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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2021.01.047

African lungfish genome sheds light on the vertebrate water-to-land transition.

04 Mar 2021-Cell (Elsevier)-Vol. 184, Iss: 5
Abstract: Summary Lungfishes are the closest extant relatives of tetrapods and preserve ancestral traits linked with the water-to-land transition. However, their huge genome sizes have hindered understanding of this key transition in evolution. Here, we report a 40-Gb chromosome-level assembly of the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) genome, which is the largest genome assembly ever reported and has a contig and chromosome N50 of 1.60 Mb and 2.81 Gb, respectively. The large size of the lungfish genome is due mainly to retrotransposons. Genes with ultra-long length show similar expression levels to other genes, indicating that lungfishes have evolved high transcription efficacy to keep gene expression balanced. Together with transcriptome and experimental data, we identified potential genes and regulatory elements related to such terrestrial adaptation traits as pulmonary surfactant, anxiolytic ability, pentadactyl limbs, and pharyngeal remodeling. Our results provide insights and key resources for understanding the evolutionary pathway leading from fishes to humans.

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Topics: African lungfish (62%), Lungfish (58%), Protopterus (56%) ... show more
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25 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2021.01.046
X. J. Bi1, Kun Wang2, Liandong Yang1, Hailin Pan  +23 moreInstitutions (5)
04 Mar 2021-Cell
Abstract: Rich fossil evidence suggests that many traits and functions related to terrestrial evolution were present long before the ancestor of lobe- and ray-finned fishes. Here, we present genome sequences of the bichir, paddlefish, bowfin, and alligator gar, covering all major early divergent lineages of ray-finned fishes. Our analyses show that these species exhibit many mosaic genomic features of lobe- and ray-finned fishes. In particular, many regulatory elements for limb development are present in these fishes, supporting the hypothesis that the relevant ancestral regulation networks emerged before the origin of tetrapods. Transcriptome analyses confirm the homology between the lung and swim bladder and reveal the presence of functional lung-related genes in early ray-finned fishes. Furthermore, we functionally validate the essential role of a jawed vertebrate highly conserved element for cardiovascular development. Our results imply the ancestors of jawed vertebrates already had the potential gene networks for cardio-respiratory systems supporting air breathing.

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Topics: Bichir (59%), Vertebrate (59%), Bowfin (53%) ... show more

15 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1098/RSTB.2020.0426
Matthias Stöck1, Matthias Stöck2, Lukáš Kratochvíl3, Heiner Kuhl2  +13 moreInstitutions (14)
Abstract: Triggers and biological processes controlling male or female gonadal differentiation vary in vertebrates, with sex determination (SD) governed by environmental factors or simple to complex genetic mechanisms that evolved repeatedly and independently in various groups. Here, we review sex evolution across major clades of vertebrates with information on SD, sexual development and reproductive modes. We offer an up-to-date review of divergence times, species diversity, genomic resources, genome size, occurrence and nature of polyploids, SD systems, sex chromosomes, SD genes, dosage compensation and sex-biased gene expression. Advances in sequencing technologies now enable us to study the evolution of SD at broader evolutionary scales, and we now hope to pursue a sexomics integrative research initiative across vertebrates. The vertebrate sexome comprises interdisciplinary and integrated information on sexual differentiation, development and reproduction at all biological levels, from genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes, to the organs involved in sexual and sex-specific processes, including gonads, secondary sex organs and those with transcriptional sex-bias. The sexome also includes ontogenetic and behavioural aspects of sexual differentiation, including malfunction and impairment of SD, sexual differentiation and fertility. Starting from data generated by high-throughput approaches, we encourage others to contribute expertise to building understanding of the sexomes of many key vertebrate species. This article is part of the theme issue 'Challenging the paradigm in sex chromosome evolution: empirical and theoretical insights with a focus on vertebrates (Part I)'.

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Topics: Sexual differentiation (54%)

8 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41588-021-00914-Y
30 Aug 2021-Nature Genetics
Abstract: The bowfin (Amia calva) is a ray-finned fish that possesses a unique suite of ancestral and derived phenotypes, which are key to understanding vertebrate evolution. The phylogenetic position of bowfin as a representative of neopterygian fishes, its archetypical body plan and its unduplicated and slowly evolving genome make bowfin a central species for the genomic exploration of ray-finned fishes. Here we present a chromosome-level genome assembly for bowfin that enables gene-order analyses, settling long-debated neopterygian phylogenetic relationships. We examine chromatin accessibility and gene expression through bowfin development to investigate the evolution of immune, scale, respiratory and fin skeletal systems and identify hundreds of gene-regulatory loci conserved across vertebrates. These resources connect developmental evolution among bony fishes, further highlighting the bowfin's importance for illuminating vertebrate biology and diversity in the genomic era.

