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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/19439962.2019.1634661

Agent-based evacuation simulation from subway train and platform

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Transportation Safety & Security (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 13, Iss: 3, pp 318-339
Abstract: With many people using subways at the same time, subway stations must be appropriately designed to allow people to move smoothly and safely during daily operation and emergency evacuation. The pres...

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Topics: Emergency evacuation (64%)
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8 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH17020560
Zhiqiang Wang1, Jing Huang1, Huimin Wang1, Jinle Kang1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Timely and secure evacuation of residents during flood disasters or other emergency events is an important issue in urban community flood risk management, especially in vulnerable communities. An agent-based modeling framework was proposed in order to indicate how the community properties (e.g., community density and percentage of vulnerable residents), residents' psychological attributes (e.g., flood risk tolerance threshold) and mutual aid mechanism affect the flood evacuation process. Results indicated that: (1) The community density negatively affected the flood evacuation efficiency. The greater the density of the community, the longer the evacuation time. (2) There was a negative correlation between the flood risk tolerance threshold of residents and evacuation efficiency. (3) The proportion of vulnerable resident agents had opposite effects on the evacuation efficiency of different types of communities, which was to negatively affect low-density communities and positively affect high-density communities. (4) Mutual aid mechanism can reduce evacuation time in low-density communities, and the effect was more pronounced with a higher proportion of vulnerable resident agents in the community. These findings can help managers to develop better emergency evacuation management for urban communities.

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Topics: Emergency evacuation (62%), Flood myth (52%), Poison control (51%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SYM12122038
01 Dec 2020-Symmetry
Abstract: The onset of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV2 has changed many aspects of people’s economic and social activities. For many airlines, social distancing has reduced airplane capacity by one third as a result of keeping the middle seats empty. Additionally, social distancing between passengers traversing the aisle slows the boarding process. Recent literature has suggested that the reverse pyramid boarding method provides favorable values for boarding time and passenger health metrics when compared to other boarding methods with social distancing. Assuming reverse pyramid boarding with the middle seats unoccupied, we determined the number of passengers to include in each of three boarding groups. We assumed that passengers use a jet-bridge that connects the airport terminal to the airplane’s front door. We used agent-based modeling and a stochastic simulation to evaluate solutions. A full grid search found an initial good solution, and then local search optimization determined the best solution based upon the airline’s relative preference for minimizing average boarding time and minimizing risks to previously seated passengers from later-boarding, potentially contagious passengers breathing near them. The resulting solution contained the number of passengers to place into each of the three boarding groups. If an airline is most concerned about the health risk to seated passengers from later boarding passengers walking near them, the best three-group reverse pyramid method adapted for social distancing will first board passengers with window seats in the rear half of the airplane, then will board passengers with window seats in the front half of the airplane and those with aisle seats in the rear half of the airplane, and finally will board the passengers with aisle seats in the front half of the airplane. The resulting solution takes about 2% longer to board than the three-group solution that minimizes boarding time while providing a 25% decrease in health risk to aisle seat passengers from later boarding passengers.

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3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12205-021-0206-7
Abstract: Simulation modelling is a necessary tool to analyse pedestrian movement behaviour in order to predict the social and collective behaviour in different situations. Psychological aspects of human behaviour in interacting with the environment is the critical point in the pedestrian simulation context. The affordance theory originated from psychology and humanities is a key concept to address this issue and model the relationship between an agent and his/her environment. This study aims to introduce a prototype of an agent-based model using the affordance concept to simulate the decision-making process during an evacuation. The proposed approach was tested to model the behaviour of evacuees in a platform of a subway station through both normal and emergencies. The results of the test including the evacuation time and flows toward different scenarios, showed that the model can work properly. The proposed approach can yield a useful tool for designers to mention pedestrian movement behaviour in their building designs.

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Topics: Affordance (56%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/19439962.2020.1806423
Abstract: The safety of railways, the nation's main transportation network, is currently drawing attention. This is mainly because of recent terrorist attacks aimed at private multipurpose facilities in a nu...

