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Journal ArticleDOI

Adaptive Federated Learning in Resource Constrained Edge Computing Systems

11 Mar 2019-IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (IEEE)-Vol. 37, Iss: 6, pp 1205-1221

Abstract: Emerging technologies and applications including Internet of Things, social networking, and crowd-sourcing generate large amounts of data at the network edge. Machine learning models are often built from the collected data, to enable the detection, classification, and prediction of future events. Due to bandwidth, storage, and privacy concerns, it is often impractical to send all the data to a centralized location. In this paper, we consider the problem of learning model parameters from data distributed across multiple edge nodes, without sending raw data to a centralized place. Our focus is on a generic class of machine learning models that are trained using gradient-descent-based approaches. We analyze the convergence bound of distributed gradient descent from a theoretical point of view, based on which we propose a control algorithm that determines the best tradeoff between local update and global parameter aggregation to minimize the loss function under a given resource budget. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated via extensive experiments with real datasets, both on a networked prototype system and in a larger-scale simulated environment. The experimentation results show that our proposed approach performs near to the optimum with various machine learning models and different data distributions.
Topics: Edge computing (59%), Data modeling (56%), Mobile edge computing (56%), Distributed database (54%), Edge device (53%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Zhi Zhou1, Xu Chen1, En Li1, Liekang Zeng1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
12 Jun 2019-
Abstract: With the breakthroughs in deep learning, the recent years have witnessed a booming of artificial intelligence (AI) applications and services, spanning from personal assistant to recommendation systems to video/audio surveillance. More recently, with the proliferation of mobile computing and Internet of Things (IoT), billions of mobile and IoT devices are connected to the Internet, generating zillions bytes of data at the network edge. Driving by this trend, there is an urgent need to push the AI frontiers to the network edge so as to fully unleash the potential of the edge big data. To meet this demand, edge computing, an emerging paradigm that pushes computing tasks and services from the network core to the network edge, has been widely recognized as a promising solution. The resulted new interdiscipline, edge AI or edge intelligence (EI), is beginning to receive a tremendous amount of interest. However, research on EI is still in its infancy stage, and a dedicated venue for exchanging the recent advances of EI is highly desired by both the computer system and AI communities. To this end, we conduct a comprehensive survey of the recent research efforts on EI. Specifically, we first review the background and motivation for AI running at the network edge. We then provide an overview of the overarching architectures, frameworks, and emerging key technologies for deep learning model toward training/inference at the network edge. Finally, we discuss future research opportunities on EI. We believe that this survey will elicit escalating attentions, stimulate fruitful discussions, and inspire further research ideas on EI.

527 citations


Posted Content
Tian Li1, Anit Kumar Sahu, Manzil Zaheer, Maziar Sanjabi  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
14 Dec 2018-arXiv: Learning
Abstract: Federated Learning is a distributed learning paradigm with two key challenges that differentiate it from traditional distributed optimization: (1) significant variability in terms of the systems characteristics on each device in the network (systems heterogeneity), and (2) non-identically distributed data across the network (statistical heterogeneity). In this work, we introduce a framework, FedProx, to tackle heterogeneity in federated networks. FedProx can be viewed as a generalization and re-parametrization of FedAvg, the current state-of-the-art method for federated learning. While this re-parameterization makes only minor modifications to the method itself, these modifications have important ramifications both in theory and in practice. Theoretically, we provide convergence guarantees for our framework when learning over data from non-identical distributions (statistical heterogeneity), and while adhering to device-level systems constraints by allowing each participating device to perform a variable amount of work (systems heterogeneity). Practically, we demonstrate that FedProx allows for more robust convergence than FedAvg across a suite of realistic federated datasets. In particular, in highly heterogeneous settings, FedProx demonstrates significantly more stable and accurate convergence behavior relative to FedAvg---improving absolute test accuracy by 22% on average.

