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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/MMI.14712

ActS activates peptidoglycan amidases during outer membrane stress in Escherichia coli

04 Mar 2021-Molecular Microbiology (Newcastle University)-Vol. 116, Iss: 1, pp 329-342
Abstract: The integrity of the cell envelope of E. coli relies on the concerted activity of multi-protein machineries that synthesize the peptidoglycan (PG) and the outer membrane (OM). Our previous work found that the depletion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) export to the OM induces an essential PG remodeling process involving LD-transpeptidases (LDTs), the glycosyltransferase function of PBP1B and the carboxypeptidase PBP6a. Consequently, cells with defective OM biogenesis lyse if they lack any of these PG enzymes. Here we report that the morphological defects, and lysis associated with a ldtF mutant with impaired LPS transport, are alleviated by the loss of the predicted OM-anchored lipoprotein ActS (formerly YgeR). We show that ActS is an inactive member of LytM-type peptidoglycan endopeptidases due to a degenerated catalytic domain. ActS is capable of activating all three main periplasmic peptidoglycan amidases, AmiA, AmiB, and AmiC, which were previously reported to be activated only by EnvC and/or NlpD. Our data also suggest that in vivo ActS preferentially activates AmiC and that its function is linked to cell envelope stress.

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Topics: Bacterial outer membrane (61%), Peptidoglycan (59%), Cell envelope (59%) ... read more
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/MMI.14711
Abstract: Nearly all bacteria are encased in peptidoglycan, an extracytoplasmic matrix of polysaccharide strands crosslinked through short peptide stems. In the Gram-negative model organism Escherichia coli, more than 40 synthases and autolysins coordinate the growth and division of the peptidoglycan sacculus in the periplasm. The precise contribution of many of these enzymes to peptidoglycan metabolism remains unclear due to significant apparent redundancy, particularly among the autolysins. E. coli produces three major LytC-type-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidases, which share a role in separating the newly formed daughter cells during cytokinesis. Here, we reveal two of the three amidases that exhibit growth medium-dependent changes in activity. Specifically, we report acidic growth conditions stimulate AmiB-and to a lesser extent, AmiC-amidase activity. Combining genetic, biochemical, and computational analyses, we demonstrate that low pH-dependent stimulation of AmiB is mediated through the periplasmic amidase activators NlpD, EnvC, and ActS (formerly known as YgeR). Although NlpD and EnvC promote amidase activity across pH environments, ActS preferentially stimulates AmiB activity in acidic conditions. Altogether, our findings support partially overlapping roles for E. coli amidases and their regulators in cell separation and illuminate the physiochemical environment as an important mediator of cell wall enzyme activity.

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Topics: Amidase activity (59%), Peptidoglycan (57%), Periplasmic space (55%)

4 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2020.07.30.230052
Jolanda Verheul1, Adam Lodge2, Hamish C. L. Yau2, Hamish C. L. Yau3  +7 moreInstitutions (5)
31 Jul 2020-bioRxiv
Abstract: Insertion of new material into the Escherichia coli peptidoglycan (PG) sacculus between the cytoplasmic membrane and the outer membrane requires a well-organized balance between synthetic and hydrolytic activities to maintain cell shape and avoid lysis. The hydrolytic enzymes outnumber the enzymes that insert new PG by far and very little is known about their specific function. Here we show that the DD-carboxy/endopeptidase PBP4 localizes in a PBP1A/LpoA and FtsEX dependent fashion at midcell during septal PG synthesis. Midcell localization of PBP4 requires its non-catalytic domain 3 of unknown function, but not the activity of PBP4 or FtsE. Domain 3 is also needed for the interaction of PBP4 with NlpI, but not for its interactions with PBP1A or LpoA. Microscale thermophoresis with isolated proteins shows that domain 3 is needed for the interaction with NlpI, but not PBP1A or LpoA. In vivo crosslinking experiments confirm the interaction of PBP4 with PBP1A and LpoA. We propose that PBP4 functions together with the amidases AmiA and B to create denuded glycan strands to attract the initiator of septal PG synthesis, FtsN. Consistent with this model, we found that the arrival of FtsN and other cell division proteins at midcell was significantly delayed in cells lacking PBP4.

