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Journal ArticleDOI

Aloe barbadensis Miller peptide/polypeptide fraction alleviates inflammation through inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators in vitro and in rats with Freund’s adjuvant-induced hind paw edema

01 Dec 2019-Asian pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (Medknow Publications)-Vol. 9, Iss: 12, pp 524

TL;DR: The results indicate that the peptide/polypeptide fraction of Aloe vera has anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of inflammatory markers and mediators responsible for NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of peptide/polypeptide fraction of Aloe vera through in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods: The peptide/polypeptide fraction from Aloe vera was obtained through trichloroacetic acid precipitation. The anti-inflammatory property of the peptide/polypeptide fraction was tested by protein denaturation, membrane stabilization assays. The effect of the fraction on RAW 264.7 cell viability was examined by MTT assays. The nitric oxide level was determined through Griess reagent. TNF-α and IL-6 levels were estimated using ELISA kits. In vivo studies were carried out in male Wistar rats through injection of Freund’s adjuvant in the hind paw. Paw edema was measured through the Vernier scale and levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, TNF-α, IL-6, and secretory phospholipase A2 were estimated through their respective kits after fourteen days of treatment. GraphPad Prism6 was used for analyzing the results. Results: The peptide/polypeptide extract inhibited protein denaturation with an IC50 value of (218.9±15.6) μg/mL and stabilized the membrane of red blood cells with an IC50 value of (275.9±19.1) μg/mL. The extract showed no changes in cell morphology or cytotoxicity up to the concentration of 20 μg/mL in MTT assays. The peptide/polypeptide fraction markedly reduced the levels of proinflammatory markers and mediators in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Conclusions: The results indicate that the peptide/polypeptide fraction of Aloe vera has anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of inflammatory markers and mediators responsible for NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.
Topics: In vivo (51%), Freund's adjuvant (51%), Aloe vera (51%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review presents an overview of the bioactive components of the Aloe genus with emphasis on their anti-diabetic potential and other pharmacological benefits, and the potential applications and constraints have been discussed.
Abstract: The therapeutic and pharmacological properties of plant bioactive constituents still continue to be the subject of many researches. Species of the Aloe genus have a history in folklore medicine and they have gained more attention over the years due to their various medicinal properties. Phytochemical studies have revealed that the Aloe species contain a number of constituents, such as polyphenols, phytosterols, polysaccharides, proteins, amino acids, chromones, and mineral elements. A comprehensive evidence-based review on the different constituents of Aloe species is needed in order to understand the benefits imparted by them. This review presents an overview of the bioactive components of the Aloe genus with emphasis on their anti-diabetic potential and other pharmacological benefits. This information will be beneficial for the advancement of new strategies of Aloe formulations with therapeutic and economical value in the near future. Furthermore, the potential applications and constraints have also been discussed so as to provide a wider prospect for research in this field for the benefit of the society.

5 citations


Cites background from "Aloe barbadensis Miller peptide/pol..."

  • ...The flower grows around 90 cm, often being pendulous and consists of yellow tubular corolla around 2–3 cm (Babu et al., 2019)....

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  • ...Apart from that, polyphenols from Aloe species have been reported to possess anti-diabetic potential, anti-inflammatory properties, and wound healing properties (Babu et al., 2019)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Ethno-pharmacological relevance The genus Aloe has a long history of usage in medicine. Aloe barbadensis Miller, commonly known as Aloe vera, is said to possess anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, immunomodulation, wound healing properties. Aim of the study In diabetes mellitus, loss in intestinal permeability is observed with high levels of zonulin and low levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) leading to hyperglycemia. The aim of the study was to understand the role of peptide/polypeptide fraction (PPF) of Aloe vera in the alleviation of diabetes through maintaining the intestinal permeability by regulating the zonulin and GLP-1 levels. Materials and methods The PPF of Aloe vera was obtained through trichloroacetic acid precipitation. The anti-diabetic potential of the PPF was tested through DPP-IV inhibition, glucose diffusion assay, and by using Rin-m5F cells. The anti-diabetic potential of the PPF was tested at a dose of 0.450 mg/kg bw in vivo using streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. The effect of PPF on fasting plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, Zonulin, GLP-1, DPP-IV, levels were studied in diabetic rats. The histopathological studies of the pancreas, small intestine, and liver were carried out for organ-specific effects. Results PPF has the ability to reduce fasting plasma glucose levels with concomitant increase in insulin levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It was also observed that increase in GLP-1 levels with a decrease in DPP-IV and zonulin levels thereby mitigating the loss of intestinal permeability. These findings correlate with the small intestine's histopathological observation where the excessive proliferation of epithelium in the small intestine of diabetic rats was reduced after PPF treatment. Conclusion These results suggest that the PPF of Aloe vera alleviates diabetes through islet cell rejuvenation via GLP-1/DPP-IV pathway and thereby suggesting the usage of PPF as an alternate medicine for diabetes mellitus with the possibility to reduce the intestinal permeability and zonulin levels.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Ethnopharmacological relevance Aloe barbadensis Miller, commonly known as Aloe vera has been used since time immemorial for treatment of various diseases such as cancer, inflammatory disorders, diabetes, wound healing etc. Aim Diabetes mellitus is a complex disorder and understanding the molecular mechanisms involved is a key to identify different markers for early diagnosis of the disease. The proteomic approach offers a plethora of opportunities to identify markers and targets involved in pathogenesis of diabetes. The present study was undertaken to understand the mechanism of action of Aloe vera and its two constituents (Carbohydrates and Polypeptides) in the alleviation of diabetes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through a proteomics approach. Methods Different groups of rats were fed with Aloe vera extract, carbohydrate fraction and peptide/polypeptide fraction for three weeks. The diabetic rats fed with Aloe vera and its two fractions restored the glucose and insulin levels to normal. The plasma of the rats was depleted with IgG and albumin and proteomic analysis was carried out. Apolipoproteins (dyslipidemia), complement factors (inflammatory pathways), zonulin (intestinal permeability), anti-oxidant related proteins were selected in this study as these are involved in the progression of diabetes. Results It was observed that Aloe vera extract is involved in the alleviation of diabetes through these pathways while the carbohydrate fraction alleviates diabetes through an anti-oxidant mechanism and glucose uptake while the polypeptide fraction alleviates diabetes through the restoration of intestinal permeability by reduced zonulin levels. Conclusion The constituents of Aloe vera works different pathways involved in diabetes and the synergistic effect of these constituents make Aloe vera extract a prospective candidate, which can alleviate diabetes through regulation of the pathways involved in the progression of diabetes.

