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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15583058.2019.1627442

Adobe Blocks in the Center of Portugal: Main Characteristics

04 Mar 2021-International Journal of Architectural Heritage (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 15, Iss: 3, pp 467-478
Abstract: Earth construction is the oldest building practice known. The adobe is a simple and sustainable type of earth construction. Many of adobe buildings are in an advanced state of degradation due to th...

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Topics: Adobe (67%)
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8 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU12229649
01 Nov 2020-Sustainability
Abstract: This research addresses the performance gap between intentions towards a sustainable conservation of built heritage and its actual implementation. Socio-psychological models of human behaviour, such as the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), have been studying this dissonance between intention and behaviour, and allow to recognise latent critical factors. This paper provides a systematic literature review of research publications on the intersection of the topics of human behaviour, heritage, and sustainability. It aims to analyse how the TPB has been used in the field of sustainable conservation of built heritage. The studies are categorised according to the type of heritage, main actors targeted, aims, and methodology. A total of 140 publications were analysed. The results show a recent field of research. In the domain of built heritage conservation, behaviour is commonly addressed as a synonym of performance, targeting the building itself. Most publications relating socio-psychological constructs of behaviour and heritage sustainability can be found in the tourism and hospitality field, focusing on tourists’ and residents’ behaviours. The review shows that practitioners are still absent from the literature. However, research addressing other stakeholders shows that the theoretical framework can play an important role in the implementation of sustainable conservation practices in the built heritage.

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Topics: Built environment (52%), Sustainability (51%)

9 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BUILDINGS11050200
10 May 2021-Buildings
Abstract: Adobe construction represents 5.3% of the total Portuguese building stock according to the latest National Housing Census. The distribution of these adobe buildings is scattered across the country, with higher density in the central region and in Algarve in the south, where the seismic hazard is highest. A large proportion of these buildings are still in use for residential and commercial purposes and are of historical significance, contributing to the cultural heritage of the country. Adobe buildings are known to exhibit low seismic resistance due to their brittle behavior, thus making them vulnerable to ground shaking and more prone to structural damage that can potentially cause human fatalities. Three buildings with one-story, two-stories, and two-stories plus an attic were numerically modeled using solid and contact elements. Calibration and validation of material properties were carried out following experimental results. A set of 30 ground motion records with bi-directional components were selected, and non-linear time-history analyses were performed until complete collapse occurred. Two novel engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were used, and damage thresholds were proposed. Finally, fragility and fatality vulnerability functions were derived. These functions can be used directly in seismic risk assessment studies.

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Topics: Seismic risk (59%), Adobe (56%), Seismic hazard (56%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15583058.2020.1751343
Adriana Silva1, Inês Oliveira1, Vitor Silva1, José Mirão2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: In Pinhal Novo, Palmela, and neighboring municipalities, southern Lisbon region, there are a great number of small adobe masonry dwellings, made in the first half of the twentieth century. The vern...

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Topics: Adobe (56%), Masonry (55%), Vernacular architecture (53%)

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JOBE.2020.102115
Abstract: In Portugal, rammed earth monolithic walls and adobe masonry were, for several centuries, important construction techniques for dwellings. The frequent unnecessary demolition of these buildings, mainly due to lack of information related to them, lack or inadequate maintenance interventions, and advanced state of degradation, has been leading to great cultural and material loss. To preserve this vernacular built heritage and all the technological knowledge related to it, it is fundamental to understand the constructive technologies. Several earthen buildings from Leiria region were mapped and inspected, and two of them were taken as case studies. This architectural survey allowed studying their construction specificities, main building pathology, and thus contributing to Leiria's vernacular earthen buildings efficient preservation and use.

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Topics: Vernacular architecture (53%), Adobe (50%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.4028/WWW.SCIENTIFIC.NET/KEM.862.56
Abstract: In the restoration field and the cultural heritage, the treatment of colour is very important, being an important factor for the decisions and interventions in historic buildings. However, some of these have not the same recognition and protection by authorities, being really vulnerable, especially against natural phenomena like the earthquakes. After the 2017 Puebla Earthquake, the remainders of the earthen architecture of Jojutla de Juarez were collected to be analysed. Natural clays of the quarries near the town were compared by colorimetry tests with the traditional adobe samples which were collected in the locality. There also were conducted particle size analysis and the Unified Soil Classification System, USCS, to obtain the composition and properties of the soils and the adobe bricks, as well as the additives used, mainly straw as fibre reinforcements of the adobe masonry. One of the factors observed which contributed to change the colorimetric values of the clays was the use of stabilizers like lime, on the other hand, these stabilizers also helped to change the USCS classification of the soils and their cohesive properties.

