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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Adaptive protocols for information dissemination in wireless sensor networks

01 Aug 1999-pp 174-185

TL;DR: It is found that the SPIN protocols can deliver 60% more data for a given amount of energy than conventional approaches, and that, in terms of dissemination rate and energy usage, the SPlN protocols perform close to the theoretical optimum.

AbstractIn this paper, we present a family of adaptive protocols, called SPIN (Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation), that efficiently disseminates information among sensors in an energy-constrained wireless sensor network. Nodes running a SPIN communication protocol name their data using high-level data descriptors, called meta-data. They use meta-data negotiations to eliminate the transmission of redundant data throughout the network. In addition, SPIN nodes can base their communication decisions both upon application-specific knowledge of the data and upon knowledge of the resources that are available to them. This allows the sensors to efficiently distribute data given a limited energy supply. We simulate and analyze the performance of two specific SPIN protocols, comparing them to other possible approaches and a theoretically optimal protocol. We find that the SPIN protocols can deliver 60% more data for a given amount of energy than conventional approaches. We also find that, in terms of dissemination rate and energy usage, the SPlN protocols perform close to the theoretical optimum.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The concept of sensor networks which has been made viable by the convergence of micro-electro-mechanical systems technology, wireless communications and digital electronics is described.
Abstract: This paper describes the concept of sensor networks which has been made viable by the convergence of micro-electro-mechanical systems technology, wireless communications and digital electronics. First, the sensing tasks and the potential sensor networks applications are explored, and a review of factors influencing the design of sensor networks is provided. Then, the communication architecture for sensor networks is outlined, and the algorithms and protocols developed for each layer in the literature are explored. Open research issues for the realization of sensor networks are also discussed.

17,354 citations


Cites background or methods from "Adaptive protocols for information ..."

  • ...SPIN [35] Sends data to sensor nodes only if they are interested; has three types of messages, i....

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  • ...There are two approaches used for interest dissemination: sinks broadcast the interest [39], and sensor nodes broadcast an advertisement for the available data [35] and wait for a request from the interested sinks....

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  • ...However, it has several deficiencies such as [35]:...

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  • ...(SPIN): A family of adaptive protocols called SPIN [35] is designed to address the deficiencies of classic flooding by negotiation and resource adaptation....

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  • ...Note that SPIN is based on data-centric routing [35] where the sensor nodes broadcast an advertisement for the available data and wait for a request from interested sinks....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The current state of the art of sensor networks is captured in this article, where solutions are discussed under their related protocol stack layer sections.
Abstract: The advancement in wireless communications and electronics has enabled the development of low-cost sensor networks. The sensor networks can be used for various application areas (e.g., health, military, home). For different application areas, there are different technical issues that researchers are currently resolving. The current state of the art of sensor networks is captured in this article, where solutions are discussed under their related protocol stack layer sections. This article also points out the open research issues and intends to spark new interests and developments in this field.

13,726 citations


Cites background or methods from "Adaptive protocols for information ..."

  • ...With this respect, data aggregation is known as data fusion [ 15 ]....

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  • ...For attribute based naming, the users are more interested in querying an � Figure 4. a) The power efficiency of the routes; b) an example of data aggregation; c) the SPIN protocol [ 15 ]; d) an example of directed diffusion [5]....

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  • ...However, it has several deficiencies such as [ 15 ]: • Implosion: Implosion is a situation where duplicated messages are sent to the same node....

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  • ...Note that SPIN is based on data-centric routing [ 15 ] where the sensor nodes broadcast an advertisement for the available data and wait for a request from interested sinks....

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  • ...A family of adaptive protocols called Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation (SPIN) [ 15 ] is designed to address the deficiencies of classic flooding by negotiation and resource adaptation....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
04 Jan 2000
TL;DR: The Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) as mentioned in this paper is a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network.
Abstract: Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have significant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our findings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multi-hop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show the LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional outing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated.

11,951 citations

01 Jan 2000
TL;DR: LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network, is proposed.
Abstract: Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have signicant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our ndings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multihop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster base stations (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show that LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional routing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated.

11,410 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work develops and analyzes low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH), a protocol architecture for microsensor networks that combines the ideas of energy-efficient cluster-based routing and media access together with application-specific data aggregation to achieve good performance in terms of system lifetime, latency, and application-perceived quality.
Abstract: Networking together hundreds or thousands of cheap microsensor nodes allows users to accurately monitor a remote environment by intelligently combining the data from the individual nodes. These networks require robust wireless communication protocols that are energy efficient and provide low latency. We develop and analyze low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH), a protocol architecture for microsensor networks that combines the ideas of energy-efficient cluster-based routing and media access together with application-specific data aggregation to achieve good performance in terms of system lifetime, latency, and application-perceived quality. LEACH includes a new, distributed cluster formation technique that enables self-organization of large numbers of nodes, algorithms for adapting clusters and rotating cluster head positions to evenly distribute the energy load among all the nodes, and techniques to enable distributed signal processing to save communication resources. Our results show that LEACH can improve system lifetime by an order of magnitude compared with general-purpose multihop approaches.

