scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Book ChapterDOI

Active Disassembly for the End-of-Life Treatment of Flat Screen Televisions: Challenges and Opportunities

01 Jan 2012-pp 535-540
TL;DR: The economic and environmental constraints for implementing AD are discussed, as well as the information requirements for AD, and the potential benefits of properly implementing active fasteners in a Liquid Cristal Display and a Plasma Display Panel television are presented.
Abstract: The principle of Active Disassembly (AD), in which innovative reversible fasteners can be simultaneously activated by an external trigger signal, enables a promising End-of-Life (EoL) treatment for electric and electronic products. Therefore, the economic and environmental constraints for implementing AD are discussed, as well as the information requirements for AD. Furthermore, the potential benefits of properly implementing active fasteners in a Liquid Cristal Display (LCD) and a Plasma Display Panel television are presented based on a case study.

Summary (3 min read)

1 INTRODUCTION

  • There are three key motives for manufacturing and recycling companies to improve the end-of-life (EoL) treatment of Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE).
  • According to Loannou et al., market trends and brand image reputation are two of the most dominant drivers for sustainable product design and manufacturing [1].
  • According to Huisman et al., the main reasons for this low return are the high collection, transportation and treatment costs which cannot be covered by the revenues from the recovered components and materials [2].
  • Finally, the third key motive to improve the EoL treatment of WEEE are the European WEEE directive [3] and the upcoming recast of this directive [4].
  • For these product categories, it is crucial to develop EoL treatment strategies which include recycling of plastics to achieve the recycling rates of the upcoming recast of the WEEE directive and to recycle precious metals to lower the environmental impact of the EoL treatment [5, 6].

2 ALTERNATIVE EOL STRATEGIES

  • Different strategies to improve the EoL treatment of electrical and electronic equipment have been studied in prior research, such as: - Manual disassembly strategy, for which the treatment cost is mainly related to the amount of time required to disassemble a product and the labor wages.
  • - Advanced post-shredder separation strategy, for which different technologies have recently been developed to separate shredder residue based on material properties.
  • Furthermore, prior studies have shown that the economic feasibility of disassembly can only be guaranteed if the disassembly time and cost are reduced by at least 75% for electronic products [16].
  • Active fasteners are connections for which a specific external trigger or a combination of triggers can initiate a simultaneous (oneto-many) unfastening process.
  • Therefore, active disassembly, when properly implemented, has the potential to shift an EoL treatment with systematic disassembly from a cost factor to a profit generating activity [15, 17].

3.2 Ecologic and economic constraints

  • For that reason, working principles for AD, such as the chemical reaction proposed by Suga et al. [30, 31], where a hydrogen storage alloy is pulverized in a hydrogen atmosphere under a pressure of 4MPa and a temperature of 100 °C, are less interesting for an industrial implementation.
  • Also, thermally triggered active fasteners require a substantial amount of energy for heating up or cooling down electronic products above or below the broad temperature range of the use phase.
  • Besides these constraints, one of the main challenges for implementing AD in an industrial setting is the required investment for the application of releasable joints.
  • The main returns of this investment are only obtained at the end of the lifecycle, when the product is typically no longer owned by the producer.
  • For this reason, a holistic life cycle approach is desired for most electronic consumer products, in which all different actors in the lifecycle are involved.

4 INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS

  • Nowadays, information associated with products is gradually lost after the point of sale, which is one of the major obstacles for efficient recovery of value from EoL products [32].
  • As long as no standard active fasteners are commonly implemented, an efficient identification of products with active fasteners and information about the corresponding trigger are essential.
  • The desirable properties of product information can be described by three dimensions: the level of detail of the product information, the ability of product identification and the product information location.
  • Firstly, the required level of detail of the product information depends on the envisaged EoL treatment, for e.g. with manual or automated sorting.
  • Often more than one barcode is attached to every product and barcode labels are sometimes damaged during the use phase [32].

5.1 Differences in LCD LED, LCD CCFL and PDP

  • Three Philips FTVs with different and commonly used flat screen technologies are analyzed and compared within this case study.
  • As shown in Table 1, the material content strongly depends on the adopted FTV technology.
  • On the other hand, LCD FTVs contain more plastics, since plastics are, besides the housing, also used in these FTVs to diffuse and polarize the light of the CCFL or LED backlights.
  • Therefore, when these backlight lamps are broken an additional process for the removal of toxic mercury vapors is required.
  • The in this study analyzed, Phillips LCD television with LED backlights is the winner of the Green Awards 2011 and, according to the EISA Green Award jury, for the first time a truly Ecodesign product [36].

