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Algorithmically solving the Tadpole Problem

Abstract: The extensive computer-aided search applied in [arXiv:2010.10519] to find the minimal charge sourced by the fluxes that stabilize all the (flux-stabilizable) moduli of a smooth K3xK3 compactification uses differential evolutionary algorithms supplemented by local searches. We present these algorithms in detail and show that they can also solve our minimization problem for other lattices. Our results support the Tadpole Conjecture: The minimal charge grows linearly with the dimension of the lattice and, for K3xK3, this charge is larger than allowed by tadpole cancelation. Even if we are faced with an NP-hard lattice-reduction problem at every step in the minimization process, we find that differential evolution is a good technique for identifying the regions of the landscape where the fluxes with the lowest tadpole can be found. We then design a "Spider Algorithm," which is very efficient at exploring these regions and producing large numbers of minimal-tadpole configurations.

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Topics: Tadpole (physics) (58%)
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Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: We construct supersymmetric $\mathrm{AdS}_4$ vacua of type IIB string theory in compactifications on orientifolds of Calabi-Yau threefold hypersurfaces. We first find explicit orientifolds and quantized fluxes for which the superpotential takes the form proposed by Kachru, Kallosh, Linde, and Trivedi. Given very mild assumptions on the numerical values of the Pfaffians, these compactifications admit vacua in which all moduli are stabilized at weak string coupling. By computing high-degree Gopakumar-Vafa invariants we give strong evidence that the $\alpha'$ expansion is likewise well-controlled. We find extremely small cosmological constants, with magnitude $ < 10^{-123}$ in Planck units. The compactifications are large, but not exponentially so, and hence these vacua manifest hierarchical scale-separation, with the AdS length exceeding the Kaluza-Klein length by a factor of a googol.

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Topics: String (physics) (54%), String theory (54%), Superpotential (53%) ... read more

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/JHEP08(2021)077
Abstract: We compute the flux-induced F-term potential in 4d F-theory compactifications at large complex structure. In this regime, each complex structure field splits as an axionic field plus its saxionic partner, and the classical F-term potential takes the form $V = Z^{AB} \rho_A\rho_B$ up to exponentially-suppressed terms, with $\rho$ depending on the fluxes and axions and $Z$ on the saxions. We provide explicit, general expressions for $Z$ and $\rho$, and from there analyse the set of flux vacua, for an arbitrary number of fields. We identify two families of vacua with all complex structure fields fixed and a flux contribution to the tadpole $N_{\rm flux}$ which is bounded. In the first and most generic one, the saxion vevs are bounded from above by a power of $N_{\rm flux}$. In the second their vevs may be unbounded and $N_{\rm flux}$ is a product of two arbitrary integers, unlike what is claimed by the Tadpole Conjecture. We specialise to type IIB orientifolds, where both families of vacua are present, and link our analysis with several results in the literature. We finally illustrate our findings with several examples.

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Topics: F-theory (54%), Bounded function (50%)

4 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: The tadpole conjecture by Bena, Blaback, Grana and Lust effectively states that for string-theory compactifications with a large number of complex-structure moduli, not all of these moduli can be stabilized by fluxes. In this note we study this conjecture in the large complex-structure regime using statistical data obtained by Demirtas, Long, McAllister and Stillman for the Kreuzer-Skarke list. We estimate a lower bound on the flux number in type IIB Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications at large complex-structure and for large $h^{2,1}$, and our results support the tadpole conjecture in this regime.

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Topics: Tadpole (physics) (56%), Orientifold (54%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVD.104.046026
30 Aug 2021-Physical Review D
Abstract: Leptoquarks extending the Standard Model (SM) have attracted increased attention in the recent literature. Hence, the identification of four-dimensional (4D) SM-like models and the classification of allowed leptoquarks from strings is an important step in the study of string phenomenology. We perform the most extensive search for SM-like models from the nonsupersymmetric heterotic string $\mathrm{SO}(16)\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}\mathrm{SO}(16)$, resulting in more than 170 000 inequivalent promising string models from 138 Abelian toroidal orbifolds. We explore the 4D massless particle spectra of these models in order to identify all exotics beside the three generations of quarks and leptons. Hereby, we learn which leptoquark can be realized in this string setup. Moreover, we analyze the number of SM Higgs doublets which is generically larger than one. Then, we identify SM-like models with a minimal particle content. These so-called almost SM models appear most frequently in the orbifold geometries ${\mathbb{Z}}_{2}\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{\mathbb{Z}}_{4}(2,4)$ and (1,6). Finally, we apply machine learning to our data set in order to predict the orbifold geometry where a given particle spectrum is most likely to be found.