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Topics: Security management (56%)

1 Citations



References
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31 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/35035023
28 Sep 2000-Nature
Abstract: One of the most disastrous forms of collective human behaviour is the kind of crowd stampede induced by panic, often leading to fatalities as people are crushed or trampled. Sometimes this behaviour is triggered in life-threatening situations such as fires in crowded buildings; at other times, stampedes can arise during the rush for seats or seemingly without cause. Although engineers are finding ways to alleviate the scale of such disasters, their frequency seems to be increasing with the number and size of mass events. But systematic studies of panic behaviour and quantitative theories capable of predicting such crowd dynamics are rare. Here we use a model of pedestrian behaviour to investigate the mechanisms of (and preconditions for) panic and jamming by uncoordinated motion in crowds. Our simulations suggest practical ways to prevent dangerous crowd pressures. Moreover, we find an optimal strategy for escape from a smoke-filled room, involving a mixture of individualistic behaviour and collective 'herding' instinct.

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Topics: Crowd psychology (55%), Crowd simulation (54%), Poison control (51%)

3,892 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.082080899
Abstract: Agent-based modeling is a powerful simulation modeling technique that has seen a number of applications in the last few years, including applications to real-world business problems. After the basic principles of agent-based simulation are briefly introduced, its four areas of application are discussed by using real-world applications: flow simulation, organizational simulation, market simulation, and diffusion simulation. For each category, one or several business applications are described and analyzed.

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Topics: Simulation modeling (59%)

3,500 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0378-4371(01)00141-8
Abstract: We propose a two-dimensional cellular automaton model to simulate pedestrian tra.c. It is a vmax = 1 model with exclusion statistics and parallel dynamics. Long-range interactions between the pedestrians are mediated by a so-called "oor #eld which modi4es the transition rates to neighbouring cells. This 4eld, which can be discrete or continuous, is subject to di7usion and decay. Furthermore it can be modi4ed by the motion ofthe pedestrians. Theref ore, the model uses an idea similar to chemotaxis, but with pedestrians following a virtual rather than a chemical trace. Our main goal is to show that the introduction ofsuch a :oor 4eld is su.cient to model collective e7ects and self-organization encountered in pedestrian dynamics, e.g. lane formation in counter:ow through a large corridor. As an application we also present simulations ofthe evacuation ofa large room with reduced visibility, e.g. due to f ailure oflights or smoke. c 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

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1,462 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1057/JOS.2010.3
Abstract: Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) is a relatively new approach to modelling systems composed of autonomous, interacting agents. Agent-based modelling is a way to model the dynamics of complex systems and complex adaptive systems. Such systems often self-organize themselves and create emergent order. Agent-based models also include models of behaviour (human or otherwise) and are used to observe the collective effects of agent behaviours and interactions. The development of agent modelling tools, the availability of micro-data, and advances in computation have made possible a growing number of agent-based applications across a variety of domains and disciplines. This article provides a brief introduction to ABMS, illustrates the main concepts and foundations, discusses some recent applications across a variety of disciplines, and identifies methods and toolkits for developing agent models.

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1,427 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0378-4371(01)00141-8
Abstract: We propose a 2-dimensional cellular automaton model to simulate pedestrian traffic. It is a vmax=1 model with exclusion statistics and parallel dynamics. Long-range interactions between the pedestrians are mediated by a so called floor field which modifies the transition rates to neighbouring cells. This field, which can be discrete or continuous, is subject to diffusion and decay. Furthermore it can be modified by the motion of the pedestrians. Therefore the model uses an idea similar to chemotaxis, but with pedestrians following a virtual rather than a chemical trace. Our main goal is to show that the introduction of such a floor field is sufficient to model collective effects and self-organization encountered in pedestrian dynamics, e.g. lane formation in counterflow through a large corridor. As an application we also present simulations of the evacuation of a large room with reduced visibility, e.g. due to failure of lights or smoke.

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Topics: Social force model (59%), Cellular automaton (54%)

1,015 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20221
20214
20203