9,655 citations


Cites background or methods from "Adaptive protocols for information ..."

  • ...We added a Resource-Adaptive Node [41] to ns, as shown in Figure A-2....

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  • ...With this goal in mind, the authors in [41] developed SPIN (Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation), a family of protocols to disseminate information in a wireless microsensor network....

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  • ...Recently, there has been a great deal of work on application-controlled routing [3, 41, 48]....

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  • ...Similarly, the SPIN [41] and directed di usion [48] protocols use application-speci c data naming and routing to achieve energy e ciency in a wireless microsensor network....

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  • ...Internet delivery [8], application-controlled routing [3, 41, 48], wireless multimedia delivery [46, 49], and protocol frameworks for active wireless networks [53]....

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"Adaptive protocols for information ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Recently, mobile ad hoc routing protocols have become an active area of research [3, 10, 16, 18, 22]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
09 Apr 1997
TL;DR: The proposed protocol is a new distributed routing protocol for mobile, multihop, wireless networks that is highly adaptive, efficient and scalable; being best-suited for use in large, dense, mobile networks.
Abstract: We present a new distributed routing protocol for mobile, multihop, wireless networks. The protocol is one of a family of protocols which we term "link reversal" algorithms. The protocol's reaction is structured as a temporally-ordered sequence of diffusing computations; each computation consisting of a sequence of directed link reversals. The protocol is highly adaptive, efficient and scalable; being best-suited for use in large, dense, mobile networks. In these networks, the protocol's reaction to link failures typically involves only a localized "single pass" of the distributed algorithm. This capability is unique among protocols which are stable in the face of network partitions, and results in the protocol's high degree of adaptivity. This desirable behavior is achieved through the novel use of a "physical or logical clock" to establish the "temporal order" of topological change events which is used to structure (or order) the algorithm's reaction to topological changes. We refer to the protocol as the temporally-ordered routing algorithm (TORA).

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"Adaptive protocols for information ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Recently, mobile ad hoc routing protocols have become an active area of research [3, 10, 16, 18, 22]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1987
TL;DR: This paper descrikrs several randomized algorit, hms for dist,rihut.ing updates and driving t,he replicas toward consist,c>nc,y.
Abstract: Whru a dilt~lhSC is replicated at, many sites2 maintaining mutual consistrnry among t,he sites iu the fac:e of updat,es is a signitirant problem. This paper descrikrs several randomized algorit,hms for dist,rihut.ing updates and driving t,he replicas toward consist,c>nc,y. The algorit Inns are very simple and require few guarant,ees from the underlying conllllunicat.ioll system, yc+ they rnsutc t.hat. the off(~c~t, of (‘very update is evcnt,uwlly rf+irt-ted in a11 rq1ica.s. The cost, and parformancc of t,hr algorithms arc tuned I>? c%oosing appropriat,c dist,rilMions in t,hc randoinizat,ioii step. TIN> idgoritlmls ilr(’ c*los~*ly analogoIls t,o epidemics, and t,he epidcWliolog)litc\ratiirc, ilitlh iii Illld~~rsti4lldill~ tlicir bc*liavior. One of tlW i$,oritlims 11&S brc>n implrmcWrd in the Clraringhousr sprv(brs of thr Xerox C’orporat~c~ Iiitcrnc4, solviiig long-standing prol>lf~lns of high traffic and tlatirl>ilsr inconsistcllcp.

1,871 citations


"Adaptive protocols for information ..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Using gossiping and broadcasting algorithms to disseminate information in distributed systems has been extensively explored in the literature, often as epidemic algorithms [6]....

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  • ...In [1, 6], gossiping is used to maintain database consistency, while in [18], gossiping is used as a mechanism to achieve fault tolerance....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors specify extensions to two common internetwork routing algorithms (distancevector routing and link-state routing) to support low-delay datagram multicasting beyond a single LAN, and discuss how the use of multicast scope control and hierarchical multicast routing allows the multicast service to scale up to large internetworks.
Abstract: Multicasting, the transmission of a packet to a group of hosts, is an important service for improving the efficiency and robustness of distributed systems and applications. Although multicast capability is available and widely used in local area networks, when those LANs are interconnected by store-and-forward routers, the multicast service is usually not offered across the resulting internetwork. To address this limitation, we specify extensions to two common internetwork routing algorithms—distance-vector routing and link-state routing—to support low-delay datagram multicasting beyond a single LAN. We also describe modifications to the single-spanning-tree routing algorithm commonly used by link-layer bridges, to reduce the costs of multicasting in large extended LANs. Finally, we discuss how the use of multicast scope control and hierarchical multicast routing allows the multicast service to scale up to large internetworks.

1,359 citations