Abstract: A record mentioned in the paper by Moree (Abh Math Sem Univ Hamburg 77:109–127, 2007) was recently improved on by Akbary and Scholten. However, the record mentioned was not the then record. The then record, due to Gallot (2004), actually slightly improves on that obtained recently by Akbary and Scholten.
Abstract: The problem of determining the prime numbers p for which a given number a is a primitive root, modulo JP, is mentioned, for the partieular case a — 10, by Gauss in the section of the Disquisitiones Arithmeticae that is devoted to the periodie deeimal expansions of fraetions with denominator p. Several writers in the nineteenth Century subsequently alluded to the problem, but, since their results were for the most part of an inconclusive nature, we are content to single out from their work the interesting theorem that 2 is a primitive root, modulo p, if p be of the form 4g + l, where q is a prime. The early work, however, was eonfined almost entirely to special cases, it not being until 1927 that the problem was formulated definitely in a general sense. In the latter year the late Emil Artin enunciated the celebrated hypothesis, now usually known äs Artin's conjecture, that for any given non-zero integer a other than l, —l, or a perfect square there exist infinitely many primes p for which is a primitive root, modulo p. Furthermore, letting Na(#) denote the number of such primes up to the limit #, he was led to conjecture an asymptotic formula of the form
Abstract: Suppose fi, f2, -*, fk are polynomials in one variable with all coefficients integral and leading coefficients positive, their degrees being hi, h2, **. , hk respectively. Suppose each of these polynomials is irreducible over the field of rational numbers and no two of them differ by a constant factor. Let Q(fi , f2, ... , fk ; N) denote the number of positive integers n between 1 and IV inclusive such that fi(n) , f2(n), , fk(n) are all primes. (We ignore the finitely many values of n for which some fi(n) is negative.) Then heuristically we would expect to have for N large
Abstract: We introduce a renement of the GPY sieve method for studying prime k-tuples and small gaps between primes. This renement avoids previous limitations of the method and allows us to show that for each k, the prime k-tuples conjecture holds for a positive proportion of admissible k-tuples. In particular, lim infn(pn+m pn) <1 for every integer m. We also show that lim inf(pn+1 pn) 600 and, if we assume the Elliott-Halberstam conjecture, that lim infn(pn+1 pn) 12 and lim infn(pn+2 pn) 600.
Abstract: For any m≥1, let H
denote the quantity . A celebrated recent result of Zhang showed the finiteness of H1, with the explicit bound H1≤70,000,000. This was then improved by us (the Polymath8 project) to H1≤4680, and then by Maynard to H1≤600, who also established for the first time a finiteness result for H
for m≥2, and specifically that H
≪m3e4m. If one also assumes the Elliott-Halberstam conjecture, Maynard obtained the bound H1≤12, improving upon the previous bound H1≤16 of Goldston, Pintz, and Yildirim, as well as the bound H
≪m3e2m. In this paper, we extend the methods of Maynard by generalizing the Selberg sieve further and by performing more extensive numerical calculations. As a consequence, we can obtain the bound H1≤246 unconditionally and H1≤6 under the assumption of the generalized Elliott-Halberstam conjecture. Indeed, under the latter conjecture, we show the stronger statement that for any admissible triple (h1,h2,h3), there are infinitely many n for which at least two of n+h1,n+h2,n+h3 are prime, and also obtain a related disjunction asserting that either the twin prime conjecture holds or the even Goldbach conjecture is asymptotically true if one allows an additive error of at most 2, or both. We also modify the ‘parity problem’ argument of Selberg to show that the H1≤6 bound is the best possible that one can obtain from purely sieve-theoretic considerations. For larger m, we use the distributional results obtained previously by our project to obtain the unconditional asymptotic bound or H
≪m e2m under the assumption of the Elliott-Halberstam conjecture. We also obtain explicit upper bounds for H
Abstract: Fix an integer g≠−1 that is not a perfect square. In 1927, Artin conjectured that there are infinitely many primes for which g is a primitive root. Forty years later, Hooley showed that Artin’s conjecture follows from the generalized Riemann hypothesis (GRH). We inject Hooley’s analysis into the Maynard–Tao work on bounded gaps between primes. This leads to the following GRH-conditional result: Fix an integer m≥2. If q1