5.2 Material values and separation efficiencies

  • In the case study presented in this paper, the potential revenues of recovered materials and the potential recycling rate in accordance with the European WEEE directive are calculated for two EoL treatment strategies, as shown in Table 1.
  • A comparison is made between an EoL strategy where the FTVs are directly shredded and an EoL treatment strategy where all fasteners in the FTVs are assumed to be reversible by AD.
  • The reason why these polymers are often not recycled is that they risk to be polluted in the shredding process with polymers with banned brominated FR and that further separation of these polymers from shredded residue based on their flame retardants is currently not feasible at high material throughputs [5].
  • All values of recovered materials used for this case study are based on estimates from prior studies.
  • The values of some recovered materials differ significantly between sources, since they are generally incinerated with energy recovery and not recycled [2, 12, 13, 38].

5.3 Conventional EoL treatment versus AD

  • The case study shows that for an EoL treatment strategy with direct shredding and commonly used separation processes, such as magnetic separation and eddy current separation, a considerable value can be recovered from PDP FTVs, since these TVs contain a high percentage of aluminum and ferrous metals.
  • From LCD FTVs with CCFLs only a low value can be recovered.
  • Nonetheless, an additional process for the removal of toxic mercury vapors is only required for these FTVs with CCFLs.
  • Mostly for the LCD FTV with CCFL a significant improvement in the value of recovered materials of about 600 euro per ton can be achieved, since an EoL treatment strategy with AD allows to recycle most plastics and PCBs.
  • The recycling rates calculated for the direct shredding strategy for the in this case study analyzed LCD FTVs are below the quotas required by the current European WEEE directive.

6 CONCLUSION

  • Based on the presented case study it can be concluded that, compared to the conventional EoL treatment with direct product shredding, there is a high increase in recycling rate and value of recovered materials possible by implementing active fasteners in flat screen televisions.
  • Further developments in the field of AD are essential to make the implementation of active fasteners technically feasible for the current generation of flat screen televisions and to overcome the economic and ecologic constraints mentioned in this paper.
  • Furthermore, detailed product information is required for an EoL treatment with AD to allow the identification of the required trigger for AD and an accurate sorting of disassembled components for further treatment.
  • To facilitate the product identification at the EoL robust technologies, such as Radio Frequency Identification, should be implemented in products with active fasteners.

Did you find this useful? Give us your feedback

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Active Disassembly for the End-of-Life Treatment of Flat Screen
Televisions: Challenges and Opportunities
Jef R. Peeters
1
, Paul Vanegas
1,2
, Wim Dewulf
1,3
, Joost R. Duflou
1
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
2
University of Cuenca, Ecuador
3
Group T-International University College Leuven, K.U.Leuven Association, Belgium
Abstract
The principle of Active Disassembly (AD), in which innovative reversible fasteners can be
simultaneously activated by an external trigger signal, enables a promising End-of-Life (EoL) treatment
for electric and electronic products. Therefore, the economic and environmental constraints for
implementing AD are discussed, as well as the information requirements for AD. Furthermore, the
potential benefits of properly implementing active fasteners in a Liquid Cristal Display (LCD) and a
Plasma Display Panel television are presented based on a case study.
Keywords: Active Disassembly, Flat Screen Televisions, Recycling, WEEE
1 INTRODUCTION
There are three key motives for manufacturing and
recycling companies to improve the end-of-life (EoL)
treatment of Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment
(WEEE). Firstly, customer environmental awareness is
creating opportunities for “green marketing”. According to
Loannou et al., market trends and brand image reputation
are two of the most dominant drivers for sustainable
product design and manufacturing [1]. Accordingly,
manufacturing companies can gain competitive advantage
by incorporating Ecodesign in their product development.
Secondly, the development of alternative EoL treatment
strategies for WEEE is required to reduce the involved
processing costs. The currently adopted EoL treatment
strategies for WEEE are often characterized by a low to
negative profitability [2]. According to Huisman et al., the
main reasons for this low return are the high collection,
transportation and treatment costs which cannot be
covered by the revenues from the recovered components
and materials [2]. Finally, the third key motive to improve
the EoL treatment of WEEE are the European WEEE
directive [3] and the upcoming recast of this directive [4].
The quotas of this recast will range from 50 to 70% with
respect to recycling and a recovery rate of 70 to 80%
depending on the product category is expected [4].
According to the current WEEE directive recycling means
the reprocessing of a waste material for the original or
other purposes, and recovery means the use of
combustible waste as a means of generating energy
through direct incineration [3], which currently is a
common treatment for plastics. Furthermore, the European
directives do not only affect recyclers but also
manufacturers, since they increasingly require
manufacturers to take full responsibility for the EoL
treatment of their products.
The conventional EoL treatment strategies for electronic
products, which are based on product shredding or
smashing, only permit to recycle a limited amount of
precious metals and plastics. Due to the considerable
environmental impact when not reclaimed and the high
economic value of these materials, improvements in the
conventional EoL treatment of WEEE are required.
Furthermore, some categories of electronic products
contain a considerable amount of plastics, such as Liquid
Cristal Display (LCD) flat screen televisions (FTVs)
which contain about 30% plastics on a mass basis. For
these product categories, it is crucial to develop EoL
treatment strategies which include recycling of plastics to
achieve the recycling rates of the upcoming recast of the
WEEE directive and to recycle precious metals to lower
the environmental impact of the EoL treatment [5, 6].
2 ALTERNATIVE EOL STRATEGIES
Different strategies to improve the EoL treatment of
electrical and electronic equipment have been studied in
prior research, such as:
- Manual disassembly strategy, for which the treatment
cost is mainly related to the amount of time required to
disassemble a product and the labor wages. Due to high
labor costs in Europe, manual disassembly of WEEE is
under the current circumstances generally characterized
by a low to negative profitability [7].
- Automated disassembly, for which prior research has
proven the technical feasibility of fully automating a
non-destructive disassembly process for, among others, ,
personal computers [8] and mobile phones [9]. However,
automating the disassembly process in an EoL treatment
is currently limited by the variation of returned products,
which requires a great capacity of recognition and
intelligence [10, 11].

