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Journal ArticleDOI

Additive manufacturing of PLA structures using fused deposition modelling: Effect of process parameters on mechanical properties and their optimal selection

15 Jun 2017-Materials & Design (Elsevier)-Vol. 124, Iss: 124, pp 143-157
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of build orientation, layer thickness and feed rate on the mechanical performance of PLA samples manufactured with a low-cost 3D printer is investigated, where tensile and three-point bending tests are carried out to determine the mechanical response of the printed specimens.
About: This article is published in Materials & Design.The article was published on 2017-06-15. It has received 877 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Ductility.
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TL;DR: Polymers are by far the most utilized class of materials for AM and their design, additives, and processing parameters as they relate to enhancing build speed and improving accuracy, functionality, surface finish, stability, mechanical properties, and porosity are addressed.
Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) alias 3D printing translates computer-aided design (CAD) virtual 3D models into physical objects. By digital slicing of CAD, 3D scan, or tomography data, AM builds objects layer by layer without the need for molds or machining. AM enables decentralized fabrication of customized objects on demand by exploiting digital information storage and retrieval via the Internet. The ongoing transition from rapid prototyping to rapid manufacturing prompts new challenges for mechanical engineers and materials scientists alike. Because polymers are by far the most utilized class of materials for AM, this Review focuses on polymer processing and the development of polymers and advanced polymer systems specifically for AM. AM techniques covered include vat photopolymerization (stereolithography), powder bed fusion (SLS), material and binder jetting (inkjet and aerosol 3D printing), sheet lamination (LOM), extrusion (FDM, 3D dispensing, 3D fiber deposition, and 3D plotting), and 3D bioprinting....

2,136 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the most significant process parameters considered as influencing FDM specimens' tensile, compression, flexural or impact strengths are discussed considering the results presented in the literature, and a necessary distinction between the mechanical properties of material and testing specimens and the mechanical behavior of a FDM end part is also made.

549 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results showed that the interphase layer provided a smooth transition of elastic modulus from steel particles to the polymeric matrix, and a 10% volume fraction of steel particles could enhance the elasticModulus of PLLA polymer by 31%.
Abstract: The objective of this study is to characterize the micromechanical properties of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) composites reinforced by grade 420 stainless steel (SS) particles with a specific focus on the interphase properties. The specimens were manufactured using 3D printing techniques due to its many benefits, including high accuracy, cost effectiveness and customized geometry. The adopted fused filament fabrication resulted in a thin interphase layer with an average thickness of 3 µm. The mechanical properties of each phase, as well as the interphase, were characterized by nanoindentation tests. The effect of matrix degradation, i.e., imperfect bonding, on the elastic modulus of the composite was further examined by a representative volume element (RVE) model. The results showed that the interphase layer provided a smooth transition of elastic modulus from steel particles to the polymeric matrix. A 10% volume fraction of steel particles could enhance the elastic modulus of PLLA polymer by 31%. In addition, steel particles took 37% to 59% of the applied load with respect to the particle volume fraction. We found that degradation of the interphase reduced the elastic modulus of the composite by 70% and 7% under tensile and compressive loads, respectively. The shear modulus of the composite with 10% particles decreased by 36%, i.e., lower than pure PLLA, when debonding occurred.

454 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Jul 2020-Polymers
TL;DR: The most common defects on printed parts, in particular the void formation, surface roughness and poor bonding between fibre and matrix, are explored and an inclusive discussion on the effectiveness of chemical, laser, heat and ultrasound treatments to minimize these drawbacks is provided.
Abstract: Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the fastest-growing additive manufacturing methods used in printing fibre-reinforced composites (FRC). The performances of the resulting printed parts are limited compared to those by other manufacturing methods due to their inherent defects. Hence, the effort to develop treatment methods to overcome these drawbacks has accelerated during the past few years. The main focus of this study is to review the impact of those defects on the mechanical performance of FRC and therefore to discuss the available treatment methods to eliminate or minimize them in order to enhance the functional properties of the printed parts. As FRC is a combination of polymer matrix material and continuous or short reinforcing fibres, this review will thoroughly discuss both thermoplastic polymers and FRCs printed via FDM technology, including the effect of printing parameters such as layer thickness, infill pattern, raster angle and fibre orientation. The most common defects on printed parts, in particular, the void formation, surface roughness and poor bonding between fibre and matrix, are explored. An inclusive discussion on the effectiveness of chemical, laser, heat and ultrasound treatments to minimize these drawbacks is provided by this review.