2 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Lingchao Miao1, Jianbo Xiao1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of Portulaca oleracea L. (Purslane) extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and explore its potential mechanism.
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of Portulaca oleracea L. (Purslane) extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and explore its potential mechanism. The RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with Purslane extract for 4 h and subsequently induced by LPS for 12 h. It is of great concern that the bioactive compounds in Purslane extract and their metabolites in RAW 264.7 cell culture. What are the real bioactive compounds in the Purslaneextract that have the anti-inflammatory effects on RAW 264.7 cells, and when and how the bioactive compounds react? Based on this, 6 different groups were designed to be detected by LC/MS. (1): Purslane extract. (2): Blank medium without RAW 264.7 cells. (3): Medium pretreated by Purslane extract and induced by LPS without RAW 264.7 cells. (4): Blank medium in which RAW 264.7 cells were cultivated. (5): Medium induced by LPS in which RAW 264.7 cells were cultivated. (6): Medium pretreated by Purslane extract and induced by LPS in which RAW 264.7 cells were cultivated.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
L K Ma1, K Chen1, X F Tian1, Y H Gao1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Dec 2020-
Abstract: Aloe barbadensis (Aloe vera) has long been used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. In order to maximally extract soluble sugars, different drying methods, such as heat-drying (HD), air-drying (AD), vacuum freeze drying (VFD), and microwave drying (MD), on the sugar content were investigated in the present work. Besides, the relationship between the particle size and the physicochemical property of the peel powder obtained by ultramicro-pulverization was also explored. The results showed that different drying method did have significant effect on the soluble sugar content. HD, AD, and VFD possessed similar sugar content (approximately 8.27, 8.46, and 8.46 g/100g, respectively). The highest sugar content was found in MD (9.36 ± 0.30 g/100g), indicating that MD was the most effective way to extract sugars from Aloe vera peel among these four methods. The particle size of the peel power after dried by MD was affected by the crusher time and power. The higher the power, and the longer crusher time, the smaller particle size of the powder. Along with the decreasing of particle size, the color parameter (B value) of the peel powder significantly decreased from 24.47 to 16.90 (P < 0.05). The water holding capacity also decreased when the D (0.5) reduced due to the lower binding capacity of small size particle towards water. As the reduction of D (0.5) value, the water holding capacity decreased (from 6.21% to 3.52%). The present work could provide valuable information for the comprehensive utilization of the by-products of Aloe vera.

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Ruslan Medzhitov1Institutions (1)
23 Jul 2008-Nature
TL;DR: This work has shown that tissue stress or malfunction induces an adaptive response that is intermediate between the basal homeostatic state and a classic inflammatory response, which is referred to here as para-inflammation.
Abstract: Inflammation underlies a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. Although the pathological aspects of many types of inflammation are well appreciated, their physiological functions are mostly unknown. The classic instigators of inflammation - infection and tissue injury - are at one end of a large range of adverse conditions that induce inflammation, and they trigger the recruitment of leukocytes and plasma proteins to the affected tissue site. Tissue stress or malfunction similarly induces an adaptive response, which is referred to here as para-inflammation. This response relies mainly on tissue-resident macrophages and is intermediate between the basal homeostatic state and a classic inflammatory response. Para-inflammation is probably responsible for the chronic inflammatory conditions that are associated with modern human diseases.

3,943 citations


"Aloe barbadensis Miller peptide/pol..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Inflammation is an important defense mechanism protecting the body from pathogens and infections[1]....

