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Journal ArticleDOI

Alginate: properties and biomedical applications

01 Jan 2012-Progress in Polymer Science (NIH Public Access)-Vol. 37, Iss: 1, pp 106-126

TL;DR: This review will provide a comprehensive overview of general properties of alginate and its hydrogels, their biomedical applications, and suggest new perspectives for future studies with these polymers.
Abstract: Alginate is a biomaterial that has found numerous applications in biomedical science and engineering due to its favorable properties, including biocompatibility and ease of gelation. Alginate hydrogels have been particularly attractive in wound healing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications to date, as these gels retain structural similarity to the extracellular matrices in tissues and can be manipulated to play several critical roles. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of general properties of alginate and its hydrogels, their biomedical applications, and suggest new perspectives for future studies with these polymers.
Topics: Self-healing hydrogels (51%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Jianyu Li1, David J. Mooney1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: This Review discusses how different mechanisms interact and can be integrated to exert fine control in time and space over the drug presentation, and collects experimental release data from the literature and presents quantitative comparisons between different systems to provide guidelines for the rational design of hydrogel delivery systems.
Abstract: Hydrogel delivery systems can leverage therapeutically beneficial outcomes of drug delivery and have found clinical use. Hydrogels can provide spatial and temporal control over the release of various therapeutic agents, including small-molecule drugs, macromolecular drugs and cells. Owing to their tunable physical properties, controllable degradability and capability to protect labile drugs from degradation, hydrogels serve as a platform in which various physiochemical interactions with the encapsulated drugs control their release. In this Review, we cover multiscale mechanisms underlying the design of hydrogel drug delivery systems, focusing on physical and chemical properties of the hydrogel network and the hydrogel-drug interactions across the network, mesh, and molecular (or atomistic) scales. We discuss how different mechanisms interact and can be integrated to exert fine control in time and space over the drug presentation. We also collect experimental release data from the literature, review clinical translation to date of these systems, and present quantitative comparisons between different systems to provide guidelines for the rational design of hydrogel delivery systems.

1,559 citations


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TL;DR: An updated summary of recent advances in the field of nanomedicines and nano based drug delivery systems through comprehensive scrutiny of the discovery and application of nanomaterials in improving both the efficacy of novel and old drugs and selective diagnosis through disease marker molecules is presented.
Abstract: Nanomedicine and nano delivery systems are a relatively new but rapidly developing science where materials in the nanoscale range are employed to serve as means of diagnostic tools or to deliver therapeutic agents to specific targeted sites in a controlled manner Nanotechnology offers multiple benefits in treating chronic human diseases by site-specific, and target-oriented delivery of precise medicines Recently, there are a number of outstanding applications of the nanomedicine (chemotherapeutic agents, biological agents, immunotherapeutic agents etc) in the treatment of various diseases The current review, presents an updated summary of recent advances in the field of nanomedicines and nano based drug delivery systems through comprehensive scrutiny of the discovery and application of nanomaterials in improving both the efficacy of novel and old drugs (eg, natural products) and selective diagnosis through disease marker molecules The opportunities and challenges of nanomedicines in drug delivery from synthetic/natural sources to their clinical applications are also discussed In addition, we have included information regarding the trends and perspectives in nanomedicine area

1,381 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Siddhesh N. Pawar1, Kevin J. Edgar1Institutions (1)
01 Apr 2012-Biomaterials
TL;DR: Progress towards controlled synthesis of alginate derivatives, and the properties and applications of these derivatives are reviewed.
Abstract: Alginates have become an extremely important family of polysaccharides because of their utility in preparing hydrogels at mild pH and temperature conditions, suitable for sensitive biomolecules like proteins and nucleic acids, and even for living cells such as islets of Langerhans. In addition, the complex monosaccharide sequences of alginates, and our growing ability to create controlled sequences by the action of isolated epimerases upon the alginate precursor poly(mannuronic acid), create remarkable opportunities for understanding the relationship of properties to sequence in natural alginates (control of monosaccharide sequence being perhaps the greatest synthetic challenge in polysaccharide chemistry). There is however a trend in recent years to create "value-added" alginates, by performing derivatization reactions on the polysaccharide backbone. For example, chemical derivatization may enable alginates to achieve enhanced hydroxyapatite (HAP) nucleation and growth, heparin-like anticoagulation properties, improved cell-surface interactions, degradability, or tuning of the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance for optimum drug release. The creation of synthetic derivatives therefore has the potential to empower the next generation of applications for alginates. Herein we review progress towards controlled synthesis of alginate derivatives, and the properties and applications of these derivatives.

