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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41390-021-01400-1

Altered microbiomes in thirdhand smoke-exposed children and their home environments.

02 Mar 2021-Pediatric Research (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)-pp 1-8
Abstract: INTRODUCTION Tobacco smoke contains numerous toxic chemicals that accumulate in indoor environments creating thirdhand smoke (THS). We investigated if THS-polluted homes differed in children's human and built-environment microbiomes as compared to THS-free homes. METHODS Participants were n = 19 THS-exposed children and n = 10 unexposed children (≤5 years) and their caregivers. Environmental and biological samples were analyzed for THS pollutants and exposure. Swab samples were collected from the built-environment (floor, table, armrest, bed frame) and child (finger, nose, mouth, and ear canal), and 16S ribosomal RNA genes were analyzed for bacterial taxa using high-throughput DNA sequencing. RESULTS Phylogenetic α-diversity was significantly higher for the built-environment microbiomes in THS-polluted homes compared to THS-free homes (p < 0.014). Log2-fold comparison found differences between THS-polluted and THS-free homes for specific genera in samples from the built-environment (e.g., Acinetobacter, Bradyrhizobium, Corynebacterium, Gemella, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Veillonella) and in samples from children (esp. Corynebacterium, Gemella, Lautropia, Neisseria, Rothia, Staphylococcus, and Veillonella). CONCLUSION When exposed to THS, indoor and children microbiomes are altered in an environment-specific manner. Changes are similar to those reported in previous studies for smokers and secondhand smoke-exposed persons. THS-induced changes in child and built-environmental microbiomes may play a role in clinical outcomes in children. IMPACT Despite smoking bans, children can be exposed to tobacco smoke residue (i.e., thirdhand smoke) that lingers on surfaces and in settled house dust. Thirdhand smoke exposure is associated with changes in the microbiomes of the home environment and of the children living in these homes. Thirdhand smoke is associated with increased phylogenetic diversity of the home environment and changes in the abundances of several genera of the child microbiome known to be affected by active smoking and secondhand smoke (e.g., Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus). Thirdhand smoke exposure by itself may induce alterations in the microbiome that play a role in childhood pathologies.

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Topics: Third-hand smoke (58%)
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5 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVRES.2021.111722
Abstract: Background Children's overall tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) consists of both inhalation of secondhand smoke (SHS) and ingestion, dermal uptake, and inhalation of thirdhand smoke (THS) residue from dust and surfaces in their environments. Objectives Our objective was to compare the different roles of urinary cotinine as a biomarker of recent overall TSE and hand nicotine as a marker of children's contact with nicotine pollution in their environments. We explored the differential associations of these markers with sociodemographics, parental smoking, child TSE, and clinical diagnoses. Methods Data were collected from 276 pediatric emergency department patients (Median age = 4.0 years) who lived with a cigarette smoker. Children's hand nicotine and urinary cotinine levels were determined using LC-MS/MS. Parents reported tobacco use and child TSE. Medical records were reviewed to assess discharge diagnoses. Results All children had detectable hand nicotine (GeoM = 89.7ng/wipe; 95 % CI = [78.9; 102.0]) and detectable urinary cotinine (GeoM = 10.4 ng/ml; 95%CI = [8.5; 12.6]). Although hand nicotine and urinary cotinine were highly correlated (r = 0.62, p Discussion The distinct associations of hand nicotine and urinary cotinine suggest the two markers reflect different exposure profiles that contribute differentially to pediatric illness. Because THS in a child's environment directly contributes to hand nicotine, additional studies of children of smokers and nonsmokers are warranted to determine the role of hand nicotine as a marker of THS exposure and its potential role in the development of tobacco-related pediatric illnesses.

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Topics: Cotinine (70%), Nicotine (59%), Tobacco smoke (58%) ... read more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.18001/TRS.7.3.2
Abstract: Objectives Past research has not examined secondhand and thirdhand smoke (THS) exposure in children of cigar smokers. We examined hand nicotine and cotinine levels in children of cigar smokers to explore the contribution of cigar smoke to tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). Methods Participants were children (N = 24; mean (SD) age = 6.5 (3.6) years) whose parents smoked cigars only or poly-used cigars and/or cigarettes. Primary outcomes were hand nicotine and urinary cotinine levels. Results All children had detectable hand nicotine (range: 7.6-312.5ng/wipe) and cotinine (range: 0.3-100.3ng/ml). Positive correlations were found between hand nicotine and cotinine (r = 0.693, p = .001), hand nicotine and parents who also smoked cigarettes (r = 0.407, p = .048), and hand nicotine and number of smokers around the child (r = 0.436, p = .03). Hand nicotine (r = -0.464, p = .02), but not cotinine (r = -0.266, p = .26), was negatively correlated with child age. Multiple regression results indicated a positive association between hand nicotine and cotinine (p = .002; semi-partial r2 = 0.415), irrespective of child age. Conclusions The significant association of hand nicotine with urinary cotinine suggests that THS pollution should be assessed in evaluating children's overall TSE to cigars and other tobacco products, and hand nicotine may be a proxy for overall TSE. Younger children may have increased THS pollutant uptake.