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Topics: Bowfin (60%), Vertebrate (51%)

4 Citations


Open accessDOI: 10.1016/J.WATBS.2021.11.001
Jian-Fang Gui1, Li Zhou1, Xi-Yin Li1Institutions (1)
22 Nov 2021-
Abstract: Fish biology has been developed for more than 100 years, but some important breakthroughs have been made in the last decade. Early studies commonly concentrated on morphology, phylogenetics, development, growth, reproduction manipulation, and disease control. Recent studies have mostly focused on genetics, molecular biology, genomics, and genome biotechnologies, which have provided a solid foundation for enhancing aquaculture to ensure food security and improving aquatic environments to sustain ecosystem health. Here, we review research advances in five major areas: (1) biological innovations and genomic evolution of four significant fish lineages including non-teleost ray-finned fishes, northern hemisphere sticklebacks, East African cichlid fishes, and East Asian cyprinid fishes; (2) evolutionary fates and consequences of natural polyploid fishes; (3) biological consequences of fish domestication and selection; (4) development and innovation of fish breeding biotechnologies; and (5) applicable approaches and potential of fish genetic breeding biotechnologies. Moreover, five precision breeding biotechniques are examined and discussed in detail including gene editing for the introgression or removal of beneficial or detrimental alleles, use of sex-specific markers for the production of mono-sex populations, controllable primordial germ cell on-off strategy for producing sterile offspring, surrogate broodstock-based strategies to accelerate breeding, and genome incorporation and sexual reproduction regain-based approach to create synthetic polyploids. Based on these scientific and technological advances, we propose a blueprint for genetic improvement and new breed creation for aquaculture species and analyze the potential of these new breeding strategies for improving aquaculture seed industry and strengthening food security.

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Topics: Aquaculture (50%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22041970
Abstract: Since their identification as genomic regulatory elements, Transposable Elements (TEs) were considered, at first, molecular parasites and later as an important source of genetic diversity and regulatory innovations. In vertebrates in particular, TEs have been recognized as playing an important role in major evolutionary transitions and biodiversity. Moreover, in the last decade, a significant number of papers has been published highlighting a correlation between TE activity and exposition to environmental stresses and dietary factors. In this review we present an overview of the impact of TEs in vertebrate genomes, report the silencing mechanisms adopted by host genomes to regulate TE activity, and finally we explore the effects of environmental and dietary factor exposures on TE activity in mammals, which is the most studied group among vertebrates. The studies here reported evidence that several factors can induce changes in the epigenetic status of TEs and silencing mechanisms leading to their activation with consequent effects on the host genome. The study of TE can represent a future challenge for research for developing effective markers able to detect precocious epigenetic changes and prevent human diseases.

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2 Citations


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137 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTP324
Heng Li1, Richard Durbin1Institutions (1)
01 Jul 2009-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Motivation: The enormous amount of short reads generated by the new DNA sequencing technologies call for the development of fast and accurate read alignment programs. A first generation of hash table-based methods has been developed, including MAQ, which is accurate, feature rich and fast enough to align short reads from a single individual. However, MAQ does not support gapped alignment for single-end reads, which makes it unsuitable for alignment of longer reads where indels may occur frequently. The speed of MAQ is also a concern when the alignment is scaled up to the resequencing of hundreds of individuals. Results: We implemented Burrows-Wheeler Alignment tool (BWA), a new read alignment package that is based on backward search with Burrows–Wheeler Transform (BWT), to efficiently align short sequencing reads against a large reference sequence such as the human genome, allowing mismatches and gaps. BWA supports both base space reads, e.g. from Illumina sequencing machines, and color space reads from AB SOLiD machines. Evaluations on both simulated and real data suggest that BWA is ~10–20× faster than MAQ, while achieving similar accuracy. In addition, BWA outputs alignment in the new standard SAM (Sequence Alignment/Map) format. Variant calling and other downstream analyses after the alignment can be achieved with the open source SAMtools software package. Availability: http://maq.sourceforge.net Contact: [email protected]

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Topics: Hybrid genome assembly (54%), Sequence assembly (53%), 2 base encoding (52%) ... show more

35,234 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MOLBEV/MSW054
Sudhir Kumar1, Glen Stecher2, Koichiro Tamura3Institutions (3)
Abstract: We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.

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Topics: Mac OS (56%), Mega- (55%), Microsoft Windows (55%) ... show more

25,894 Citations


Open accessBook
13 Aug 2009-
Abstract: This book describes ggplot2, a new data visualization package for R that uses the insights from Leland Wilkisons Grammar of Graphics to create a powerful and flexible system for creating data graphics. With ggplot2, its easy to: produce handsome, publication-quality plots, with automatic legends created from the plot specification superpose multiple layers (points, lines, maps, tiles, box plots to name a few) from different data sources, with automatically adjusted common scales add customisable smoothers that use the powerful modelling capabilities of R, such as loess, linear models, generalised additive models and robust regression save any ggplot2 plot (or part thereof) for later modification or reuse create custom themes that capture in-house or journal style requirements, and that can easily be applied to multiple plots approach your graph from a visual perspective, thinking about how each component of the data is represented on the final plot. This book will be useful to everyone who has struggled with displaying their data in an informative and attractive way. You will need some basic knowledge of R (i.e. you should be able to get your data into R), but ggplot2 is a mini-language specifically tailored for producing graphics, and youll learn everything you need in the book. After reading this book youll be able to produce graphics customized precisely for your problems,and youll find it easy to get graphics out of your head and on to the screen or page.

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Topics: Data visualization (58%), Graphics (56%)

23,839 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MOLBEV/MST010
Kazutaka Katoh1, Daron M. Standley1Institutions (1)
Abstract: We report a major update of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. This version has several new features, including options for adding unaligned sequences into an existing alignment, adjustment of direction in nucleotide alignment, constrained alignment and parallel processing, which were implemented after the previous major update. This report shows actual examples to explain how these features work, alone and in combination. Some examples incorrectly aligned by MAFFT are also shown to clarify its limitations. We discuss how to avoid misalignments, and our ongoing efforts to overcome such limitations.

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19,901 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTU033
Alexandros Stamatakis1Institutions (1)
01 May 2014-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting postanalyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. Availability and implementation: The code is available under GNU

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Topics: Intrinsics (56%)

18,576 Citations


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