483 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Mingzhe Chen1, Zhaohui Yang2, Walid Saad3, Changchuan Yin4  +2 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: In this article, the problem of training federated learning (FL) algorithms over a realistic wireless network is studied. In the considered model, wireless users execute an FL algorithm while training their local FL models using their own data and transmitting the trained local FL models to a base station (BS) that generates a global FL model and sends the model back to the users. Since all training parameters are transmitted over wireless links, the quality of training is affected by wireless factors such as packet errors and the availability of wireless resources. Meanwhile, due to the limited wireless bandwidth, the BS needs to select an appropriate subset of users to execute the FL algorithm so as to build a global FL model accurately. This joint learning, wireless resource allocation, and user selection problem is formulated as an optimization problem whose goal is to minimize an FL loss function that captures the performance of the FL algorithm. To seek the solution, a closed-form expression for the expected convergence rate of the FL algorithm is first derived to quantify the impact of wireless factors on FL. Then, based on the expected convergence rate of the FL algorithm, the optimal transmit power for each user is derived, under a given user selection and uplink resource block (RB) allocation scheme. Finally, the user selection and uplink RB allocation is optimized so as to minimize the FL loss function. Simulation results show that the proposed joint federated learning and communication framework can improve the identification accuracy by up to 1.4%, 3.5% and 4.1%, respectively, compared to: 1) An optimal user selection algorithm with random resource allocation, 2) a standard FL algorithm with random user selection and resource allocation, and 3) a wireless optimization algorithm that minimizes the sum packet error rates of all users while being agnostic to the FL parameters.

403 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In recent years, mobile devices are equipped with increasingly advanced sensing and computing capabilities. Coupled with advancements in Deep Learning (DL), this opens up countless possibilities for meaningful applications, e.g., for medical purposes and in vehicular networks. Traditional cloud-based Machine Learning (ML) approaches require the data to be centralized in a cloud server or data center. However, this results in critical issues related to unacceptable latency and communication inefficiency. To this end, Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) has been proposed to bring intelligence closer to the edge, where data is produced. However, conventional enabling technologies for ML at mobile edge networks still require personal data to be shared with external parties, e.g., edge servers. Recently, in light of increasingly stringent data privacy legislations and growing privacy concerns, the concept of Federated Learning (FL) has been introduced. In FL, end devices use their local data to train an ML model required by the server. The end devices then send the model updates rather than raw data to the server for aggregation. FL can serve as an enabling technology in mobile edge networks since it enables the collaborative training of an ML model and also enables DL for mobile edge network optimization. However, in a large-scale and complex mobile edge network, heterogeneous devices with varying constraints are involved. This raises challenges of communication costs, resource allocation, and privacy and security in the implementation of FL at scale. In this survey, we begin with an introduction to the background and fundamentals of FL. Then, we highlight the aforementioned challenges of FL implementation and review existing solutions. Furthermore, we present the applications of FL for mobile edge network optimization. Finally, we discuss the important challenges and future research directions in FL.

400 citations


Posted Content
Sebastian Caldas1, Peter Wu, Tian Li, Jakub Konečný  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
03 Dec 2018-arXiv: Learning
TL;DR: LEAF is proposed, a modular benchmarking framework for learning in federated settings that includes a suite of open-source federated datasets, a rigorous evaluation framework, and a set of reference implementations, all geared towards capturing the obstacles and intricacies of practical federated environments.
Abstract: Modern federated networks, such as those comprised of wearable devices, mobile phones, or autonomous vehicles, generate massive amounts of data each day. This wealth of data can help to learn models that can improve the user experience on each device. However, the scale and heterogeneity of federated data presents new challenges in research areas such as federated learning, meta-learning, and multi-task learning. As the machine learning community begins to tackle these challenges, we are at a critical time to ensure that developments made in these areas are grounded with realistic benchmarks. To this end, we propose LEAF, a modular benchmarking framework for learning in federated settings. LEAF includes a suite of open-source federated datasets, a rigorous evaluation framework, and a set of reference implementations, all geared towards capturing the obstacles and intricacies of practical federated environments.

353 citations


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