- Advanced post-shredder separation strategy, for which
different technologies have recently been developed to
separate shredder residue based on (optical) material
properties. However, prior projects demonstrate that the
main challenges for implementing such a strategy are the
high investment costs and the low separation efficiency
of optical separation processes for WEEE [12, 13].
- Design For Disassembly (DFD), for which many efforts
have been made in prior research, since the efficiency of
disassembly operations can be significantly influenced
by an optimization of the product structure [14].
However, the time to localize and identify connectors
covers approximately 30% of the total disassembly time
[15]. Furthermore, prior studies have shown that the
economic feasibility of disassembly can only be
guaranteed if the disassembly time and cost are reduced
by at least 75% for electronic products [16]. Therefore,
DFD strategies which require a localization and
identification step have only a limited potential to make
systematic disassembly a preferred EoL treatment [17].
To accomplish a decrease in disassembly time of more
than 75%, the development of fasteners with a lower
technical disassembly complexity is required. Within prior
research fasteners with an Active Disassembly (AD)
functionality have been proposed [7, 18]. Active fasteners
are connections for which a specific external trigger or a
combination of triggers can initiate a simultaneous (one-
to-many) unfastening process. Since AD allows
simultaneously releasing fasteners within different
products, AD is assumed to allow a productivity increase
by a factor 5 to 10, and to reduce the disassembly costs
with up to 70% [16]. Therefore, active disassembly, when
properly implemented, has the potential to shift an EoL
treatment with systematic disassembly from a cost factor
to a profit generating activity [15, 17].
3 ACTIVE DISASSEMBLY
3.1 Trends to consider for Active Disassembly
When developing components for future electronic
products, different trends in the evolution of these
products have to be taken into account. TRIZ, a problem-
solving, analysis and forecasting tool derived from the
study of patterns of inventions in the global patent
literature, contains different interesting trends which can
be related to the evolution of fasteners and electronic
products, such as [19]:
- Smart materials: from passive to fully adaptive fasteners,
e.g. made out of shape memory materials. The most
advanced research on active disassembly yet is based on
materials which are able to return to an initial shape
when heated above the trigger temperature [20-25].
- Object segmentation: from monolithic solid fasteners to
a segmented solid up to a vacuum to hold an assembly
together. Some examples of AD fasteners which are in
line with this trend are: Velcro made of shape memory
materials [18, 26] and the use of a vacuum instead of
glue to assemble photovoltaic cells [27].
- Evolution macro to nano scale: miniaturization is a clear
trend for electronic products and accordingly for the
fasteners used in these products. Unfortunately, this
impedes the implementation of some prior developed
active fasteners in today’s products. For example
fasteners which make use of the extension of water when
freezing or pneumatic expansion are difficult to
implement in the current generation of FTVs, which
continuously decrease in thickness [28, 29] .
3.2 Ecologic and economic constraints
To allow an industrial implementation of AD both
ecological and economic constrains should be considered.
Therefore, it is important to select a working principle for
AD which requires only a limited amount of trigger
energy. For that reason, working principles for AD, such
as the chemical reaction proposed by Suga et al. [30, 31],
where a hydrogen storage alloy is pulverized in a
hydrogen atmosphere under a pressure of 4MPa and a
temperature of 100 °C, are less interesting for an industrial
implementation. Also, thermally triggered active fasteners
require a substantial amount of energy for heating up or
cooling down electronic products above or below the
broad temperature range of the use phase. Furthermore,
the amount of scarce materials in active fasteners should
be limited or a significant percentage of the connectors
should be recycled to reduce both the ecological impact
and cost of implementing an AD strategy.
Besides these constraints, one of the main challenges for
implementing AD in an industrial setting is the required
investment for the application of releasable joints. The
integration of these joints in the product design at the
outset of a product’s lifecycle represents only minor
benefits for the producer, for e.g. during maintenance
under warranty obligations. The main returns of this
investment are only obtained at the end of the lifecycle,
when the product is typically no longer owned by the
producer. For this reason, a holistic life cycle approach is
desired for most electronic consumer products, in which
all different actors in the lifecycle are involved.
Nevertheless, producers or companies who offer their
products in a Product Service System (PSS) can
significantly benefit from an EoL strategy with AD, since
these companies may also be responsible for the EoL
treatment of their products.
4 INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS
Nowadays, information associated with products is
gradually lost after the point of sale, which is one of the
major obstacles for efficient recovery of value from EoL
products [32]. As long as no standard active fasteners are
commonly implemented, an efficient identification of
products with active fasteners and information about the
corresponding trigger are essential. Furthermore,

