Addis Ababa, Ethiopia – Africa’s diplomatic capital
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identify some of the strategic planning elements that the city could adopt as Addis Ababa strives to develop into a premier metropolitan area for a sustainable community and a diplomatic capital.
Abstract: As the national capital, Addis Ababa remains the economic, political and administrative hub of Ethiopia. In the last 50 years, the city has gained international significance as the headquarter of the African Union (AU), UN Economic Commission for Africa (UN-ECA) and a regional office for a number of international organizations including UNDP, UNESCO and the European Economic Commission (EEC). However, like many cities in the developing world, Addis Ababa is facing a number of problems related to population growth, lack of economic opportunities, inadequate infrastructure, shortage of housing, and large areas of informal development with major environmental problems. This profile identifies some of the strategic planning elements that the city could adopt as Addis Ababa strives to develop into a premier metropolitan area for a sustainable community and a diplomatic capital.
TL;DR: In this article, the impact of landscape structure on the variation in LST in the African region as a geospatial approach in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 1986-2016 with fifteen-year intervals was assessed.
Abstract: Urbanization has bloomed across Asia and Africa of late, while two centuries ago, it was confined to developed regions in the largest urban agglomerations. The changing urban landscape can cause irretrievable changes to the biophysical environment, including changes in the spatiotemporal pattern of the land surface temperature (LST). Understanding these variations in the LST will help us introduce appropriate mitigation techniques to overcome negative impacts. The research objective was to assess the impact of landscape structure on the variation in LST in the African region as a geospatial approach in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 1986–2016 with fifteen-year intervals. Land use and land cover (LULC) mapping and LST were derived by using pre-processed Landsat data (Level 2). Gradient analysis was computed for the pattern of the LST from the city center to the rural area, while intensity calculation was facilitated to analyze the magnitude of LST. Directional variation of the LST was not covered by the gradient analysis. Hence, multidirectional and multitemporal LST profiles were employed over the orthogonal and diagonal directions. The result illustrated that Addis Ababa had undergone rapid expansion. In 2016, the impervious surface (IS) had dominated 33.8% of the total lands. The IS fraction ratio of the first zone (URZ1) has improved to 66.2%, 83.7%, and 87.5%, and the mean LST of URZ1 has improved to 25.2 °C, 26.6 °C, and 29.6 °C in 1986, 2001, and 2016, respectively. The IS fraction has gradually been declining from the city center to the rural area. The behavior of the LST is not continually aligning with a pattern of IS similar to other cities along the URZs. After the specific URZs (zone 17, 37, and 41 in 1986, 2001, and 2016, respectively), the mean LST shows an increasing trend because of a fraction of bare land. This trend is different from those of other cities even in the tropical regions. The findings of this study are useful for decision makers to introduce sustainable landscape and urban planning to create livable urban environments in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
TL;DR: Inspired by transition theory, this paper looks for regimes and niches which support retainment of green space and their adaptive capacity based on interviews and workshops with key urban stakeholders in Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam.
Abstract: In this paper we examine the conditions and opportunities for establishing a functional green infrastructure under the pressure of urbanization in Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam. Inspired by transition theory, we look for regimes and niches which support retainment of green space and their adaptive capacity based on interviews and workshops with key urban stakeholders. A top-down master planning paradigm combined with a green institutional framework preoccupied with beautification seem to block possibilities of supporting and integrating GI experiments coming from outside the regime. The master plans are vague, outdated before finalised and inefficient for coping with the fast pace of urbanization. In Addis Ababa, despite an emergent recognition of the role of the green infrastructure in the city plan, informal encroachment and planned large scale land-conversions to housing takes place. In Dar es Salaam, that subscribes to, but lacks a functional master plan, the regime seems paralysed and is too fragmented and engrossed with the pressing urbanization problems to prioritize a green infrastructure. For establishing a functional green infrastructure coalition partners from housing, road and urban agriculture authorities but also large land owners, informal settlers, urban farmers and local organisations are needed. Solutions must be attractive also for the actual green space managers − the individual plot- and condominium owners and local groups. Local niche experiments linking up to on-going coping strategies could push forward coalitions as well as generating knowledge on how to retain green areas while addressing water shortages, livelihood and urban farming.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared the type and distribution of land uses in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, between 2006 and 2016 using hand-digitized, ortho-rectified satellite images in Geographic Information Systems (GISs).
Abstract: Urban development is occurring in many Sub-Saharan Africa cities and rapid urbanization is underway in the East African city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In an effort to address urban poverty and increase homeownership opportunities for low and middle-income residents, the City Administration of Addis Ababa initiated a large-scale housing development project in 2005. The project has resulted in the completion of 175,000 units within the city with 132,000 more under construction. To understand the impacts of both rapid growth and the housing program’s impact on the city’s urban form, we compared the type and distribution of land uses in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, between 2006 with 2016 using hand-digitized, ortho-rectified satellite images in Geographic Information Systems (GISs). While residential density has increased, overall density has decreased from 109 people/ha to 98 people/ha. We found that between 2006 and 2016, land occupied by residential housing increased from 33% to 39% and the proportion of informal housing decreased from 57% to 38%. Reflecting the country’s economic prosperity, there was a dramatic increase in the presence of single family housing, particularly on the city’s western side. In 2006, only 1% of residential areas were occupied by high-rise condominiums (4 floors or greater) and this increased to 11% by 2016. The majority of the new, higher density residential developments are located near the eastern edges of the city and this outlying location has significant implications for residents, infrastructure construction, and future development.