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TL;DR: This contribution is a completely updated and expanded version of the four prior analogous reviews that were published in this journal in 1997, 2003, 2007, and 2012, and the time frame has been extended to cover the 34 years from January 1, 1981, to December 31, 2014, for all diseases worldwide, and from 1950 (earliest so far identified) to December 2014 for all approved antitumor drugs worldwide.
Abstract: This contribution is a completely updated and expanded version of the four prior analogous reviews that were published in this journal in 1997, 2003, 2007, and 2012. In the case of all approved therapeutic agents, the time frame has been extended to cover the 34 years from January 1, 1981, to December 31, 2014, for all diseases worldwide, and from 1950 (earliest so far identified) to December 2014 for all approved antitumor drugs worldwide. As mentioned in the 2012 review, we have continued to utilize our secondary subdivision of a “natural product mimic”, or “NM”, to join the original primary divisions and the designation “natural product botanical”, or “NB”, to cover those botanical “defined mixtures” now recognized as drug entities by the U.S. FDA (and similar organizations). From the data presented in this review, the utilization of natural products and/or their novel structures, in order to discover and develop the final drug entity, is still alive and well. For example, in the area of cancer, over t...

3,538 citations


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TL;DR: ins biology has potential clinical relevance for atherosclerosis, the response to vascular injury and aortic aneurysm, and the roles of individual mediators and their receptors in modulating the inflammatory response.
Abstract: Prostaglandins are lipid autacoids derived from arachidonic acid. They both sustain homeostatic functions and mediate pathogenic mechanisms, including the inflammatory response. They are generated from arachidonate by the action of cyclooxygenase isoenzymes, and their biosynthesis is blocked by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, including those selective for inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2. Despite the clinical efficacy of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, prostaglandins may function in both the promotion and resolution of inflammation. This review summarizes insights into the mechanisms of prostaglandin generation and the roles of individual mediators and their receptors in modulating the inflammatory response. Prostaglandin biology has potential clinical relevance for atherosclerosis, the response to vascular injury and aortic aneurysm.

2,227 citations


"Aloe barbadensis Miller peptide/pol..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Inflammation in living tissues is stimulated through injuries, microbial infections, irritations which has been associated with pathogenesis of diseases such as cancer, arthritis, stroke, etc[30]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Ting Liu1, Lingyun Zhang1, Donghyun Joo1, Shao Cong Sun1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: This review will discuss the activation and function of NF-κB in association with inflammatory diseases and highlight the development of therapeutic strategies based on NF-σB inhibition.
Abstract: The transcription factor NF-κB regulates multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immune functions and serves as a pivotal mediator of inflammatory responses. NF-κB induces the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes, including those encoding cytokines and chemokines, and also participates in inflammasome regulation. In addition, NF-κB plays a critical role in regulating the survival, activation and differentiation of innate immune cells and inflammatory T cells. Consequently, deregulated NF-κB activation contributes to the pathogenic processes of various inflammatory diseases. In this review, we will discuss the activation and function of NF-κB in association with inflammatory diseases and highlight the development of therapeutic strategies based on NF-κB inhibition.

2,155 citations


"Aloe barbadensis Miller peptide/pol..." refers background in this paper

  • ...These elevated levels of cytokines may activate NF-κB in other immune cells and fibroblast cells leading to the increased inflammatory response[44]....

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  • ...The PPF may also be related to these factors such as p50, RelA thereby inhibiting the NF-κB pathway leading to decreased levels of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators[44]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review traces natural products drug discovery, outlining important drugs from natural sources that revolutionized treatment of serious diseases and effective drug development depends on multidisciplinary collaborations.
Abstract: Background Nature has been a source of medicinal products for millennia, with many useful drugs developed from plant sources Following discovery of the penicillins, drug discovery from microbial sources occurred and diving techniques in the 1970s opened the seas Combinatorial chemistry (late 1980s), shifted the focus of drug discovery efforts from Nature to the laboratory bench Scope of Review This review traces natural products drug discovery, outlining important drugs from natural sources that revolutionized treatment of serious diseases It is clear Nature will continue to be a major source of new structural leads, and effective drug development depends on multidisciplinary collaborations Major Conclusions The explosion of genetic information led not only to novel screens, but the genetic techniques permitted the implementation of combinatorial biosynthetic technology and genome mining The knowledge gained has allowed unknown molecules to be identified These novel bioactive structures can be optimized by using combinatorial chemistry generating new drug candidates for many diseases General Significance The advent of genetic techniques that permitted the isolation / expression of biosynthetic cassettes from microbes may well be the new frontier for natural products lead discovery It is now apparent that biodiversity may be much greater in those organisms The numbers of potential species involved in the microbial world are many orders of magnitude greater than those of plants and multi-celled animals Coupling these numbers to the number of currently unexpressed biosynthetic clusters now identified (> 10 per species) the potential of microbial diversity remains essentially untapped

1,944 citations


"Aloe barbadensis Miller peptide/pol..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Plant-based remedies are preferred due to their availability, better efficacy, and efficiency with lesser side effect[5,6]....

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