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4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/MBIO.00836-21
04 May 2021-Mbio
Abstract: Gram-negative bacteria have a unique cell envelope with a lipopolysaccharide-containing outer membrane that is tightly connected to a thin layer of peptidoglycan. The tight connection between the outer membrane and peptidoglycan is needed to maintain the outer membrane as an impermeable barrier for many toxic molecules and antibiotics. Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli covalently attach the abundant outer membrane-anchored lipoprotein Lpp (Braun’s lipoprotein) to tripeptides in peptidoglycan, mediated by the transpeptidases LdtA, LdtB, and LdtC. LdtD and LdtE are members of the same family of ld-transpeptidases but they catalyze a different reaction, the formation of 3-3 cross-links in the peptidoglycan. The function of the sixth homologue in E. coli, LdtF, remains unclear, although it has been shown to become essential in cells with inhibited lipopolysaccharide export to the outer membrane. We now show that LdtF hydrolyzes the Lpp-peptidoglycan linkage, detaching Lpp from peptidoglycan, and have renamed LdtF to peptidoglycan meso-diaminopimelic acid protein amidase A (DpaA). We show that the detachment of Lpp from peptidoglycan is beneficial for the cell under certain stress conditions and that the deletion of dpaA allows frequent transposon inactivation in the lapB (yciM) gene, whose product downregulates lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. DpaA-like proteins have characteristic sequence motifs and are present in many Gram-negative bacteria, of which some have no Lpp, raising the possibility that DpaA has other substrates in these species. Overall, our data show that the Lpp-peptidoglycan linkage in E. coli is more dynamic than previously appreciated. IMPORTANCE Gram-negative bacteria have a complex cell envelope with two membranes and a periplasm containing the peptidoglycan layer. The outer membrane is firmly connected to the peptidoglycan by highly abundant proteins. The outer membrane-anchored Braun’s lipoprotein (Lpp) is the most abundant protein in E. coli, and about one-third of the Lpp molecules become covalently attached to tripeptides in peptidoglycan. The attachment of Lpp to peptidoglycan stabilizes the cell envelope and is crucial for the outer membrane to function as a permeability barrier for a range of toxic molecules and antibiotics. So far, the attachment of Lpp to peptidoglycan has been considered to be irreversible. We have now identified an amidase, DpaA, which is capable of detaching Lpp from peptidoglycan, and we show that the detachment of Lpp is important under certain stress conditions. DpaA-like proteins are present in many Gram-negative bacteria and may have different substrates in these species.

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Topics: Bacterial outer membrane (66%), Braun's lipoprotein (66%), Peptidoglycan (65%) ... read more

3 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2020.07.30.230052
Jolanda Verheul1, Adam Lodge2, Hamish C. L. Yau3, Hamish C. L. Yau2  +8 moreInstitutions (5)
29 Sep 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Insertion of new material into the Escherichia coli peptidoglycan (PG) sacculus between the cytoplasmic membrane and the outer membrane requires a well-organized balance between synthetic and hydrolytic activities to maintain cell shape and avoid lysis. The hydrolytic enzymes outnumber the enzymes that insert new PG by far and very little is known about their specific function. Here we show that the DD-carboxy/endopeptidase PBP4 localizes in a PBP1A/LpoA and FtsEX dependent fashion at midcell during septal PG synthesis. Midcell localization of PBP4 requires its non-catalytic domain 3 of unknown function, but not the activity of PBP4 or FtsE. Microscale thermophoresis with isolated proteins shows that domain 3 is needed for the interaction with NlpI, but not PBP1A or LpoA. In vivo crosslinking experiments confirm the interaction of PBP4 with PBP1A and LpoA. We propose that PBP4 functions together with the amidases AmiA and B to create denuded glycan strands to attract the initiator of septal PG synthesis, FtsN. Consistent with this model, we found that the divisome assembly at midcell was significantly affected in cells lacking PBP4.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMICB.2021.729307
Abstract: LytM-domain containing proteins are LAS peptidases (lysostaphin-type enzymes, D-Ala-D-Ala metallopeptidases, and sonic hedgehog) and are known to play diverse roles throughout the bacterial cell cycle through direct or indirect hydrolysis of the bacterial cell wall. A subset of the LytM factors are catalytically inactive but regulate the activity of other cell wall hydrolases and are classically described as cell separation factors NlpD and EnvC. Here, we explore the function of four LytM factors in the alphaproteobacterial plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. An LmdC ortholog (Atu1832) and a MepM ortholog (Atu4178) are predicted to be catalytically active. While Atu1832 does not have an obvious function in cell growth or division, Atu4178 is essential for polar growth and likely functions as a space-making endopeptidase that cleaves amide bonds in the peptidoglycan cell wall during elongation. The remaining LytM factors are degenerate EnvC and NlpD orthologs. Absence of these proteins results in striking phenotypes indicative of misregulation of cell division and growth pole establishment. The deletion of an amidase, AmiC, closely phenocopies the deletion of envC suggesting that EnvC might regulate AmiC activity. The NlpD ortholog DipM is unprecedently essential for viability and depletion results in the misregulation of early stages of cell division, contrasting with the canonical view of DipM as a cell separation factor. Finally, we make the surprising observation that absence of AmiC relieves the toxicity induced by dipM overexpression. Together, these results suggest EnvC and DipM may function as regulatory hubs with multiple partners to promote proper cell division and establishment of polarity.