TL;DR: In this article, a GIS-based urban spatial scenario design model (USSDM) was applied for modelling the settlement expansion in Addis Ababa, where a business as usual scenario (BAU) and a densification scenario (DENS) were modelled to evaluate the impact of population density on the green infrastructure and the implications of excluding settlement development from flood prone areas.
Abstract: Urban population growth and expansion of settlement areas are among the major challenges that African cities are facing. Addis Ababa's settlement area has been expanding into the city's peripheral area at the expense of losing green infrastructure (GI) of farmland and vegetated areas. The protection of GI is impeded by the lack of foresight information and tools to support urban planning. Therefore, a GIS-based urban spatial scenario design model (USSDM) was applied for modelling the settlement expansion in Addis Ababa. A business as usual scenario (BAU) and a densification scenario (DENS) were modelled to evaluate the impact of population density on the green infrastructure and the implications of excluding settlement development from flood prone areas. Training and workshops were conducted on the use of USSDM in the Addis Ababa master plan review. The results of our study indicated that increasing population density from 166 to 350 inhabitants per hectare would almost halve the losses of the green infrastructure. Moreover, the settlement development in the densification scenario would be located closer to the vicinity of the built-up area rather than spreading along the eastern part of the city, which is currently occupied by farmland in the case of BAU. Densification would also slow down expansion of settlements in river corridors but might expose more inhabitants to flood hazards. USSDM is one of few models in Africa that is designed towards application by urban planners as a tool of assessing the impact of urban development strategies on the surrounding environment.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyze the Ethiopian transition, particularly its social and political dimension based on an urban situation, and contribute to the debate over the right to the city in a dynamic way.
Abstract: This article analyses the Ethiopian transition, particularly its social and political dimension based on an urban situation. It contributes to the debate over the right to the city in a dynamic way...
17 Mar 2002
TL;DR: In this paper, the background of the 1855-1896 period and the Italian occupation of Greece is discussed. But the focus is on the Italian revolution and its subsequent events.
Abstract: Preface to 2nd edition - The background - Unification & independence 1855-1896 - From Adwa to Maychaw 1896-1935 - The Italian occupation 1936-1941 - From liberation to revolution 1941-1974 - Revolution & its Sequel - Conclusion
25 Jun 2012
TL;DR: The first stage of the process through a set of preliminary studies that map the nature of corruption in eight Ethiopian sectors, focusing on three key objectives: 1) develop sector frameworks that enable mapping of the potential areas of corruption on a sector-by-sector basis; 2) map the different forms and types of corrupt practices in the selected sectors; and 3) consider the higher-risk areas and identify appropriate sector or crosscutting responses for government and other stakeholders as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: For decades, corruption in Ethiopia has been discussed only at the margins. Perhaps because many have not experienced corruption as a significant constraint to their lives and businesses, or perhaps because a culture of circumspection has dampened open dialogue, Ethiopia has seen neither the information flows nor the debate on corruption that most other countries have seen in recent years. To address this information gap, the World Bank agreed with the government of Ethiopia and its Federal Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (FEACC) to undertake research and produce an independent overview of corruption, identify follow-up actions to these diagnostics, and articulate the proposed approach in an anti-corruption strategy and action plan for Ethiopia. This publication fulfills the first stage of the process through a set of preliminary studies that map the nature of corruption in eight Ethiopian sectors, focusing on three key objectives: 1) develop sector frameworks that enable mapping of the potential areas of corruption on a sector-by-sector basis; 2) map the different forms and types of corrupt practices in the selected sectors; and 3) consider the higher-risk areas and identify appropriate sector or crosscutting responses for government and other stakeholders.
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to give an analysis of the problems and prospects of housing development in Ethiopia with particular emphasis on the city of Addis Ababa.Design/methodology/approach – The methodology employed here is a descriptive analysis where the source of the data is mainly secondary data. Basic statistical tools are employed in the analyses of the data.Findings – There is a substantial imbalance between the demand for and supply of housing units in Addis Ababa. Accumulated demand for residential housing on the one hand and the low supply of residential land on the other have pushed prices beyond the reach of the majority of the residents in the country including Addis Ababa. Overcoming the housing problem, hence, requires efforts in three main areas: housing demand; housing supply; and institutional framework. Improving the conditions in these areas, in turn, requires the combined efforts of the government of Ethiopia, regional administrations and donor agencies taking the view ...
30 Oct 2004
TL;DR: The state of health and health services and urban growth and decay, urban water supply, urban sanitation and waste management, and pollution are examined.
Abstract: Introduction: The state and development Urban growth and decay Urban water supply Urban sanitation and waste management Pollution The state of health and health services Summary and conclusion Bibliography Index.
22 Jun 2010-World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering
TL;DR: Addis Ababa is one of the highest cities in the world with an average 2400 meters above sea level as discussed by the authors, and it is a dichotomous city with a blend of modern high-rise and deteriorating slum quarters.
Abstract: Addis Ababa is a seat of African Union (AU), United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UN-ECA) and hundreds of embassies and consular representatives. Addis Ababa is one of the highest capitals in the world with an average 2400 meters above sea level. It is dichotomous city with a blend of modern high-rise and deteriorating slum quarters. Water supply and sanitation, waste management and housing are continuing to be serious problems. Forest wood based domestic energy use as well as uncontrolled emissions from mobile and fixed sources has endangered the state of the urban environment. Analysis based on satellite imagery has revealed the deteriorating urban environment within the last three decades. The recently restructured city administration has brought improvements in the condition of the urban environment. However, the overwhelming size of the challenges faced by the city dwarfed their fairly good results. Keywords—Addis Ababa, Urban environment, Slum, Housing, Relocation