scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Age and gender sensitivities to contingency management and token reinforement strategies on self control levels of remand home inmates in nigeria.

31 May 2017-International journal for innovation education and research (International Journal for Innovation Education and Research)-Vol. 5, Iss: 5, pp 166-183
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined age and gender sensitivities to Contingency Management and Token Reinforcement strategies on Self Control levels of remand home inmates in Nigeria, and found no significant difference on self-control levels of male and female was found as well as that of old and young clients.
Abstract: The study examined Age and Gender Sensitivities to Contingency Management and Token Reinforcement strategies on Self Control levels of Remand home inmates in Nigeria.The study adopted the quasi-experimental non-organized pre-test, post-test and control group involving 3x2 factorial designs. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Seventy two (72) clients formed the sample for the study. Three remand homes- Akure (Ondo state), Osgbo (Osun state) and Ibadan (Oyo state) were purposively sampled for the study. The clients were randomly assigned to two treatment groups and a control group. The first group was treated with Contingency Management while the second with Token reinforcement and the third served as control. Self Control Scale (SCS) was employed in gathering data and descriptive statistics, ANCOVA, and scheffe posthoc analysis were used to analyze the data. The result revealed that both Contingency Management and token reinforcement strategies were adequately effective therapies in enhancing self control levels of the clients. However no significant difference on the self-control levels of male and female was found as well as that of old and young clients, this implies that both male and females as well as old and young clients are sensitive to Contingency Management and Token Reinforcement strategies. On the basis of these findings, it was highly recommended that government at various levels should employ well trained counseling psychologies who are competent in the use of various behavior modification techniques in solving different maladjustment problems among our youths and clients should avail the opportunity of the training exposed to at various homes and realized that both male and female clients deserve the treatment while the old and the young clients need treatment equally. Though the level of their involvement on delinquent behavior differ from one another, however, both need adequate and qualified counseling psychologies in behavior modification techniques

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters
Journal Article
TL;DR: No wonder you activities are, reading will be always needed, it is not only to fulfil the duties that you need to finish in deadline time, but also to encourage your mind and thoughts.
Abstract: No wonder you activities are, reading will be always needed. It is not only to fulfil the duties that you need to finish in deadline time. Reading will encourage your mind and thoughts. Of course, reading will greatly develop your experiences about everything. Reading habitual criminal is also a way as one of the collective books that gives many advantages. The advantages are not only for you, but for the other peoples with those meaningful benefits.

12 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model has been shown to reduce offender recidivism by up to 35% as mentioned in this paper, which describes who should receive services (moderate and higher risk cases), appropriate targets for rehabilitation services (criminogenic needs), and powerful influence strategies for reducing criminal behavior.
Abstract: For over 30 years, criminal justice policy has been dominated by a “get tough” approach to offenders. Increasing punitive measures have failed to reduce criminal recidivism and instead have led to a rapidly growing correctional system that has strained government budgets. The inability of reliance on official punishment to deter crime is understandable within the context of the psychology of human conduct. However, this knowledge was largely ignored in the quest for harsher punishment. A better option for dealing with crime is to place greater effort on the rehabilitation of offenders. In particular, programs that adhere to the Risk-NeedResponsivity (RNR) model have been shown to reduce offender recidivism by up to 35%. The model describes: a) who should receive services (moderate and higher risk cases), b) the appropriate targets for rehabilitation services (criminogenic needs), and c) the powerful influence strategies for reducing criminal behavior (cognitive social learning). Although the RNR model is well known in the correctional field it is less well known, but equally relevant, for forensic, clinical, and counseling psychology. The paper summarizes the empirical base to RNR along with implications for research, policy, and practice.

994 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a meta-analysis compared risk instruments and other psychological measures on their ability to predict general (primarily nonsexual) violence in adults, and found little variation was found amongst the mean effect sizes of common actuarial or structured risk instruments (i.e., Historical, Clinical, and Risk Management Violence Risk Assessment Scheme; Level of Supervision Inventory, Revised; violence risk assessment guide; Statistical Information on Recidivism scale; and Psychopathy Checklist•Revised).
Abstract: Using 88 studies from 1980 to 2006, a meta-analysis compares risk instruments and other psychological measures on their ability to predict general (primarily nonsexual) violence in adults. Little variation was found amongst the mean effect sizes of common actuarial or structured risk instruments (i.e., Historical, Clinical, and Risk Management Violence Risk Assessment Scheme; Level of Supervision Inventory‐Revised; Violence Risk Assessment Guide; Statistical Information on Recidivism scale; and Psychopathy Checklist‐Revised). Third-generation instruments, dynamic risk factors, and file review plus interview methods had the advantage in predicting violent recidivism. Second-generation instruments, static risk factors, and use of file review were the strongest predictors of institutional violence. Measures derived from criminological-related theories or research produced larger effect sizes than did those of less content relevance. Additional research on existing risk instruments is required to provide more precise point estimates, especially regarding the outcome of institutional violence.

391 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on gender and age variations and using various measures of self-control and of crime/deviance, they provide additional evidence concerning the strongest implications of self control theory.
Abstract: Focusing on gender and age variations and using various measures of self-control and of crime/deviance, the authors' provide additional evidence concerning the strongest implications of self-control theory—that self-control interprets the main demo-graphic facts about crime/deviance and is of approximately equal import for all sub-categories of individuals. On one hand, the results are strongly supportive of the theory, showing that some measures of self-control not only predict misbehavior but they interpret the associations between gender and age and measures of crime/deviance. On the other hand, self-control does not appear to predict misbehavior equally well among various subcategories of individuals, particularly not for age groups, even failing to predict misbehavior at all for some groupings. Moreover, sup-port for the strongest claims of the theory are not robust, varying depending on how self-control and crime/deviance are measured.

214 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a reinterpretation of self-control is proposed and seven requirements for its construct-valid measurement are specified, and the authors show that these requirements are more often violated than met.
Abstract: Numerous studies have attempted to test Gottfredson and Hirschi’s General Theory of Crime. The present article outlines the view that virtually every empirical test of the theory is based on serious misinterpretations of its core construct, self-control. A reinterpretation of self-control is proposed and seven requirements for its construct-valid measurement are specified. A review of self-control measures used in previous research shows that these requirements are more often violated than met. As a consequence, the empirical status of self-control theory is held to be still largely unknown, despite all apparent evidence.

171 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used data from the Dunedin New Zealand 1972 birth cohort study to replicate previous findings regarding stability and change in criminal offending between the adolescent and adult years.
Abstract: Recently, Paternoster et al. used data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a longitudinal study of 411 South London boys mostly born in 1953, to investigate the linkage between adolescent and adult offending and found that variations in adult offending were consistent with a random process after conditioning on adolescent offending. In this paper, we test the robustness of this early study across data sources and genders. Here, we use data from the Dunedin New Zealand 1972 birth cohort study to replicate previous findings regarding stability and change in criminal offending between the adolescent and adult years. In particular, our interest centers on the stochastic properties of the adolescent and adult conviction distribution in the cohort and whether the structure of this distribution is similar for males and females. This replication and extension of prior work is especially important since criminologists have little understanding of the pattern of female adolescent offending or how the patterns are linked to adult offending for women. The analysis reveals that variation in adult offending after conditioning on adolescent offending is consistent with a random (Poisson) process. Furthermore, this pattern is evident for both the males and the females in the Dunedin New Zealand 1972 birth cohort.

91 citations