information about the product composition and structure is
required to allow a correct sorting for further treatment of
components once a product is disassembled regardless of
the adopted EoL treatment strategy.
The desirable properties of product information can be
described by three dimensions: the level of detail of the
product information, the ability of product identification
and the product information location. Firstly, the required
level of detail of the product information depends on the
envisaged EoL treatment, for e.g. with manual or
automated sorting. However, potential improvements in
the current EoL treatment strategies need to be taken into
account. Therefore, highly detailed product information
should be accessible for the envisaged EoL treatments.
Secondly, the product identification can be facilitated by
implementing product identification technologies in
products. For example, bar code labels, which are
commonly placed on FTVs for logistic reasons, can
sometimes still be used to identify the product model at
the EoL of the product. The product model can then be
used to look up detailed product information. However,
often more than one barcode is attached to every product
and barcode labels are sometimes damaged during the use
phase [32]. For these reasons, the reliability and efficiency
of the identification can be improved by applying modern
identification technologies, such as Radio Frequency
Identification (RFID), which allows a fast and remote
identification of products using radio waves [32]. Finally,
if product identification is possible, it does not necessarily
means that the information needs to be located at the
product. Two extreme scenarios can be identified here:
information access through a data network or information
integrated in the product [33]. A system which enables to
integrate fundamental information to a product and access
more detailed product information through a data network
seems most appropriate for this application. In this way
manufacturers will be able to better protect their
Intellectual Property (IP) and can choose when to share
which product information, e.g. to only share detailed
information when products reach their EoL. Furthermore,
such a system can support a business model in which the
product manufacturer is able to add detailed product
information in a database in later stage and sell this
product information in accordance to the surplus value it
comports to the recycler [34].
5 CASE STUDY OF FLAT SCREEN TELEVISION
5.1 Differences in LCD LED, LCD CCFL and PDP
Three Philips FTVs with different and commonly used flat
screen technologies are analyzed and compared within this
case study. The technology adopted in the first FTV is a
Plasma Display Panel (PDP), the second FTV uses a
Liquid Cristal Display (LCD) with a backlight consisting
of Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamps (CCFL) and the third
is a LCD FTV with backlights consisting of Light
Emitting Diodes (LEDs), which are located at the side of
the television.
The current market is expected to reach about 150 million
TV sets in 2010 in Europe [2]. The European market is
mainly dominated by LCD televisions (>90%) and there is
an ongoing change from CCFL (44%) to LED (56%) back
lights [35]. PDP televisions are also analyzed within this
case study, since they are expected to represent a
significant share of EoL FTVs in the coming years, as
PDP televisions were mainly sold before 2005 [2].
As shown in Table 1, the material content strongly
depends on the adopted FTV technology. PDP FTVs are
significantly heavier and have a significantly higher
amount of PCBs and floated glass. On the other hand,
LCD FTVs contain more plastics, since plastics are,
besides the housing, also used in these FTVs to diffuse
and polarize the light of the CCFL or LED backlights.
From a recycling point of view, an important difference
between LCD FTVs with CCFL and LED backlights is
that CCFLs contain mercury. Therefore, when these
backlight lamps are broken an additional process for the
removal of toxic mercury vapors is required. The in this
study analyzed, Phillips LCD television with LED
backlights is the winner of the Green Awards 2011 and,
according to the EISA Green Award jury, for the first time
a truly Ecodesign product [36]. This television is
perceived as an Ecodesign product due to its innovative
reduction in energy consumption, improvement in product
architecture and more efficient packaging. This FTV is
significantly lighter and has, besides the difference in
backlight, an unconventional material composition. The
major difference with common LCD FTVs is that mainly
aluminum is used in the product housing and structure.
5.2 Material values and separation efficiencies
In the case study presented in this paper, the potential
revenues of recovered materials and the potential
recycling rate in accordance with the European WEEE
directive are calculated for two EoL treatment strategies,
as shown in Table 1. A comparison is made between an
EoL strategy where the FTVs are directly shredded and an
EoL treatment strategy where all fasteners in the FTVs are
assumed to be reversible by AD.
The material recovery rates for the ferrous metals and the
aluminum, used in the calculations, are based on the
estimated efficiency of magnetic and eddy current
separation processes for shredded material from FTVs
[12]. For the direct shredder strategy no polymer recycling
is assumed, since all the housing plastics of the analyzed
FTVs contain phosphor based Flame Retardants (FR) and
plastics with FR are rarely recycled [5]. Nevertheless all
polymers with phosphor FR are authorized for re-use by
European legislation [3]. The reason why these polymers
are often not recycled is that they risk to be polluted in the
shredding process with polymers with banned brominated
FR and that further separation of these polymers from
shredded residue based on their flame retardants is