355 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the additive layer manufacturing (ALM) process is used in the present investigation to manufacture long fibre reinforced composite parts using the MarkOne® 3D-printer, and the results showed that the obtained mechanical properties for ALM composites are not yet comparable to those obtained by traditional methods (pre-pregs).

307 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the properties of FDM parts fabricated by the FDM 1650 were analyzed using a Design of Experiment (DOE) approach, such as raster orientation, air gap, bead width, color and model temperature.
Abstract: Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies provide the ability to fabricate initial prototypes from various model materials. Stratasys Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is a typical RP process that can fabricate prototypes out of ABS plastic. To predict the mechanical behavior of FDM parts, it is critical to understand the material properties of the raw FDM process material, and the effect that FDM build parameters have on anisotropic material properties. This paper characterizes the properties of ABS parts fabricated by the FDM 1650. Using a Design of Experiment (DOE) approach, the process parameters of FDM, such as raster orientation, air gap, bead width, color, and model temperature were examined. Tensile strengths and compressive strengths of directionally fabricated specimens were measured and compared with injection molded FDM ABS P400 material. For the FDM parts made with a 0.003 inch overlap between roads, the typical tensile strength ranged between 65 and 72 percent of the strength of injection molded ABS P400. The compressive strength ranged from 80 to 90 percent of the injection molded FDM ABS. Several build rules for designing FDM parts were formulated based on experimental results.

1,886 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite is used for Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) of thermoplastic matrix CFRP composites.
Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies have been successfully applied in various applications. Fused deposition modeling (FDM), one of the most popular AM techniques, is the most widely used method for fabricating thermoplastic parts those are mainly used as rapid prototypes for functional testing with advantages of low cost, minimal wastage, and ease of material change. Due to the intrinsically limited mechanical properties of pure thermoplastic materials, there is a critical need to improve mechanical properties for FDM-fabricated pure thermoplastic parts. One of the possible methods is adding reinforced materials (such as carbon fibers) into plastic materials to form thermoplastic matrix carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites those could be directly used in the actual application areas, such as aerospace, automotive, and wind energy. This paper is going to present FDM of thermoplastic matrix CFRP composites and test if adding carbon fiber (different content and length) can improve the mechanical properties of FDM-fabricated parts. The CFRP feedstock filaments were fabricated from plastic pellets and carbon fiber powders for FDM process. After FDM fabrication, effects on the tensile properties (including tensile strength, Young's modulus, toughness, yield strength, and ductility) and flexural properties (including flexural stress, flexural modulus, flexural toughness, and flexural yield strength) of specimens were experimentally investigated. In order to explore the parts fracture reasons during tensile and flexural tests, fracture interface of CFRP composite specimens after tensile testing and flexural testing was observed and analyzed using SEM micrograph.

1,133 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, five important process parameters such as layer thickness, orientation, raster angle, Raster width and air gap are considered and their influence on three responses such as tensile, flexural and impact strength of test specimen is studied.

1,001 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the research carried out so far in determining and optimizing the process parameters of the FDM process can be found in this paper, where several statistical designs of experiments and optimization techniques used for the determination of optimum process parameters have been examined.
Abstract: Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the most popular additive manufacturing technologies for various engineering applications. FDM process has been introduced commercially in early 1990s by Stratasys Inc., USA. The quality of FDM processed parts mainly depends on careful selection of process variables. Thus, identification of the FDM process parameters that significantly affect the quality of FDM processed parts is important. In recent years, researchers have explored a number of ways to improve the mechanical properties and part quality using various experimental design techniques and concepts. This article aims to review the research carried out so far in determining and optimizing the process parameters of the FDM process. Several statistical designs of experiments and optimization techniques used for the determination of optimum process parameters have been examined. The trends for future FDM research in this area are described.

925 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The RepRap as discussed by the authors is an open-source self-replicating rapid prototyper that makes 3D polymer-based printers readily available to the public at low costs.

911 citations