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Journal ArticleDOI

Algae Oil: A Sustainable Renewable Fuel of Future

05 May 2014-Biotechnology Research International (Hindawi Publishing Corporation)-Vol. 2014, pp 272814-272814
TL;DR: Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine, and will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come.
Abstract: A nonrenewable fuel like petroleum has been used from centuries and its usage has kept on increasing day by day. This also contributes to increased production of greenhouse gases contributing towards global issues like global warming. In order to meet environmental and economic sustainability, renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are necessary. To meet these demands microalgae are the key source for production of biodiesel. These microalgae do produce oil from sunlight like plants but in a much more efficient manner. Biodiesel provides more environmental benefits, and being a renewable resource it has gained lot of attraction. However, the main obstacle to commercialization of biodiesel is its cost and feasibility. Biodiesel is usually used by blending with petro diesel, but it can also be used in pure form. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine. It will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come. It will meet the demands of the future generation to come.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI

1,610 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present review describes the advantages of microalgae for the production of biofuels and various bioactive compounds and discusses culturing parameters.
Abstract: Microalgae have recently attracted considerable interest worldwide, due to their extensive application potential in the renewable energy, biopharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Microalgae are renewable, sustainable, and economical sources of biofuels, bioactive medicinal products, and food ingredients. Several microalgae species have been investigated for their potential as value-added products with remarkable pharmacological and biological qualities. As biofuels, they are a perfect substitute to liquid fossil fuels with respect to cost, renewability, and environmental concerns. Microalgae have a significant ability to convert atmospheric CO2 to useful products such as carbohydrates, lipids, and other bioactive metabolites. Although microalgae are feasible sources for bioenergy and biopharmaceuticals in general, some limitations and challenges remain, which must be overcome to upgrade the technology from pilot-phase to industrial level. The most challenging and crucial issues are enhancing microalgae growth rate and product synthesis, dewatering algae culture for biomass production, pretreating biomass, and optimizing the fermentation process in case of algal bioethanol production. The present review describes the advantages of microalgae for the production of biofuels and various bioactive compounds and discusses culturing parameters.

1,125 citations


Cites background from "Algae Oil: A Sustainable Renewable ..."

  • ...The world energy crisis in the 1970s led to the identification of algae as renewable and sustainable sources for biofuels production, prompting the exploration of microalgae as a new field of research for fuels and other valuable products [10, 140]....

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  • ...The current focus is on microalgae as a feedstock for bioenergy production as the most promising raw material to compensate and balance the everincreasing demands for biofuels, food, feed and valuable chemicals production [9, 10]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
15 Feb 2020-Fuel
TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive assessment of various feedstocks used for different generation biodiesel production with their advantages and disadvantages are also explained, and different production methods for biodiesel with yield calculation is also explained.

505 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an overview of biodiesel production with a description of various kinds of feedstock used, their advantages and disadvantages, and a detailed description of different classes of different biodiesel, including a characterization, assessment of qualities and limitations, and quality analysis.
Abstract: The over-exploitation of non-renewable resources leads to the depletion of energy reserves, as well as a rise in the price of petroleum-based fuels. Thus, there is a need to find suitable and sustainable substitutes for conventional fuels. The main features required for an alternative fuel are availability and renewability, or lower dependence on restricted resources accompanied with no or lower pollution. Due to their eco-friendly and non-toxic nature, biodiesel has been attracting increasing interest. Biodiesel production can be accomplished using various raw materials, catalysts, and technologies. In recent years, nanocatalyst technology has been widely used for biodiesel production due to its numerous advantages, such as large surface area, reusability and high activity of the nanocatalyst. This review provides an overview of biodiesel production with a description of various kinds of feedstock used, their advantages and disadvantages. Further, it offers a detailed description of different classes of biodiesel, including a characterization, assessment of qualities and limitations, and quality analysis of each type. Various methodologies used for biodiesel production are also elucidated, focusing on the potential of nanocatalyst processes. The aspect of nanocatalyst regeneration and reuse is also considered. This review delivers a comprehensive overview of biodiesel synthesis by discussing recent trends and challenges in this field, which will further the development of economically sustainable biodiesel production.

402 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The current challenges and future directions in developing immobilized lipase-based biocatalytic systems for high-level production of biodiesel from waste resources are recommended.

198 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Yusuf Chisti1
TL;DR: As demonstrated here, microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels.