currently not feasible at high material throughputs [5].
Also, Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), Polyethylene
Terephtalate (PET) and all PCBs are assumed to be sent to
incineration, since the (optical) separation of these
materials is not yet proven to be economically viable. For
the AD strategy the recovery rates are calculated assuming
that all large components are disassembled and separated
based on detailed product information. Furthermore, the
same separation efficiency is used for the PCBs as
presented by Meskers et al. for the manual disassembly of
PCBs from Personal Computers [37].
All values of recovered materials used for this case study
are based on estimates from prior studies. The values of
some recovered materials differ significantly between
sources, since they are generally incinerated with energy
recovery and not recycled [2, 12, 13, 38]. For this case
study, rather optimistic values of recovered materials in
Europe, as proposed by Huisman et al., are used [2].
However, to receive these values for recovered material a
steady supply of polymers with an assured quality should
be achieved. For plastics sent to incineration with energy
recovery a cost of 160 euro per tonne is taken into account
and for the recovered cables a value of 700 euro per tonne
is used, based on data from Salhofer et al. [38]. Both for
the LCD, which contains mainly glass, and for the glass of
the plasma television the values of the recovered materials
are based on data from Cryan et al. [12]. The values of the
PCBs are based on the average material content of FTVs,
as described by Huisman et al. [2], and values of
recovered PCBs, as used by Keller [2, 39].
5.3 Conventional EoL treatment versus AD
The case study shows that for an EoL treatment strategy
with direct shredding and commonly used separation
processes, such as magnetic separation and eddy current
separation, a considerable value can be recovered from
PDP FTVs, since these TVs contain a high percentage of
aluminum and ferrous metals. However, from LCD FTVs
with CCFLs only a low value can be recovered.
Nonetheless, an additional process for the removal of toxic
mercury vapors is only required for these FTVs with
CCFLs. For the LCD FTV with LED backlights a
considerably higher value can be recovered compared to
the other FTVs analyzed in this case study. The main
reason here for, is the exceptionally high amount of
aluminum that this Ecodesign product contains, which can
easily be recovered with a direct shredder strategy.
Therefore, this LCD FTV with LED can be described as a
product which is successfully designed to improve the
amount of materials which can be recovered with a
conventional EoL treatment with direct shredding.
When comparing both EoL treatment strategies, there is a
clear improvement in value of recovered materials
possible by implementing an EoL treatment strategy with
AD. Mostly for the LCD FTV with CCFL a significant
improvement in the value of recovered materials of about
600 euro per ton can be achieved, since an EoL treatment
strategy with AD allows to recycle most plastics and
PCBs. Accordingly, these calculations also determine that,
neglecting the time value of money, about 18 euro per
LCD FTV with CCFL is the total maximum investment
for the implementation of active fasteners and additional
Material Custom Name
Weight / TV
Value of
recovered
material
Direct
shedder
strategy
AD
strategy
PDP
LCD +
CCFL
(%)
(%)
()
(%)
(%)
PCBs
14%
6%
900
0%
95%
Cables
1%
1%
700
0%
100%
Plastics (total % and % send to incineration)
11%
34%
-160
100%
1-15%
Thermoplastics
2%
1%
400
0%
0%
PET
-
4%
660
0%
100%
PMMA
-
4%
2920
0%
100%
ABS + PC + FR 40
8%
16%
1370
0%
100%
PC + FR 40
-
7%
1370
0%
100%
PC + GF10
1%
2%
300
0%
100%
Glass
37%
-
-55
0%
100%
Glass LCD
-
9%
50
0%
100%
Metals: Ferro based
26%
47%
220
75%
100%
Metals: Aluminum based
11%
3%
2060
88%
100%
Value of recovered materials / Tonne of televisions (€)
296
57
Recycling rate according to the WEEE directive
30%
38%
Value of recovered materials / Tonne of televisions (€)
862
694
Recycling rate according to the WEEE directive
98%
92%
Table 1: Value of recovered materials and recycling rates according to the WEEE directive for Philips PDP, LCD with
CCFL and LCD with LED FTVs for a direct shredder EoL treatment strategy and an EoL treatment strategy with AD