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1 Citations


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33 results found


OtherDOI: 10.3133/PP391C
01 Jan 1964-
Abstract: -----------------------------------------Introduction.-------------------------------------X-ray analysis ________ --_--_--_----_________ ------Sample preparation and treatment _______________ _ Interpretation---------------------------------Whole rock data ___________________________ _ Carbonate minerals.--------_____ -----_ Disordered cristobalite _________________ _ Total clay minerals __ -------__________ _ Clay fraction data_------------__ ------__ _ Clay minerals present __ ----------------Comparison of X-ray peak sizes _________ _ Estimation of kaolinite and chlorite ______ _ Examples of interpretation __________________ _ ReproducibilitY------------------------------------Long-term reproducibility----__________________ _ Accuracy-comparison with chemical analyses _________ _ Sulfide, sulfate, and carbonate minerals ___________ _ Page

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Topics: Oil shale (52%)

825 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CONBUILDMAT.2011.10.054
Fernando Pacheco-Torgal1, Said Jalali1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Earth construction has received in the last decade an increased attention by the scientific community illustrated by a tenfold increase of the published research articles when compared to the previous decade. Earth construction has a major expression in less developed countries, however, the mimetic temptations towards more polluting construction techniques based on reinforced concrete and fired bricks are likely to favor a change towards a clear unsustainable pattern. In order to disclosure and highlight the importance of earth construction, this article reviews some of the environmental benefits associated with it. It includes an overview about its past and present. It also includes a review about economic issues, non-renewable resource consumption, waste generation, energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and indoor air quality.

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288 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CONBUILDMAT.2014.03.009
Abstract: Earth represents one of the oldest construction materials, which is still utilised both in developed and in developing countries. In this paper a comparison of the mechanical performance of structural elements built in three basic techniques, earth block (adobe) masonry, rammed earth and cob, is presented. In order to gain better knowledge on the structural behaviour under static loads an extensive compression and diagonal compression (shear) test campaign was performed. First compression results showed brittle mechanical behaviour in the case of earth block masonry and rammed earth elements, whereas cob exhibited a very different stress–strain pattern: cob can deform beyond the elastic range with a gradual drop in capacity. Despite its low compressive strength, cob thus presents a relatively good performance within the earthen material range as far as shear behaviour is concerned. The data here reported represents a base for a further investigation on the dynamic behaviour of the three materials considered. The study was carried out within the framework of the project NIKER funded by the European Commission dealing with improving immovable Cultural Heritage assets against the risk of earthquakes.

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Topics: Rammed earth (61%), Masonry (61%), Adobe (58%)

162 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0079-6611(02)00008-3
Abstract: The Northern Iberian margin is a typical example of a continental margin subjected to seasonal highly energetic regime (waves and tides) and receiving inputs of continental sediments via riverine discharges. The principal goal of this study has been to use clay minerals as indicators of sedimentary dynamics in the open shelf system. The distributions of clay mineral in the top layer of the sedimentary cover are shown to be related to their continental sources, but also reflect the influences of winter storms and longshore currents in determining the pathways of sediment transport. The mineralogical composition of the material issuing from the rivers is very similar to the general mineralogical composition of the fine fractions of the seabed sediments. Those deposits that are directly influenced by riverine discharges have higher contents of kaolinite (>20%), whereas those that are not have higher contents of illite (>80%). The available data indicate no significant quantities of terrigenous particles are being discharged from the Spanish rias. Therefore, we conclude that physical processes are controlling the clay mineral distributions and that, despite contributions from the Minho River, the main source of fine detrital particles to the shelf region is the Douro River discharge. These particles settle on the middle shelf, below the 60 m isobath. During storm events these particles are re-suspended and advected northwards to the Galician shelf or into deeper domains. Thus the distributions of the clays indicate there is a net transport of fine sediments both northwards and off-shelf.

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Topics: Terrigenous sediment (62%), Continental margin (59%), Sedimentary rock (56%) ... show more

127 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 2002-

125 Citations


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