9,030 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The various aspects associated with the design of microalgae production units are described, giving an overview of the current state of development of algae cultivation systems (photo-bioreactors and open ponds).
Abstract: Sustainable production of renewable energy is being hotly debated globally since it is increasingly understood that first generation biofuels, primarily produced from food crops and mostly oil seeds are limited in their ability to achieve targets for biofuel production, climate change mitigation and economic growth. These concerns have increased the interest in developing second generation biofuels produced from non-food feedstocks such as microalgae, which potentially offer greatest opportunities in the longer term. This paper reviews the current status of microalgae use for biodiesel production, including their cultivation, harvesting, and processing. The microalgae species most used for biodiesel production are presented and their main advantages described in comparison with other available biodiesel feedstocks. The various aspects associated with the design of microalgae production units are described, giving an overview of the current state of development of algae cultivation systems (photo-bioreactors and open ponds). Other potential applications and products from microalgae are also presented such as for biological sequestration of CO 2 , wastewater treatment, in human health, as food additive, and for aquaculture.

5,158 citations


"Algae Oil: A Sustainable Renewable ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In addition to this, the ammonia, nitrates, and phosphates that would generally render the water unsafe actually serve as excellent nutrients for the algae [48]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
29 Feb 2008-Science
TL;DR: This article found that corn-based ethanol, instead of producing a 20% savings, nearly doubled greenhouse emissions over 30 years and increased greenhouse gases for 167 years, by using a worldwide agricultural model to estimate emissions from land-use change.
Abstract: Most prior studies have found that substituting biofuels for gasoline will reduce greenhouse gases because biofuels sequester carbon through the growth of the feedstock. These analyses have failed to count the carbon emissions that occur as farmers worldwide respond to higher prices and convert forest and grassland to new cropland to replace the grain (or cropland) diverted to biofuels. By using a worldwide agricultural model to estimate emissions from land-use change, we found that corn-based ethanol, instead of producing a 20% savings, nearly doubles greenhouse emissions over 30 years and increases greenhouse gases for 167 years. Biofuels from switchgrass, if grown on U.S. corn lands, increase emissions by 50%. This result raises concerns about large biofuel mandates and highlights the value of using waste products.

4,696 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first use of microalgae by humans dates back 2000 years to the Chinese, who used Nostoc to survive during famine, while future research should focus on the improvement of production systems and the genetic modification of strains.

3,793 citations


"Algae Oil: A Sustainable Renewable ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...These microalgae are beneficial as they are capable of all year production [9]; they grow in aqueous media and hence need less water than terrestrial crops [10]; microalgae can be cultivated in brackish water on noncultivated land [11] and they have rapid growth potential and have oil content up to 20–50% dry weight of biomass [12, 13]....

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Journal Article
TL;DR: The State of Food and Agriculture 2005 examines the many ways in which trade and trade liberalization affect the poor and food-insecure as discussed by the authors, and recommends a twin-track approach: investing in human capital, institutions and infrastructure to enable the poor to take advantage of trade-related opportunities, while establishing safety nets to protect vulnerable members of society.
Abstract: • What are the economic linkages among agriculture, trade and poverty? • How do poor households adapt to trade reform? • How does agricultural trade reform affect countries at different levels of development? • How does trade affect food security? • What is the unfi nished agenda for agricultural trade policy reform? • How can trade work for the poor? 2005 Can trade work for the poor? The State of Food and Agriculture 2005 examines the many ways in which trade and trade liberalization affect the poor and food-insecure. It is found that trade can be a catalyst for change, promoting conditions that enable the poor to raise their incomes and live longer, healthier and more productive lives. But because the poor often survive on a narrow margin, they are particularly vulnerable in any reform process, especially in the short run as productive sectors and labour markets adjust. Opening national agricultural markets to international competition – especially from subsidized competitors – before basic market institutions and infrastructure are in place can undermine the agriculture sector with long-term negative consequences for poverty and food security. Among the many important lessons from this analysis is the need for policy-makers to consider carefully how trade and complementary policies can be used to promote pro-poor growth. The report recommends a twin-track approach: investing in human capital, institutions and infrastructure to enable the poor to take advantage of trade-related opportunities, while establishing safety nets to protect vulnerable members of society. TH E TA TE O F FO O D A N D A G R IC U TU R E F U R T H E R I N F O R M A T I O N

2,850 citations