process in the EoL treatment, which can make AD an
economically preferable EoL treatment strategy.
The recycling rates calculated for the direct shredding
strategy for the in this case study analyzed LCD FTVs are
below the quotas required by the current European WEEE
directive. Consequently, improvements in the recycling
rate will be required when the volume of EoL LCD FTVs
increases. However, the recycling rate is calculated for a
combined treatment of consumer products, of which FTVs
currently constitute only a small share. Based on these
results, it can be expected that recycling plastics glass will
be compulsory to achieve the recycling rates of the
upcoming recast of the WEEE directive. A significant
increase in the percentage of recycled materials can be
achieved by implementing an EoL treatment strategy with
AD, as demonstrates by the case study. However, to
permit recycling of all materials from different
components after active disassembling a product, detailed
product information, such as the used type of flame
retardant, is required. If all this information is available
the EoL, active disassembly has the potential to shift an
EoL treatment with systematic disassembly from a cost
factor to a profit generating activity.
6 CONCLUSION
Based on the presented case study it can be concluded
that, compared to the conventional EoL treatment with
direct product shredding, there is a high increase in
recycling rate and value of recovered materials possible by
implementing active fasteners in flat screen televisions.
However, further developments in the field of AD are
essential to make the implementation of active fasteners
technically feasible for the current generation of flat
screen televisions and to overcome the economic and
ecologic constraints mentioned in this paper. Furthermore,
detailed product information is required for an EoL
treatment with AD to allow the identification of the
required trigger for AD and an accurate sorting of
disassembled components for further treatment. To
facilitate the product identification at the EoL robust
technologies, such as Radio Frequency Identification,
should be implemented in products with active fasteners.
7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support
from the Institute for the Promotion of Innovation by
Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT) for the
EXTRACT DIRECT project, within which this research is
performed. The authors also like to acknowledge Philips
as a partner in this project.
8 REFERENCES
[1] K. Loannou, Managing Sustainability in Product
Design and Manufacturing, Glocalized Solutions
for Sustainability in Manufacturing, 2011.
[2] J. Huisman, et al., "2008 Review of Directive
2002/96 on Waste Electrical and Electronic
Equipment (WEEE)," United Nations
University2007 2008.
[3] European-Parliament, "Directive 2002/96/EC of
the European Parliament and of the Council of 27
January 2003 on Waste Electrical and Electronic
Equipment (WEEE)," ed, 2003, p. 24.
[4] Council-of-the-European-Union, "2008/0241
(COD) Proposal for a Directive of the European
Parliament and of the Council on Waste
Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)
(Recast)," ed, 2011, p. 104.
[5] M. Schlummer, et al., "Characterisation of
polymer fractions from waste electrical and
electronic equipment (WEEE) and implications
for waste management," Chemosphere, vol. 67,
pp. 1866-1876, 2007.
[6] C. Luttropp, Eco Quality Polymers-EQP,
Glocalized Solutions for Sustainability in
Manufacturing, 2011.
[7] J. R. Duflou, et al., "Efficiency and feasibility of
product disassembly: A case-based study," CIRP
Annals - Manufacturing Technology, vol. 57, pp.
583-600, 2008.
[8] F. Torres, "Automatic PC disassembly for
component recovery," The international journal
of advanced manufacturing technology, vol. 23,
p. 39, 2004.
[9] B. Basdere, "Disassembly factories for electrical
and electronic products to recover resources in
product and material cycles," Environmental
science & technology, vol. 37, p. 5354, 2003.
[10] M. Merdan, et al., "Towards ontology-based
automated disassembly systems," in IECON 2010
- 36th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial
Electronics Society, 2010, pp. 1392-1397.
[11] H. J. Kim, et al., "Emulation-based control of a
disassembly system for LCD monitors,"
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing
Technology, vol. 40, pp. 383-392, 2009.
[12] J. Cryan, et al., "Demonstration of Flat Panel
Display recycling technologies," WRAP2010.
[13] L. E. Mike Bennett, Lidia Goyos-Ball, Robin
Hilder, Dr Phillip Hall, Liz Morrish, Roger
Morton and Nicola Myles,, "Separation of mixed
WEEE plastics," WRAP2009.
[14] T. Harjula, "Design for disassembly and the
environment," CIRP annals, vol. 45, p. 109,
1996.
[15] B. Willems, et al., "Design for Active
Disassembly (DfAD) - An outline for future
research," presented at the IEEE International
Symposium on Electronics & the Environment,
2005.
[16] B. Willems, et al., "Can large-scale disassembly
be profitable? A linear programming approach to

Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an economic assessment of the potential revenues coming from the recovery of 14 e-products (e.g., LCD notebooks, LED notebooks, CRT TVs, LCD TVs, LED TVs, CRTs, LCD monitors, LED monitors, cell phones, smart phones, PV panels, HDDs, SSDs and tablets) on the base of current and future disposed volumes in Europe is presented.
Abstract: Waste from Electric and Electronic Equipments (WEEEs) is currently considered to be one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world, with an estimated growth rate going from 3% up to 5% per year. The recycling of Electric or electronic waste (E-waste) products could allow the diminishing use of virgin resources in manufacturing and, consequently, it could contribute in reducing the environmental pollution. Given that EU is trying, since the last two decades, to develop a circular economy based on the exploitation of resources recovered by wastes, a comprehensive framework supporting the decision-making process of multi-WEEE recycling centres will be analysed in this paper. An economic assessment will define the potential revenues coming from the recovery of 14 e-products (e.g. LCD notebooks, LED notebooks, CRT TVs, LCD TVs, LED TVs, CRT monitors, LCD monitors, LED monitors, cell phones, smart phones, PV panels, HDDs, SSDs and tablets) on the base of current and future disposed volumes in Europe. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis will be used to test the impact of some critical variables (e.g. price of recovered materials, input materials composition, degree of purity obtained by the recycling process, volumes generated, and percentage of collected waste) on specific economic indexes. A discussion of the economic assessment results shows the main challenges in the recycling sector and streamlines some concrete solutions.