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Topics: Cell division (54%)

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52 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.120163297
Kirill A. Datsenko1, Barry L. WannerInstitutions (1)
Abstract: We have developed a simple and highly efficient method to disrupt chromosomal genes in Escherichia coli in which PCR primers provide the homology to the targeted gene(s). In this procedure, recombination requires the phage lambda Red recombinase, which is synthesized under the control of an inducible promoter on an easily curable, low copy number plasmid. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we generated PCR products by using primers with 36- to 50-nt extensions that are homologous to regions adjacent to the gene to be inactivated and template plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes that are flanked by FRT (FLP recognition target) sites. By using the respective PCR products, we made 13 different disruptions of chromosomal genes. Mutants of the arcB, cyaA, lacZYA, ompR-envZ, phnR, pstB, pstCA, pstS, pstSCAB-phoU, recA, and torSTRCAD genes or operons were isolated as antibiotic-resistant colonies after the introduction into bacteria carrying a Red expression plasmid of synthetic (PCR-generated) DNA. The resistance genes were then eliminated by using a helper plasmid encoding the FLP recombinase which is also easily curable. This procedure should be widely useful, especially in genome analysis of E. coli and other bacteria because the procedure can be done in wild-type cells.

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Topics: Plasmid (60%), Recombinase (57%), Operon (54%) ... read more

13,178 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/MSB4100050
Tomoya Baba1, Takeshi Ara1, Miki Hasegawa1, Yuki Takai1  +7 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: We have systematically made a set of precisely defined, single-gene deletions of all nonessential genes in Escherichia coli K-12. Open-reading frame coding regions were replaced with a kanamycin cassette flanked by FLP recognition target sites by using a one-step method for inactivation of chromosomal genes and primers designed to create in-frame deletions upon excision of the resistance cassette. Of 4288 genes targeted, mutants were obtained for 3985. To alleviate problems encountered in high-throughput studies, two independent mutants were saved for every deleted gene. These mutants-the 'Keio collection'-provide a new resource not only for systematic analyses of unknown gene functions and gene regulatory networks but also for genome-wide testing of mutational effects in a common strain background, E. coli K-12 BW25113. We were unable to disrupt 303 genes, including 37 of unknown function, which are candidates for essential genes. Distribution is being handled via GenoBase (http://ecoli.aist-nara.ac.jp/).

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Topics: Essential gene (58%), Gene (52%)

6,620 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1101/CSHPERSPECT.A000414
Abstract: The bacteria cell envelope is a complex multilayered structure that serves to protect these organisms from their unpredictable and often hostile environment. The cell envelopes of most bacteria fall into one of two major groups. Gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by a thin peptidoglycan cell wall, which itself is surrounded byan outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharide. Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane but are surrounded by layers of peptidoglycan many times thicker than is found in the Gram-negatives. Threading through these layers of peptidoglycan are long anionic polymers, called teichoic acids. The composition and organization of these envelope layers and recent insights into the mechanisms of cell envelope assembly are discussed.

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Topics: Cell envelope (68%), Bacterial outer membrane (62%), Bacterial cell structure (60%) ... read more

2,071 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1574-6976.2007.00094.X
Abstract: The peptidoglycan (murein) sacculus is a unique and essential structural element in the cell wall of most bacteria. Made of glycan strands cross-linked by short peptides, the sacculus forms a closed, bag-shaped structure surrounding the cytoplasmic membrane. There is a high diversity in the composition and sequence of the peptides in the peptidoglycan from different species. Furthermore, in several species examined, the fine structure of the peptidoglycan significantly varies with the growth conditions. Limited number of biophysical data on the thickness, elasticity and porosity of peptidoglycan are available. The different models for the architecture of peptidoglycan are discussed with respect to structural and physical parameters.

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Topics: Pseudopeptidoglycan (69%), Peptidoglycan (67%), Peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (66%) ... read more

1,585 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRMICRO2677
Abstract: How bacteria grow and divide while retaining a defined shape is a fundamental question in microbiology, but technological advances are now driving a new understanding of how the shape-maintaining bacterial peptidoglycan sacculus grows. In this Review, we highlight the relationship between peptidoglycan synthesis complexes and cytoskeletal elements, as well as recent evidence that peptidoglycan growth is regulated from outside the sacculus in Gram-negative bacteria. We also discuss how growth of the sacculus is sensitive to mechanical force and nutritional status, and describe the roles of peptidoglycan hydrolases in generating cell shape and of D-amino acids in sacculus remodelling.

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954 Citations


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