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Topics: Content (measure theory) (65%), Order (ring theory) (61%), String phenomenology (58%) ... read more

2 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: We revisit moduli stabilisation for type IIB flux compactifications that include a warped throat region corresponding to a warped deformed conifold, with an anti-D3-brane sitting at its tip. The warping induces a coupling between the conifold's deformation modulus and the bulk volume modulus in the Kahler potential. Previous works have studied the scalar potential assuming a strong warping such that this coupling term dominates, and found that the anti-D3-brane uplift may destabilise the conifold modulus and/or volume modulus, unless flux numbers within the throat are large, which makes tadpole cancellation a challenge. We explore the regime of parameter space corresponding to a weakly-but-still warped throat, such that the coupling between the conifold and volume moduli is subdominant. We thus discover a new metastable de Sitter solution within the four-dimensional effective field theory. We discuss the position of this de Sitter vacuum in the string theory landscape and swampland.

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Topics: Conifold (60%), De Sitter universe (51%), Moduli (51%)

2 Citations


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86 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1023/A:1008202821328
Rainer Storn1, Kenneth PriceInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A new heuristic approach for minimizing possibly nonlinear and non-differentiable continuous space functions is presented. By means of an extensive testbed it is demonstrated that the new method converges faster and with more certainty than many other acclaimed global optimization methods. The new method requires few control variables, is robust, easy to use, and lends itself very well to parallel computation.

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Topics: Continuous optimization (63%), Global optimization (58%), Random optimization (58%) ... read more

20,354 Citations


Open accessBook
25 Nov 2014-
Abstract: Problems demanding globally optimal solutions are ubiquitous, yet many are intractable when they involve constrained functions having many local optima and interacting, mixed-type variables.The differential evolution (DE) algorithm is a practical approach to global numerical optimization which is easy to understand, simple to implement, reliable, and fast. Packed with illustrations, computer code, new insights, and practical advice, this volume explores DE in both principle and practice. It is a valuable resource for professionals needing a proven optimizer and for students wanting an evolutionary perspective on global numerical optimization.

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4,273 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/BF01457454
Abstract: In this paper we present a polynomial-time algorithm to solve the following problem: given a non-zero polynomial fe Q(X) in one variable with rational coefficients, find the decomposition of f into irreducible factors in Q(X). It is well known that this is equivalent to factoring primitive polynomials feZ(X) into irreducible factors in Z(X). Here we call f~ Z(X) primitive if the greatest common divisor of its coefficients (the content of f) is 1. Our algorithm performs well in practice, cf. (8). Its running time, measured in bit operations, is O(nl2+n9(log(fD3).

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Topics: Irreducible fraction (62%), Irreducible polynomial (62%), Algebraically closed field (60%) ... read more

3,207 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1137/141000671
07 Feb 2017-Siam Review
Abstract: Bridging cultures that have often been distant, Julia combines expertise from the diverse fields of computer science and computational science to create a new approach to numerical computing. Julia is designed to be easy and fast and questions notions generally held to be “laws of nature" by practitioners of numerical computing: \beginlist \item High-level dynamic programs have to be slow. \item One must prototype in one language and then rewrite in another language for speed or deployment. \item There are parts of a system appropriate for the programmer, and other parts that are best left untouched as they have been built by the experts. \endlist We introduce the Julia programming language and its design---a dance between specialization and abstraction. Specialization allows for custom treatment. Multiple dispatch, a technique from computer science, picks the right algorithm for the right circumstance. Abstraction, which is what good computation is really about, recognizes what remains the same after dif...

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Topics: Multiple dispatch (51%), Programmer (50%)

2,227 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jan 2018-
Abstract: Computational Intelligence: An Introduction, Second Edition offers an in-depth exploration into the adaptive mechanisms that enable intelligent behaviour in complex and changing environments. The main focus of this text is centred on the computational modelling of biological and natural intelligent systems, encompassing swarm intelligence, fuzzy systems, artificial neutral networks, artificial immune systems and evolutionary computation. Engelbrecht provides readers with a wide knowledge of Computational Intelligence (CI) paradigms and algorithms; inviting readers to implement and problem solve real-world, complex problems within the CI development framework. This implementation framework will enable readers to tackle new problems without any difficulty through a single Java class as part of the CI library. Key features of this second edition include: A tutorial, hands-on based presentation of the material. State-of-the-art coverage of the most recent developments in computational intelligence with more elaborate discussions on intelligence and artificial intelligence (AI). New discussion of Darwinian evolution versus Lamarckian evolution, also including swarm robotics, hybrid systems and artificial immune systems. A section on how to perform empirical studies; topics including statistical analysis of stochastic algorithms, and an open source library of CI algorithms. Tables, illustrations, graphs, examples, assignments, Java code implementing the algorithms, and a complete CI implementation and experimental framework. Computational Intelligence: An Introduction, Second Edition is essential reading for third and fourth year undergraduate and postgraduate students studying CI. The first edition has been prescribed by a number of overseas universities and is thus a valuable teaching tool. In addition, it will also be a useful resource for researchers in Computational Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence, as well as engineers, statisticians, operational researchers, and bioinformaticians with an interest in applying AI or CI to solve problems in their domains. Check out http://www.ci.cs.up.ac.za for examples, assignments and Java code implementing the algorithms.

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2,150 Citations


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