935 citations


Cites background from "Alginate: properties and biomedical..."

  • ...have recently described alginates as “blank slates” [6]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
07 Apr 2015-Biomacromolecules
TL;DR: A bioink that combines the outstanding shear thinning properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with the fast cross-linking ability of alginate with the potential use of nanocellulose for 3D bioprinting of living tissues and organs is formulated.
Abstract: The introduction of 3D bioprinting is expected to revolutionize the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The 3D bioprinter is able to dispense materials while moving in X, Y, and Z directions, which enables the engineering of complex structures from the bottom up. In this study, a bioink that combines the outstanding shear thinning properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with the fast cross-linking ability of alginate was formulated for the 3D bioprinting of living soft tissue with cells. Printability was evaluated with concern to printer parameters and shape fidelity. The shear thinning behavior of the tested bioinks enabled printing of both 2D gridlike structures as well as 3D constructs. Furthermore, anatomically shaped cartilage structures, such as a human ear and sheep meniscus, were 3D printed using MRI and CT images as blueprints. Human chondrocytes bioprinted in the noncytotoxic, nanocellulose-based bioink exhibited a cell viability of 73% and 86% after 1 and 7 days of 3D c...

875 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jinchen Sun1, Huaping Tan1Institutions (1)
26 Mar 2013-Materials
TL;DR: This review focuses on recent advances in the use of alginate and its derivatives in the field of biomedical applications, including wound healing, cartilage repair, bone regeneration and drug delivery, which have potential in tissue regeneration applications.
Abstract: Alginate is a natural polysaccharide exhibiting excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, having many different applications in the field of biomedicine Alginate is readily processable for applicable three-dimensional scaffolding materials such as hydrogels, microspheres, microcapsules, sponges, foams and fibers Alginate-based biomaterials can be utilized as drug delivery systems and cell carriers for tissue engineering Alginate can be easily modified via chemical and physical reactions to obtain derivatives having various structures, properties, functions and applications Tuning the structure and properties such as biodegradability, mechanical strength, gelation property and cell affinity can be achieved through combination with other biomaterials, immobilization of specific ligands such as peptide and sugar molecules, and physical or chemical crosslinking This review focuses on recent advances in the use of alginate and its derivatives in the field of biomedical applications, including wound healing, cartilage repair, bone regeneration and drug delivery, which have potential in tissue regeneration applications

766 citations


Cites methods from "Alginate: properties and biomedical..."

  • ...Many methods have been employed for preparation of alginate hydrogels, including ionic interaction, phase transition (thermal gelation), cell-crosslinking, free radical polymerization and “click” reaction [1,17]....

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Marguerite Rinaudo1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Chitin is the second most important natural polymer in the world. The main sources exploited are two marine crustaceans, shrimp and crabs. Our objective is to appraise the state of the art concerning this polysaccharide: its morphology in the native solid state, methods of identification and characterization and chemical modifications, as well as the difficulties in utilizing and processing it for selected applications. We note the important work of P. Austin, S. Tokura and S. Hirano, who have contributed to the applications development of chitin, especially in fiber form. Then, we discuss chitosan, the most important derivative of chitin, outlining the best techniques to characterize it and the main problems encountered in its utilization. Chitosan, which is soluble in acidic aqueous media, is used in many applications (food, cosmetics, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications). We briefly describe the chemical modifications of chitosan—an area in which a variety of syntheses have been proposed tentatively, but are not yet developed on an industrial scale. This review emphasizes recent papers on the high value-added applications of these materials in medicine and cosmetics.