566 citations


Cites background from "Active Disassembly for the End-of-L..."

  • ...Table 3 tries to quantify these values, by considering both literature works [23,26,29,30,41,42,50–52] and market reports (IDC – Analyse the Future, IMS Research, Statista – The Statistics Portal, Value Market Research), by considering two different scenarios related to the European market:...

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the current and future end-of-life management of electronic displays (flat screen televisions and monitors) is analyzed and possible ecodesign recommendations to improve it are discussed.
Abstract: This article analyses the current and future end-of-life management of electronic displays (flat screen televisions and monitors), and identifies and discusses possible ecodesign recommendations to improve it. Based on an investigation of the treatment of displays in two typical European recycling plants, key aspects and criticalities of the recycling methods (sorting, dismantling and pre-processing) are identified. Disaggregated data concerning on-site measurements of the time needed to manually dismantle different displays are presented. The article also discusses the potential evolution of end-of-life scenarios for electronic displays and suggests possible recommendations for recyclers, producers and policy-makers to promote resource efficiency in the recycling of such waste products. Data on time for dismantling the displays can be used to build measurers for voluntary and mandatory policies, to stimulate design innovations for products improvement, and to assess possible alternative treatments of the waste during the pre-processing at the recycling plants. Some quantitative product measures (based on the time thresholds for dismantling some key components) are also discussed, including an assessment of their economic viability. These measures can potentially be enforced through mandatory and voluntary European product policies, and could also be extended to other product groups.

89 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparative analysis of boundary conditions in Belgium and Japan that cause the adoption of diverse treatment strategies for the rapidly increasing number of end-of-life flat screen TVs is presented.
Abstract: Differences in legislation and markets for recycled materials result in the national implementation of distinct end-of-life treatment strategies. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the boundary conditions in Belgium and Japan that cause the adoption of diverse treatment strategies for the rapidly increasing number of end-of-life flat screen TVs. In addition, both treatment strategies are evaluated from an ecological and economic perspective and opportunities for improvement are identified.

52 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...potential of FTVs with different display technologies, such as plasma or LCD, as well as among LCD TVs with different product designs [8,9]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Yap et al. as mentioned in this paper examined the technical aspects of PM motors and how it contributes to or withdraws from the sustainability of (H)EVs and revealed the potential opportunities toward a more sustainable rare earth PM motor.
Abstract: It is clear that hybrid/electric vehicles [(H)EVs] are only as green as the materials and energy that they use. According to MIT, the production and processing of rare earth elements (REEs) found in (H)EVs come with their own hefty environmental price tag (K. Bourzac, "The Rare-Earth Crisis," MIT Technol. Rev., 114(3):58–63, 2011). These damages include radioactive wastewater leaks and ‘slash-and-burn processes’ required to manufacture and separate REEs. Some life cycle assessment (LCA) studies found that the carbon advantage of an electric vehicle over an internal combustion engine vehicle is small considering the production/manufacturing and end-of-life stages (C.-W. Yap, "China Ends Rare-Earth Minerals Export Quotas," Wall Street Journal, updated 5 Jan. 2015; D.S. Abraham, "The War Over the Periodic Table," Bloomberg View, 23 Oct. 2015). However, sustainability is not only about environmental impacts, but also concerns other sustainable development principles such as economic viability and social well-being. Permanent magnet (PM) rare earth motors are most widely used in the (H)EV industry, but the price volatility of REEs does not make them an economically sustainable option. The research involving the potential social impacts of the extraction and use of rare earths for the automobile industry is examined. This review addresses the technical aspects of PM motors and how it contributes to or withdraws from the sustainability of (H)EVs. This paper undertakes a review of the literature and the present situation of sustainability of REEs in the electric vehicle industry. Furthermore, this paper highlights the areas of sustainability research considered by academic and industrial representatives to be essential for cleaning up the clean technology. The intention is not to declare rare earth PM motors sustainable, but to analyze their contribution to sustainability in terms of technical, social, environmental, and economic aspects. Ultimately, the potential opportunities toward a more sustainable rare earth PM motor are revealed.

