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Journal ArticleDOI

Acyl-CoA binding proteins: Multiplicity and function

01 Sep 1996-Lipids (Lipids)-Vol. 31, Iss: 9, pp 895-918
TL;DR: The identity, nature, function, and pathobiology of these fascinating newly discovered long-chain fatty acyl-CoA binding proteins are explored.
Abstract: The physiological role of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA is thought to be primarily in intermediary metabolism of fatty acids. However, recent data show that nM to μM levels of these lipophilic molecules are potent regulators of cell functionsin vitro. Although long-chain fatty acyl-CoA are present at several hundred μM concentration in the cell, very little long-chain fatty acyl-CoA actually exists as free or unbound molecules, but rather is bound with high affinity to membrane lipids and/or proteins. Recently, there is growing awareness that cytosol contains nonenzymatic proteins also capable of binding long-chain fatty acyl-CoA with high affinity. Although the identity of the cytosolic long-chain fatty acyl-CoA binding protein(s) has been the subject of some controversy, there is growing evidence that several diverse nonenzymatic cytosolic proteins will bind long-chain fatty acyl-CoA. Not only does acyl-CoA binding protein specifically bind medium and long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (LCFA-CoA), but ubiquitous proteins with multiple ligand specificities such as the fatty acid binding proteins and sterol carrier protein-2 also bind LCFA-CoA with high affinity. The potential of these acyl-CoA binding proteins to influence the level of free LCFA-CoA and thereby the amount of LCFA-CoA bound to regulatory sites in proteins and enzymes is only now being examined in detail. The purpose of this article is to explore the identity, nature, function, and pathobiology of these fascinating newly discovered long-chain fatty acyl-CoA binding proteins. The relative contributions of these three different protein families to LCFA-CoA utilization and/or regulation of cellular activities are the focus of new directions in this field.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The effects of fatty acids on the genome provide new insight into how dietary fat might play a role in health and disease.
Abstract: Dietary fat is an important macronutrient for the growth and development of all organisms. In addition to its role as an energy source and its effects on membrane lipid composition, dietary fat has profound effects on gene expression, leading to changes in metabolism, growth, and cell differentiation. The effects of dietary fat on gene expression reflect an adaptive response to changes in the quantity and type of fat ingested. Specific fatty acid-regulated transcription factors have been identified in bacteria, amphibians, and mammals. In mammals, these factors include peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR alpha, -beta, and -gamma), HNF4 alpha, NF kappa B, and SREBP1c. These factors are regulated by (a) direct binding of fatty acids, fatty acyl-coenzyme A, or oxidized fatty acids; (b) oxidized fatty acid (eicosanoid) regulation of G-protein-linked cell surface receptors and activation of signaling cascades targeting the nucleus; or (c) oxidized fatty acid regulation of intracellular calcium levels, which affect cell signaling cascades targeting the nucleus. At the cellular level, the physiological response to fatty acids will depend on (a) the quantity, chemistry, and duration of the fat ingested; (b) cell-specific fatty acid metabolism (oxidative pathways, kinetics, and competing reactions); (c) cellular abundance of specific nuclear and membrane receptors; and (d) involvement of specific transcription factors in gene expression. These mechanisms are involved in the control of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cell differentiation and growth, and cytokine, adhesion molecule, and eicosanoid production. The effects of fatty acids on the genome provide new insight into how dietary fat might play a role in health and disease.

