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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/14620316.2020.1812446

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Persian walnut using BADH gene for salt and drought tolerance

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 96, Iss: 2, pp 162-171
Abstract: Transgenic walnuts (Juglans regia L.) were produced in the presence of the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 and the plasmid pBI121. This plasmid contains a BADH gene driven by a CaMV 35S promoter. It f...

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS9112492
Manish Kumar Patel1, Manoj Kumar1, Weiqiang Li2, Yin Luo3  +3 moreInstitutions (5)
17 Nov 2020-Cells
Abstract: Plants grow on soils that not only provide support for root anchorage but also act as a reservoir of water and nutrients important for plant growth and development. However, environmental factors, such as high salinity, hinder the uptake of nutrients and water from the soil and reduce the quality and productivity of plants. Under high salinity, plants attempt to maintain cellular homeostasis through the production of numerous stress-associated endogenous metabolites that can help mitigate the stress. Both primary and secondary metabolites can significantly contribute to survival and the maintenance of growth and development of plants on saline soils. Existing studies have suggested that seed/plant-priming with exogenous metabolites is a promising approach to increase crop tolerance to salt stress without manipulation of the genome. Recent advancements have also been made in genetic engineering of various metabolic genes involved in regulation of plant responses and protection of the cells during salinity, which have therefore resulted in many more basic and applied studies in both model and crop plants. In this review, we discuss the recent findings of metabolic reprogramming, exogenous treatments with metabolites and genetic engineering of metabolic genes for the improvement of plant salt tolerance.

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Topics: Cellular homeostasis (54%)

13 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12870-021-02919-5
22 Mar 2021-BMC Plant Biology
Abstract: The main objectives of this study were to find the possible structural association between the activity of enzymatic antioxidants and the grain yield of triticale plants as well as identifying the genotypic variability which might be effective on this association. Accordingly, expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isozymes (Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, and Fe-SOD) were appraised to distinguish any possible relationship between SOD expression and drought resistance of triticale. A novel analytical method for distinguishing elite genotypes based on measured features was proposed. Additionally, a new programing based on SAS-language (IML) was introduced to estimate the genetic parameters rooted from combined ANOVA model (linear mixed model), which is capable of being used in any field study other than the current one. Thirty genotypes of triticale were studied under normal and drought stress conditions during 6 years (three different locations). Accordingly, based on the results of genetic variability, heatmap analysis, biplot graph, and clustering technique, two genotypes with the highest genetic distance were selected to appraise the differential expression profiling of three SOD isozyme in shoot and root organs. Field experiments and bioinformatics results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD) was the most influential antioxidant in resistance of triticale to drought stress; therefore, it could be used as an indirect selection index in early stages to distinguish resistant genotypes to drought stress. Additionally, Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD showed roughly similar expression levels for both genotypes under drought stress. However, Cu/Zn-SOD expression level was higher in root and shoot of the tolerant genotype than the susceptible genotype. Heatmap analysis that is applied for the first time to screen suitable genotypes, showed to be highly capable of distinguishing elite genotypes and pointing out the proper features for selection criteria. Bioinformatics results indicated that SOD is more important than other enzymatic antioxidant for being considered as selection criteria or candidate gene for transgenic purposes. Based on expressional results, Mn-SOD announced as a general isozyme that is probably highly expressed in most of the species, while, Cu/Zn-SOD was introduced as a genotype specific isozyme that is likely more expressed in tolerant genotypes

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Topics: Genetic variability (53%), Triticale (51%), Heritability (50%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12870-021-02851-8
Jianqiang Mu1, Jianqiang Mu2, Yajuan Fu2, Bucang Liu1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
04 Feb 2021-BMC Plant Biology
Abstract: Saussurea involucrata survives in extreme arctic conditions and is very cold-resistant. This species grows in rocky, mountainous areas with elevations of 2400–4100 m, which are snow-covered year-round and are subject to freezing temperatures. S. involucrata’s ability to survive in an extreme low-temperature environment suggests that it has particularly high photosynthetic efficiency, providing a magnificent model, and rich gene pool, for the analysis of plant cold stress response. Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) is a key enzyme in the photosynthesis process and also mediates the conversion of fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate (FBP) into dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glycerol triphosphate (GAP) during glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. The molecular mechanisms underlying S. involucrata’s cold tolerance are still unclear; therefore, our work aims to investigate the role of FBA in plant cold-stress response. In this study, we identified a cold-responsive gene, SiFBA5, based on a preliminary low-temperature, genome-wide transcriptional profiling of S. involucrata. Expression analysis indicated that cold temperatures rapidly induced transcriptional expression of SiFBA5, suggesting that SiFBA5 participates in the initial stress response. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that SiFBA5 is localized to the chloroplast. Transgenic tomato plants that overexpressed SiFBA5 were generated using a CaMV 35S promoter. Phenotypic observation suggested that the transgenic plants displayed increased cold tolerance and photosynthetic efficiency in comparison with wild-type plants. Cold stress has a detrimental impact on crop yield. Our results demonstrated that SiFBA5 positively regulates plant response to cold stress, which is of great significance for increasing crop yield under cold stress conditions.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPLS.2021.650215
Abstract: Abiotic stresses, mainly salinity and drought, are the most important environmental threats that constrain worldwide food security by hampering plant growth and productivity. Plants cope with the adverse effects of these stresses by implementing a series of morpho-physio-biochemical adaptation mechanisms. Accumulating effective osmo-protectants, such as proline and glycine betaine (GB), is one of the important plant stress tolerance strategies. These osmolytes can trigger plant stress tolerance mechanisms, which include stress signal transduction, activating resistance genes, increasing levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, protecting cell osmotic pressure, enhancing cell membrane integrity, as well as protecting their photosynthetic apparatus, especially the photosystem II (PSII) complex. Genetic engineering, as one of the most important plant biotechnology methods, helps to expedite the development of stress-tolerant plants by introducing the key tolerance genes involved in the biosynthetic pathways of osmolytes into plants. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is one of the important genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of GB, and its introduction has led to an increased tolerance to a variety of abiotic stresses in different plant species. Replacing down-regulated ferredoxin at the acceptor side of photosystem I (PSI) with its isofunctional counterpart electron carrier (flavodoxin) is another applicable strategy to strengthen the photosynthetic apparatus of plants under stressful conditions. Heterologous expression of microbially-sourced flavodoxin (Fld) in higher plants compensates for the deficiency of ferredoxin expression and enhances their stress tolerance. BADH and Fld are multifunctional transgenes that increase the stress tolerance of different plant species and maintain their production under stressful situations by protecting and enhancing their photosynthetic apparatus. In addition to increasing stress tolerance, both BADH and Fld genes can improve the productivity, symbiotic performance, and longevity of plants. Because of the multigenic and complex nature of abiotic stresses, the concomitant delivery of BADH and Fld transgenes can lead to more satisfying results in desired plants, as these two genes enhance plant stress tolerance through different mechanisms, and their cumulative effect can be much more beneficial than their individual ones. The importance of BADH and Fld genes in enhancing plant productivity under stress conditions has been discussed in detail in the present review.

