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# Adaptive Filter Theory

01 Jan 1986-

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors propose a recursive least square adaptive filter (RLF) based on the Kalman filter, which is used as the unifying base for RLS Filters.

Abstract: Background and Overview. 1. Stochastic Processes and Models. 2. Wiener Filters. 3. Linear Prediction. 4. Method of Steepest Descent. 5. Least-Mean-Square Adaptive Filters. 6. Normalized Least-Mean-Square Adaptive Filters. 7. Transform-Domain and Sub-Band Adaptive Filters. 8. Method of Least Squares. 9. Recursive Least-Square Adaptive Filters. 10. Kalman Filters as the Unifying Bases for RLS Filters. 11. Square-Root Adaptive Filters. 12. Order-Recursive Adaptive Filters. 13. Finite-Precision Effects. 14. Tracking of Time-Varying Systems. 15. Adaptive Filters Using Infinite-Duration Impulse Response Structures. 16. Blind Deconvolution. 17. Back-Propagation Learning. Epilogue. Appendix A. Complex Variables. Appendix B. Differentiation with Respect to a Vector. Appendix C. Method of Lagrange Multipliers. Appendix D. Estimation Theory. Appendix E. Eigenanalysis. Appendix F. Rotations and Reflections. Appendix G. Complex Wishart Distribution. Glossary. Abbreviations. Principal Symbols. Bibliography. Index.

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01 May 1993TL;DR: The architecture and learning procedure underlying ANFIS (adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system) is presented, which is a fuzzy inference System implemented in the framework of adaptive networks.

Abstract: The architecture and learning procedure underlying ANFIS (adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system) is presented, which is a fuzzy inference system implemented in the framework of adaptive networks. By using a hybrid learning procedure, the proposed ANFIS can construct an input-output mapping based on both human knowledge (in the form of fuzzy if-then rules) and stipulated input-output data pairs. In the simulation, the ANFIS architecture is employed to model nonlinear functions, identify nonlinear components on-line in a control system, and predict a chaotic time series, all yielding remarkable results. Comparisons with artificial neural networks and earlier work on fuzzy modeling are listed and discussed. Other extensions of the proposed ANFIS and promising applications to automatic control and signal processing are also suggested. >

15,085 citations

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TL;DR: Following the discussion of interference temperature as a new metric for the quantification and management of interference, the paper addresses three fundamental cognitive tasks: radio-scene analysis, channel-state estimation and predictive modeling, and the emergent behavior of cognitive radio.

Abstract: Cognitive radio is viewed as a novel approach for improving the utilization of a precious natural resource: the radio electromagnetic spectrum. The cognitive radio, built on a software-defined radio, is defined as an intelligent wireless communication system that is aware of its environment and uses the methodology of understanding-by-building to learn from the environment and adapt to statistical variations in the input stimuli, with two primary objectives in mind: /spl middot/ highly reliable communication whenever and wherever needed; /spl middot/ efficient utilization of the radio spectrum. Following the discussion of interference temperature as a new metric for the quantification and management of interference, the paper addresses three fundamental cognitive tasks. 1) Radio-scene analysis. 2) Channel-state estimation and predictive modeling. 3) Transmit-power control and dynamic spectrum management. This work also discusses the emergent behavior of cognitive radio.

12,172 citations

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TL;DR: An overview of beamforming from a signal-processing perspective is provided, with an emphasis on recent research.

Abstract: An overview of beamforming from a signal-processing perspective is provided, with an emphasis on recent research. Data-independent, statistically optimum, adaptive, and partially adaptive beamforming are discussed. Basic notation, terminology, and concepts are included. Several beamformer implementations are briefly described. >

4,122 citations

### Cites methods from "Adaptive Filter Theory"

...We refer you to texts on adaptive filtering for detailed descriptions and analysis (Widrow and Stearns 119851, Haykin [19861, Alexander [1986], Treichler et al. [1987], and others)....

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...We refer you to texts on adaptive filtering for detailed descriptions and analysis (Widrow and Stearns 119851, Haykin [19861, Alexander [1986], Treichler et al....

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01 Oct 2000TL;DR: The unscented Kalman filter (UKF) as discussed by the authors was proposed by Julier and Uhlman (1997) for nonlinear control problems, including nonlinear system identification, training of neural networks, and dual estimation.

Abstract: This paper points out the flaws in using the extended Kalman filter (EKE) and introduces an improvement, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), proposed by Julier and Uhlman (1997). A central and vital operation performed in the Kalman filter is the propagation of a Gaussian random variable (GRV) through the system dynamics. In the EKF the state distribution is approximated by a GRV, which is then propagated analytically through the first-order linearization of the nonlinear system. This can introduce large errors in the true posterior mean and covariance of the transformed GRV, which may lead to sub-optimal performance and sometimes divergence of the filter. The UKF addresses this problem by using a deterministic sampling approach. The state distribution is again approximated by a GRV, but is now represented using a minimal set of carefully chosen sample points. These sample points completely capture the true mean and covariance of the GRV, and when propagated through the true nonlinear system, captures the posterior mean and covariance accurately to the 3rd order (Taylor series expansion) for any nonlinearity. The EKF in contrast, only achieves first-order accuracy. Remarkably, the computational complexity of the UKF is the same order as that of the EKF. Julier and Uhlman demonstrated the substantial performance gains of the UKF in the context of state-estimation for nonlinear control. Machine learning problems were not considered. We extend the use of the UKF to a broader class of nonlinear estimation problems, including nonlinear system identification, training of neural networks, and dual estimation problems. In this paper, the algorithms are further developed and illustrated with a number of additional examples.

3,903 citations