Adaptive packet video streaming over P2P networks
TL;DR: An adaptive scheme for video streaming over P2P network is proposed that encompasses an efficient mechanism for the selection and the maintenance of sender peers nodes and allows maximizing streaming qualities at the reception peer.
Abstract: Our concern in this paper is the real-time streaming of IP packet video. We consider the scenario where we have multiple senders that stream the same video to single receiver over Peer-to-Peer networks. We propose an adaptive scheme for video streaming over P2P network that encompasses an efficient mechanism for the selection and the maintenance of sender peers nodes. Furthermore, we perform active measurements of links between the receiver and stream senders in order to optimize the overall video quality. Finally, the evaluation conducted over ns2 simulations shows that our solution allows to efficiently utilize available network bandwidth of sending peers and allow maximizing streaming qualities at the reception peer.
Summary (2 min read)
- Content sharing between communities has revolutionized the Internet.
- The receiver peer orchestrates the overall streaming mechanism by selecting potential candidate and active peers.
- P2P networks are widely used for multimedia streaming.
- Inter packet delay/jitter plays major role in streaming applications.
3. Multiple Description Coding
- Multiple description coding (MDC)  and Layered Coding (LC) are used for Audio/Video coding.
- Multiple description coding is a method of encoding the audio and video signals into many different streams.
- Base Layer is one of the most important layers while all other layers “enhanced layers” are referenced to base layer.
- MDC greatly improves error resilience because each description can be decoded independent to other descriptions.
- This feature of MDC makes it highly applicable for MPEG-4 video packets transmission over noisy networks/flash crowded networks when there is more possibility to loose more video packets.
4. Adaptive mechanism for P2P packet video streaming
- The authors are dealing with the problem of unicast, where a single receiver intended to receive media contents from many sender peers in P2P network.
- It leads to extra overhead of establishing and monitoring of too many peers and also for reconstruction of all the video packets before decoding at the receiving end.
- It’s not necessary that all the nodes having requested contents must cooperate for content sharing.
- Receiver peer selects a sub-set of candidate peers to start streaming video packets.
- These selected peers are called active peers also shown is Figure 1.
4.1 Peer Selection Mechanism
- Peer selection is an important part of media streaming in P2P networks as the dynamics and diversity between peers can vary with the passage of time which is effected by the facts 1) a sending peer Proceedings of the 11th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC'06).
- 0-7695-2588-1/06 $20.00 © 2006 IEEE crash/stop contributing the media content: 2) shared bandwidth is changed: 3) some new peer enter in the system providing better bandwidth share and low RTT (round trip time) value: 4) heavy traffic can cause more packet loss, high inter packets delay which ultimately causes low QoS (quality of Service).
- It’s not necessary that this super node is not acting as server but it is used as transport node.
- Receiver peer categorize all the candidate peers according to their “RTT” value and super node index.
- For this study, the authors propose the selection criteria based on “RTT” after performing exhaustive tests to calculate some performance metrics such as “RTT” and “number of hops”, details are not presented in this paper.
4.2 Stream Switching Mechanism
- P2P networks are not reliable due to their dynamic nature i.e., any peer can enter or leave the network without prior notification.
- The “RTT” usage is not affected by this transient congestion since the authors shape this value.
- It is an Exponential Smoothing technique that employs one exponential smoothing parameter to give more weight to recent observations and less weight to older observations and vice-versa as presented in the Eq.
- As the authors proposed MDC for data encoding ,so Receiver node receives different descriptions from active peers which are decoded after combining to achieve better quality.
- 2) For the second case stream switching can be done when any new peer node enter in the system having much lesser “RTT” value than that of existing active peers.
5 Performance Evaluation
- This section presents the simulated results of the proposed adaptive packet video streaming mechanism.
- The authors performed intensive simulations to validate the results of their proposed scheme using NS-2 simulator .
5.1 Network Models
- The network model considered for simulations is given in Figure 2.
- Each sending peer sends different descriptions of original video file, which are reconstructed at receiver node “R”.
- The overall video throughput of the different MDC layers is given in Figure 3.
- To compare the effect of their adaptation mechanism, the authors simulate two scenarios, also for making the scenarios simple, the topology is static.
- The authors proposed a quality adaptive streaming mechanism for P2P networks.
- The presented solution based on active measurement of “RTT” value allows us to perform smooth quality adaptation for streaming of IP packet video.
- The mechanism used is receiver-centric i.e., receiver peer is in charge for Proceedings of the 11th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC'06).
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Cites background or methods from "Adaptive packet video streaming ove..."
...Our proposed quality adaptive streaming mechanism [ 12 ] is based on the End-to-End “RTT” estimation among the receiver peer and sender peers....
...Even though the problem has been already studied in the literature [11, 12 ,13,14], works on P2P media streaming systems is still in the early stages, and for a P2P streaming to be enhanced, important research efforts and investigations are still required....
Cites background from "Adaptive packet video streaming ove..."
...While there has been prior work on active monitoring that demonstrates various advantages , we believe the performance gain of our passive system outweighs the potential benefits of an active one....
"Adaptive packet video streaming ove..." refers background in this paper
...In some prior studies  only one sender is used for streaming media content to one or large number of receivers which is case for multicast but we are concentrating for the problem where a single user or receiving peer can receive media content from multiple senders....
"Adaptive packet video streaming ove..." refers methods in this paper
...To overcome these limitations, both Multiple Description Coding (MDC)  and Layered Coding (LC) are proposed for Audio/Video coding....
"Adaptive packet video streaming ove..." refers methods in this paper
...On the other hand, multi-tree approach are used in coopnet , splitStream ....
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Frequently Asked Questions (1)
Q1. What are the contributions mentioned in the paper "Adaptive packet video streaming over p2p networks using active measurements" ?
In this paper the authors consider the problem of real-time streaming of IP packet video over Peer-to-Peer networks ( P2P ) from multiple senders to a single receiver. The authors present the design and evaluation of a quality adaptation streaming mechanism in a multi-source streaming to a single receiver. The authors used video traffic organized as MDC ( Multiple Description Coding ) layers, which provides high error resilient. P2P networks are characterized by a potentially large and highly dynamic population of hosts that join and leave the network frequently.