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Topics: Cell osmotic pressure (53%), Osmolyte (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1051/BIOCONF/20202501003
01 Jan 2020-
Abstract: As one of the main origin centers of nut trees, Iran is the fourth leading nut crops producer in the world (6% of total nut production). Due to the high genetic diversity, development of new varieties and rootstocks with desirable characteristics have been highly considered by fruit breeders in Iran. In this regard, molecular breeders concentrate on filling the gaps in the conventional breeding with the aim of accelerating breeding programs. Recent advancements in molecular breeding such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques, high-throughput genotyping platforms and genomics-based approaches including genome wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic selection (GS) have opened up new avenues to enhance the efficiency of nut trees breeding. Over the past decades, Iranian nut crops breeders have successfully used advanced molecular and genomic tools such as molecular markers, genetic transformations and high-throughput genotyping to explore the genetic basis of the desired traits and eventually to develop new varieties and rootstocks. Due to a broad international cooperation, a clear perspective is envisaged for the nut breeding programs in Iran, especially based on new biotechnology techniques. The propagation of nut trees in Iran have also been dramatically improved. Different types of grafting and tissue culture (micropropagation or somatic embryogenesis) techniques for propagation of nut crops have been studied intensively in the last 30 years in Iran and the successful techniques have been commercialized. Several certified nurseries are producing grafted and micropropagation plants of walnut, pistachio and other nut crops commercially. A part of the grafted and micropropagaited plants of nut crops in Iran is being exported to the other countries. Establishing modern orchards of nut crops using new cultivars and rootsocks is presently being advised by professional consultants.

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Topics: Molecular breeding (55%), Nut (51%)

1 Citations


References
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54 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/8.19.4321
Abstract: A method is presented for the rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA (50,000 base pairs or more in length) which is free of contaminants which interfere with complete digestion by restriction endonucleases. The procedure yields total cellular DNA (i.e. nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial DNA). The technique is ideal for the rapid isolation of small amounts of DNA from many different species and is also useful for large scale isolations.

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Topics: Base pair (57%), Mitochondrial DNA (55%), DNA (55%) ... show more

9,598 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ABB.2005.10.018
Shilpi Mahajan1, Narendra Tuteja1Institutions (1)
Abstract: World population is increasing at an alarming rate and is expected to reach about six billion by the end of year 2050. On the other hand food productivity is decreasing due to the effect of various abiotic stresses; therefore minimizing these losses is a major area of concern for all nations to cope with the increasing food requirements. Cold, salinity and drought are among the major stresses, which adversely affect plants growth and productivity; hence it is important to develop stress tolerant crops. In general, low temperature mainly results in mechanical constraint, whereas salinity and drought exerts its malicious effect mainly by disrupting the ionic and osmotic equilibrium of the cell. It is now well known that the stress signal is first perceived at the membrane level by the receptors and then transduced in the cell to switch on the stress responsive genes for mediating stress tolerance. Understanding the mechanism of stress tolerance along with a plethora of genes involved in stress signaling network is important for crop improvement. Recently, some genes of calcium-signaling and nucleic acid pathways have been reported to be up-regulated in response to both cold and salinity stresses indicating the presence of cross talk between these pathways. In this review we have emphasized on various aspects of cold, salinity and drought stresses. Various factors pertaining to cold acclimation, promoter elements, and role of transcription factors in stress signaling pathway have been described. The role of calcium as an important signaling molecule in response to various stress signals has also been covered. In each of these stresses we have tried to address the issues, which significantly affect the gene expression in relation to plant physiology.

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Topics: Cold acclimation (59%), Biotic stress (59%)

2,330 Citations



Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1369-5266(02)00255-8
Tony H. H. Chen1, Norio Murata2Institutions (2)
Abstract: The accumulation of compatible solutes, such as betaines, proline and sugar alcohols, is a widespread response that may protect plants against environmental stress. It is not yet fully understood how these compounds are involved in the stress tolerance of whole plants. Some plants have been genetically engineered to express enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of various compatible solutes. Some interventions have increased the tolerance of some crop plants to abiotic stress. Furthermore, analysis of such transgenic plants has begun to clarify the roles of compatible solutes in stress tolerance.

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Topics: Osmoprotectant (57%), Abiotic stress (55%)

825 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
17 Oct 1984-Hortscience
Topics: Rootstock (59%)

667 Citations