40 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a method for in-depth analysis of dismantling practices of electronic displays in order to obtain useful data for product design, which can be used as empirical evidence to support the development of quantitative ecodesign strategies.
Abstract: Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in contemporary societies. Proper treatment and recovery of WEEE is an important challenge not only because of its content on hazardous substances but also because it contains significant quantities of valuable materials. The pre-processing stage of WEEE recycling plays a major role in the recovery network, in particular when carried out through manual dismantling processes. Dismantling allows components to be separated prior to further treatment. However, recycling organisations usually find this particular stage considerably time-consuming, and hence expensive, since products are not designed to be easily dismantled. One particular waste stream that could reduce dismantling costs through an improved design is the stream of Flat Panel Displays (FPD). However, little detailed data is nowadays available on the dismantling processes, which prevent designing FPD according to the requirements of treatment operators. The purpose of this paper is to propose a method for in-depth analysis of dismantling practices of electronic displays in order to obtain useful data for product design. The method is composed of three stages: (1) study definition, (2) data construction and (3) data analysis. The first stage allows setting out why, how and where the analysis will be performed. The second stage consists in describing dismantling operations in detail to construct a detailed and meaningful dataset. Finally, product indicators are developed and the best and worst design practices from a dismantling point of view are identified. The approach is illustrated through a case study on the manual dismantling of 12 FPD. The sample was dismantled at one of the European recycling facility representatives. Data on the dismantling time spent on each component, operation and tool was obtained. Collected data can be used as empirical evidence to support the development of quantitative ecodesign strategies. Some examples of ecodesign strategies that can significantly reduce the dismantling time of the sample are given. This work opens perspectives on how the quantitative data from the recovery phase obtained within the study can be used in product design.

21 citations

References
More filters
Book
29 Aug 2000
TL;DR: This chapter discusses TRIZ Heuristics, Polovinkin's Heureistic Expedients for Systems Transformation ARIZ-77, and Preparing for Problems.
Abstract: PROBLEM SOLVING AIDS How do we Solve Problems? TRIZ Overview MAIN TRIZ CONCEPTS Technique: A Resume Contradictions Ideality Substance-Field Resources Evolution of Technique TRIZ INFORMATION Inventions Effects PREPARATIONS TO PROBLEM SOLVING Before Start Inventivity Su-Fields TRIZ HEURISTICS AND INSTRUMENTS Resolution of Technical (Pair) Contradictions Physical Contradictions: Ontology and Resolution Standard Solutions of Invention Problems Energy Synthesis of Systems Agents Method ARIZ APPENDIXES: The Popular Checklists and Questionnaire Forecast of Technical Systems Database of Effects List of Energies Altshuller Standards Relation between TRIZ Heuristics Goldovsky-Frenklach-Savransky List of Often-Used Hints Polovinkin's Heureistic Expedients for Systems Transformation ARIZ-77

547 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present study summarises updated contaminant levels of plastic fractions of European WEEE, as well as data on materials in waste housing polymers, and indicates an effective phase-out of PBB, but still high levels of PBDE and PBDD/F are found.

222 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...For the direct shredder strategy no polymer recycling is assumed, since all the housing plastics of the analyzed FTVs contain phosphor based Flame Retardants (FR) and plastics with FR are rarely recycled [5]....

    [...]

  • ...For these product categories, it is crucial to develop EoL treatment strategies which include recycling of plastics to achieve the recycling rates of the upcoming recast of the WEEE directive and to recycle precious metals to lower the environmental impact of the EoL treatment [5, 6]....

    [...]

  • ...currently not feasible at high material throughputs [5]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a case-based review of current disassembly practices is used to analyse the factors influencing disassembly feasibility and data mining techniques are used to identify major factors influencing the profitability of disassembly operations.

185 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Within prior research fasteners with an Active Disassembly (AD) functionality have been proposed [7, 18]....

    [...]

  • ...Due to high labor costs in Europe, manual disassembly of WEEE is under the current circumstances generally characterized by a low to negative profitability [7]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Qualitatively it is shown qualitatively that the availability of product information has a positive impact on product recovery decisions, and how radio-frequency identification-based product identification technologies can be employed to provide the necessary information is discussed.

160 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Nowadays, information associated with products is gradually lost after the point of sale, which is one of the major obstacles for efficient recovery of value from EoL products [32]....

    [...]

  • ...However, often more than one barcode is attached to every product and barcode labels are sometimes damaged during the use phase [32]....

    [...]

  • ...For these reasons, the reliability and efficiency of the identification can be improved by applying modern identification technologies, such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), which allows a fast and remote identification of products using radio waves [32]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the financial and environmental consequences of disassembly and recycling at the end of a product's life are studied, and it is shown that redesign proposals resulting from Design for Assembly analysis are compatible with Design for Disassembly and that significant improvements are achievable.

152 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...- Design For Disassembly (DFD), for which many efforts have been made in prior research, since the efficiency of disassembly operations can be significantly influenced by an optimization of the product structure [14]....

    [...]

Frequently Asked Questions (1)
Q1. What contributions have the authors mentioned in the paper "Active disassembly for the end-of-life treatment of flat screen televisions: challenges and opportunities" ?

Therefore, the economic and environmental constraints for implementing AD are discussed, as well as the information requirements for AD. Furthermore, the potential benefits of properly implementing active fasteners in a Liquid Cristal Display ( LCD ) and a Plasma Display Panel television are presented based on a case study.