649 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The function and regulation of protein palmitoylation is discussed, focusing on intracellular proteins that participate in cell signaling or protein trafficking, and identification of the protein acyltransferases Erf2/Erf4 and Akr1 in yeast has provided new insight into the palmitoyslation reaction.
Abstract: ▪ Abstract Protein S-palmitoylation is the thioester linkage of long-chain fatty acids to cysteine residues in proteins. Addition of palmitate to proteins facilitates their membrane interactions and trafficking, and it modulates protein-protein interactions and enzyme activity. The reversibility of palmitoylation makes it an attractive mechanism for regulating protein activity, and this feature has generated intensive investigation of this modification. The regulation of palmitoylation occurs through the actions of protein acyltransferases and protein acylthioesterases. Identification of the protein acyltransferases Erf2/Erf4 and Akr1 in yeast has provided new insight into the palmitoylation reaction. These molecules work in concert with thioesterases, such as acyl-protein thioesterase 1, to regulate the palmitoylation status of numerous signaling molecules, ultimately influencing their function. This review discusses the function and regulation of protein palmitoylation, focusing on intracellular protein...

601 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Working out the mechanisms by which these interactions and consequent effects occur is proving to be complicated but is invaluable to the understanding of the role that dietary fat can play in disease management and prevention.
Abstract: Apart from being an important macronutrient, dietary fat has recently gained much prominence for its role in regulating gene expression. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) affect gene expression through various mechanisms including, but not limited to, changes in membrane composition, intracellular calcium levels, and eicosanoid production. Furthermore, PUFAs and their various metabolites can act at the level of the nucleus, in conjunction with nuclear receptors and transcription factors, to affect the transcription of a variety of genes. Several of these transcription mediators have been identified and include the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha, and liver X receptor (LXR) and the transcription factors sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB). Their interaction with PUFAs has been shown to be critical to the regulation of several key genes of lipid metabolism. Working out the mechanisms by which these interactions and consequent effects occur is proving to be complicated but is invaluable to our understanding of the role that dietary fat can play in disease management and prevention.

542 citations

OtherDOI
TL;DR: The current understanding of fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism in the liver and its regulation in health and disease is described, identifying potential directions for future research.
Abstract: Triglyceride molecules represent the major form of storage and transport of fatty acids within cells and in the plasma. The liver is the central organ for fatty acid metabolism. Fatty acids accrue in liver by hepatocellular uptake from the plasma and by de novo biosynthesis. Fatty acids are eliminated by oxidation within the cell or by secretion into the plasma within triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins. Notwithstanding high fluxes through these pathways, under normal circumstances the liver stores only small amounts of fatty acids as triglycerides. In the setting of overnutrition and obesity, hepatic fatty acid metabolism is altered, commonly leading to the accumulation of triglycerides within hepatocytes, and to a clinical condition known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this review, we describe the current understanding of fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism in the liver and its regulation in health and disease, identifying potential directions for future research. Advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the hepatic fat accumulation are critical to the development of targeted therapies for NAFLD. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:1-22, 2018.

519 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Apr 1998-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that long-chain fatty acids directly modulate the transcriptional activity of HNF-4α by binding as their acyl-CoA thioesters to the ligand-binding domain of H NF-4 α.
Abstract: Dietary fatty acids specifically modulate the onset and progression of various diseases, including cancer, atherogenesis, hyperlipidaemia, insulin resistances and hypertension, as well as blood coagulability and fibrinolytic defects; their effects depend on their chain length and degree of saturation Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) is an orphan transcription factor of the superfamily of nuclear receptors and controls the expression of genes that govern the pathogenesis and course of some of these diseases Here we show that long-chain fatty acids directly modulate the transcriptional activity of HNF-4alpha by binding as their acyl-CoA thioesters to the ligand-binding domain of HNF-4alpha This binding may shift the oligomeric-dimeric equilibrium of HNF-4alpha or may modulate the affinity of HNF-4alpha for its cognate promoter element, resulting in either activation or inhibition of HNF-4alpha transcriptional activity as a function of chain length and the degree of saturation of the fatty acyl-CoA ligands In addition to their roles as substrates to yield energy, as an energy store, or as constituents of membrane phospholipids, dietary fatty acids may affect the course of a disease by modulating the expression of HNF-4alpha-controlled genes

517 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Subcellular fractionation studies of homogenates of adrenal gland indicate that the recovery and enrichment of [3H]PK11195 binding sites in the nuclear, mitochondrial, microsomal, and soluble fractions correlate closely with cytochrome oxidase activity, but not with markers for the nuclei, lysosomes, peroxysomes, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane, or cytoplasm.

