a context-dependent manner. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are activated in response to helminth parasites and regulate the immune response. They are involved in the etiology of diseases associated with allergic responses as well as in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Markers associated with their identification differ depending on the tissue and model used, making the study and understanding of these cells a cumbersome task. This review compiles evidence for the heterogeneity of ILC2s as well as discussion and analyses of molecular markers associated with their identity, function, tissue-dependent expression, and how these markers contribute to the interaction of ILC2s with specific microenvironments to maintain homeostasis or respond to pathogenic challenges.

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Topics: Innate lymphoid cell (70%), Tissue homeostasis (57.99%), Immune system (53%) ... show more


50 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE01321
19 Dec 2002-Nature
Abstract: Inflammation is a local, protective response to microbial invasion or injury. It must be fine-tuned and regulated precisely, because deficiencies or excesses of the inflammatory response cause morbidity and shorten lifespan. The discovery that cholinergic neurons inhibit acute inflammation has qualitatively expanded our understanding of how the nervous system modulates immune responses. The nervous system reflexively regulates the inflammatory response in real time, just as it controls heart rate and other vital functions. The opportunity now exists to apply this insight to the treatment of inflammation through selective and reversible 'hard-wired' neural systems.

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Topics: Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (60%), Inflammatory reflex (60%), Inflammation (52%) ... show more

2,828 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE01339
23 Jan 2003-Nature
Abstract: Excessive inflammation and tumour-necrosis factor (TNF) synthesis cause morbidity and mortality in diverse human diseases including endotoxaemia, sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Highly conserved, endogenous mechanisms normally regulate the magnitude of innate immune responses and prevent excessive inflammation. The nervous system, through the vagus nerve, can inhibit significantly and rapidly the release of macrophage TNF, and attenuate systemic inflammatory responses. This physiological mechanism, termed the 'cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway' has major implications in immunology and in therapeutics; however, the identity of the essential macrophage acetylcholine-mediated (cholinergic) receptor that responds to vagus nerve signals was previously unknown. Here we report that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit is required for acetylcholine inhibition of macrophage TNF release. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve inhibits TNF synthesis in wild-type mice, but fails to inhibit TNF synthesis in alpha7-deficient mice. Thus, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit is essential for inhibiting cytokine synthesis by the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

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2,628 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE08900
Daniel R. Neill1, See Heng Wong1, Agustin Bellosi1, Robin J. Flynn1  +8 moreInstitutions (2)
29 Apr 2010-Nature
Abstract: Innate immunity provides the first line of defence against invading pathogens and provides important cues for the development of adaptive immunity. Type-2 immunity-responsible for protective immune responses to helminth parasites and the underlying cause of the pathogenesis of allergic asthma-consists of responses dominated by the cardinal type-2 cytokines interleukin (IL)4, IL5 and IL13 (ref. 5). T cells are an important source of these cytokines in adaptive immune responses, but the innate cell sources remain to be comprehensively determined. Here, through the use of novel Il13-eGFP reporter mice, we present the identification and functional characterization of a new innate type-2 immune effector leukocyte that we have named the nuocyte. Nuocytes expand in vivo in response to the type-2-inducing cytokines IL25 and IL33, and represent the predominant early source of IL13 during helminth infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. In the combined absence of IL25 and IL33 signalling, nuocytes fail to expand, resulting in a severe defect in worm expulsion that is rescued by the adoptive transfer of in vitro cultured wild-type, but not IL13-deficient, nuocytes. Thus, nuocytes represent a critically important innate effector cell in type-2 immunity.

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Topics: Nuocyte (65%), Innate lymphoid cell (64%), Acquired immune system (63%) ... show more

1,715 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NI.2131
01 Nov 2011-Nature Immunology
Abstract: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), a heterogeneous cell population, are critical in orchestrating immunity and inflammation in the intestine, but whether ILCs influence immune responses or tissue homeostasis at other mucosal sites remains poorly characterized. Here we identify a population of lung-resident ILCs in mice and humans that expressed the alloantigen Thy-1 (CD90), interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor a-chain (CD25), IL-7 receptor a-chain (CD127) and the IL-33 receptor subunit T1-ST2. Notably, mouse ILCs accumulated in the lung after infection with influenza virus, and depletion of ILCs resulted in loss of airway epithelial integrity, diminished lung function and impaired airway remodeling. These defects were restored by administration of the lung ILC product amphiregulin. Collectively, our results demonstrate a critical role for lung ILCs in restoring airway epithelial integrity and tissue homeostasis after infection with influenza virus.

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Topics: Innate lymphoid cell (59%), Tissue homeostasis (56.99%), Population (52%) ... show more

1,141 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1209985
07 Oct 2011-Science
Abstract: Neural circuits regulate cytokine production to prevent potentially damaging inflammation. A prototypical vagus nerve circuit, the inflammatory reflex, inhibits tumor necrosis factor–α production in spleen by a mechanism requiring acetylcholine signaling through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed on cytokine-producing macrophages. Nerve fibers in spleen lack the enzymatic machinery necessary for acetylcholine production; therefore, how does this neural circuit terminate in cholinergic signaling? We identified an acetylcholine-producing, memory phenotype T cell population in mice that is integral to the inflammatory reflex. These acetylcholine-producing T cells are required for inhibition of cytokine production by vagus nerve stimulation. Thus, action potentials originating in the vagus nerve regulate T cells, which in turn produce the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, required to control innate immune responses.

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953 Citations

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