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Peter Carmeliet1Institutions (1)
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TL;DR: Angiogenesis research will probably change the face of medicine in the next decades, with more than 500 million people worldwide predicted to benefit from pro- or anti-angiogenesis treatments.
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Journal ArticleDOI
15 May 1973-FEBS Letters
TL;DR: It is shown that spedfic binding of divalent cations to a polysaechafide polyelectro]ym, leading firm cohesion between the chains, can cause characteristic effects in the c~rcutar diehroism spectrum which are understandabb in terms of modem theo~, [ l ].
Abstract: We han, e shown that spedfic binding of divalent cations to a polysaechafide polyelectro]ym, leading firm cohesion between the chains, can cause characteristic effects ~n ~ e c~rcutar diehroism spectrum which are understandabb in terms of modem theo~, [ l ]. For atginate, tiffs binding is a co-operative p,~otess that predominantly in~oNes consecuti~'e ~ lu ro nale residues. Some other systems ha~e now been inves,~igated in an attempt to formulate a general inSetpretafion of bio]ogics] phenomena of this type. T~e known s t reng~ and specificity of comp~exafion are explained m termg of an \"'egg-box model\" which ~s ,derN,ed from our measmemems, the known coordination geometries in mode] compounds, and the requiremen~s roar ~ooperafivity. In pectin, • .the methyl este~ of poly(ga~acturonie acid), the interactions with ca~on.~ is relatively weak because ~he chains are unch~r~ed. In contrasl to the beha~onr of alginates, in which the amplitude diminishes w~th gelatben I ] ], the broad, positive, n ~ ~* gsnd 5_~ • ~he.cireular dickro~sm s p e c t r u m o'f rthe so] increases in amplitude when chains associate ~o fonx~ a gel ,(fig. 3)No sllch ~arge. chmnge occurs in so]ufions of_hbe po]ysaechafide which do not gel over this tempera!ure range. Our inlerprelation is flaerefom thaL in the ~03, the.methy]oxyearbony~ subst~tuent is dis. amplitude, some perhaps even having negative amplitude. As h~ the alg~nate system II,2] this equilibrium is sbihed to a much narrower distribution in the observed a~soc,~ation that forre.s. This causes an increase in opfica~ activity in the manner frequently associated with locking of conformation ~3]. Cations are absent, however, and their cha~acte~stic in-quence on the ~ orbha~s is therefore no~ seen. After saponification, the pe!ysacchafide binds Ca 2+ wiih ge~ formation and with a large decrease ~n amplitude of the n -~ .~* band (fig. 1) which shows a gaussian difference spectrum centered on 208 ~[rn. This is therefore [ l ] explained as a specific bind,~ng of most o f the umnam residues m Ca 2+ wNch tends to reverse the sign of the n ~ ~* band. Derivatives that are or,.ly partly saponified, as in \"%w me~hoxy pectins\" used industr~ally and p~esent in MomeNtal systems, show similar specUoseopic changes during gela~on wi~.~ Ca 2÷, except that an additional peak remains with ~he position (210 nm) and ampfitude expected fo,~ methyl galactaronate Nsidues. Being uncha~ged ~Lhe~,c groups wosld n o i pa{~¢ipaie directly in ion bin~!k~ng, and the ~esiduai peak therefore confirms our v~ew that the extreme spectra,\" changes arise horn ~pecific pert~rbatio~ of bound ~e~idues by proximity of the ionic cha~ge: *~buIed between a nnmbez Of rotations] states about . . . . Po]ymarin~ionate as well as po]yg~]mmnate an~ ,~(5)--C(5) which, due to ~hc d~rent ofienta~ion~ of polyga~acturona~e sequences can be perturbed spotthe ~emboxy] ehromo~no~e Lq the ~yn~met~Je erl.~i~onm:enI of ~he ~aga~, ring, ha~e ~ ->~* &rods. o f ~arying

2,318 citations


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