658 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: DBI injected intraventricularly at doses of 5-10 nmol completely reversed the anticonflict action of diazepam on unpunished drinking and facilitated the shock-induced suppression of drinking by lowering the threshold for this response.
Abstract: A brain polypeptide termed diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) and thought to be chemically and functionally related to the endogenous effector of the benzodiazepine recognition site was purified to homogeneity. This peptide gives a single band of protein on NaDodSO4 and acidic urea gel electrophoresis. A single UV-absorbing peak was obtained by HPLC using three different columns and solvent systems. DBI has a molecular mass of approximately equal to 11,000 daltons. Carboxyl-terminus analysis shows that tyrosine is the only residue while the amino-terminus was blocked. Cyanogen bromide treatment of DBI yields three polypeptide fragments, and the sequences of two of them have been determined for a total of 45 amino acids. DBI is a competitive inhibitor for the binding of [3H]diazepam, [3H]flunitrazepam, beta-[3H]carboline propyl esters, and 3H-labeled Ro 15-1788. The Ki for [3H]-diazepam and beta-[3H]carboline binding were 4 and 1 microM, respectively. Doses of DBI that inhibited [3H]diazepam binding by greater than 50% fail to change [3H]etorphine, gamma-amino[3H]butyric acid, [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate, [3H]dihydroalprenolol, [3H]adenosine, and [3H]imipramine binding tested at their respective Kd values. DBI injected intraventricularly at doses of 5-10 nmol completely reversed the anticonflict action of diazepam on unpunished drinking and, similar to the anxiety-inducing beta-carboline derivative FG 7142 (beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester), facilitated the shock-induced suppression of drinking by lowering the threshold for this response.

602 citations


"Acyl-CoA binding proteins: Multipli..." refers background in this paper

  • ...It was first discovered in 1983 in the brain and designated as a diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) protein (50)....

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  • ...Initially DBI was thought to function as a potential neurotransmitter which displaced benzodiazepines from GABA receptors in the central nervous system (50,51)....

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  • ...ACBP undergoes posttranslational proteolytic cleavage resuiting in biologically active cleavage products having varying effects in the brain and other tissue types (50,73,74, 165-167)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Molecular understanding of intracellular cholesterol trafficking has lagged somewhat behind other aspects of cholesterol metabolism, but recent advances have defined some transport pathways and candidate proteins, emphasizing the relevance of these pathways to cholesterol homeostasis
Abstract: Intracellular cholesterol transport is essential for the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. Many aspects of cholesterol metabolism are well-known, including its synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum, its extracellular transport in plasma lipoproteins, its uptake by the low-density lipoprotein receptor, and its regulation of SREBP and LXR transcription factors. These fundamental pathways in cholesterol metabolism all rely on its proper intracellular distribution among subcellular organelles and the plasma membrane. Transport involving the ER and endosomes is essential for cholesterol synthesis, uptake, and esterification, whereas cholesterol catabolism by enzymes in mitochondria and ER generates steroids, bile acids, and oxysterols. Cholesterol is a highly hydrophobic lipid that requires specialized transport in the aqueous cytosol, involving either vesicles or nonvesicular mechanisms. The latter includes hydrophobic cavity transporters such as StAR-related lipid transfer (START) proteins. Molecular understanding of intracellular cholesterol trafficking has lagged somewhat behind other aspects of cholesterol metabolism, but recent advances have defined some transport pathways and candidate proteins. In this review, we discuss cholesterol transport among specific intracellular compartments, emphasizing the relevance of these pathways to cholesterol homeostasis.

488 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Crystallographic analyses were performed with the product citrate bound in both crystal forms, with coenzyme A (CoA) and a citryl-CoA analogue bound to the monoclinic form, and the conformations of the two product molecules in atomic detail were established.

475 citations