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Topics: Cotinine (70%), Nicotine (60%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/MBO3.1198
Li He1, Li He2, Yan-Xia Zhou1, Yan-Xia Zhou3  +9 moreInstitutions (5)
01 Jun 2021-
Abstract: The gut microbiome composition is influenced by many factors including environmental exposures. Here, we investigated the effect of thirdhand cigarette smoke (THS) and exposure age on gut microbiome diversity. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to THS at human exposure relevant levels for three weeks during three different life stages: postnatal (0-3 weeks of age), pubescent (4-7 weeks of age), and adult (9-12 weeks of age), respectively. Cecal microbiome profiles were assessed at 17 weeks of age by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that age at THS exposure strongly influenced the cecal microbiome composition. Although postnatal THS exposure significantly influenced the microbial composition, pubescent and adulthood exposures only had minor effects. The microbiome of postnatally THS-exposed mice significantly increased several degradation pathways that regulate glycolysis and pyruvate decarboxylation, and significantly decreased coenzyme A biosynthesis and pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside salvage. Our results indicate that mouse postnatal development is particularly susceptible to persistent THS exposure effects on the gut microbiome.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU132312994
24 Nov 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: While the impacts of cigarette smoking on human health are widely known, a less recognized impact of tobacco product use and disposal is environmental pollution. This review discusses the current literature related to cigarette and e-cigarette contamination in the context of environmental sources and impacts, with a focus on the documented influences on biota, ranging from bacteria to mammals. Cigarette butts and electronic cigarette components can leach contaminants into soil, water, and air. Cellulose acetate cigarette filters comprising the butts are minimally degradable and are a source of bulk plastic and microplastic pollution, especially in aquatic ecosystems where they tend to accumulate. Cigarette combustion and aerosol production during e-cigarette use result in air contamination from sidestream, exhaled, and thirdhand pathways. The chemical byproducts of tobacco product use contaminate wastewater effluents, landfill leachates, and urban storm drains. The widespread detection of nicotine and cotinine in the environment illustrates the potential for large-scale environmental impacts of tobacco product waste. Studies show that cigarette butt leachate and nicotine are toxic to microbes, plants, benthic organisms, bivalves, zooplankton, fish, and mammals; however, there remain critical knowledge gaps related to the environmental impacts of tobacco product waste on environmental health and ecosystem functioning.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BIOMEDICINES9111581
Rodney R. Dietert1Institutions (1)
30 Oct 2021-Biomedicines
Abstract: The is a sequential article to an initial review suggesting that Microbiome First medical approaches to human health and wellness could both aid the fight against noncommunicable diseases and conditions (NCDs) and help to usher in sustainable healthcare. This current review article specifically focuses on public health programs and initiatives and what has been termed by medical journals as a catastrophic record of recent failures. Included in the review is a discussion of the four priority behavioral modifications (food choices, cessation of two drugs of abuse, and exercise) advocated by the World Health Organization as the way to stop the ongoing NCD epidemic. The lack of public health focus on the majority of cells and genes in the human superorganism, the microbiome, is highlighted as is the “regulatory gap” failure to protect humans, particularly the young, from a series of mass population toxic exposures (e.g., asbestos, trichloroethylene, dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyls, triclosan, bisphenol A and other plasticizers, polyfluorinated compounds, herbicides, food emulsifiers, high fructose corn syrup, certain nanoparticles, endocrine disruptors, and obesogens). The combination of early life toxicity for the microbiome and connected human physiological systems (e.g., immune, neurological), plus a lack of attention to the importance of microbial rebiosis has facilitated rather than suppressed, the NCD epidemic. This review article concludes with a call to place the microbiome first and foremost in public health initiatives as a way to both rescue public health effectiveness and reduce the human suffering connected to comorbid NCDs.

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Topics: Public health (55%), Microbiome (53%), Population (52%) ... read more
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38 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE11234
Curtis Huttenhower1, Curtis Huttenhower2, Dirk Gevers1, Rob Knight3  +250 moreInstitutions (42)
14 Jun 2012-Nature
Abstract: The Human Microbiome Project Consortium reports the first results of their analysis of microbial communities from distinct, clinically relevant body habitats in a human cohort; the insights into the microbial communities of a healthy population lay foundations for future exploration of the epidemiology, ecology and translational applications of the human microbiome.

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Topics: Human Microbiome Project (72%), Oral Microbiome (65%), Microbiome (64%) ... read more

6,805 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1164/RCCM.201210-1913OC
Abstract: Rationale: Results from 16S rDNA-encoding gene sequence–based, culture-independent techniques have led to conflicting conclusions about the composition of the lower respiratory tract microbiome. Objectives: To compare the microbiome of the upper and lower respiratory tract in healthy HIV-uninfected nonsmokers and smokers in a multicenter cohort. Methods: Participants were nonsmokers and smokers without significantcomorbidities.Oralwashesandbronchoscopicalveolarlavages were collected in a standardized manner. Sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding genes was performed, and the neutral modelincommunityecologywasusedtoidentifybacteriathatwere the most plausible members of a lung microbiome. Measurements and Main Results: Sixty-four participants were enrolled. Mostbacteriaidentifiedinthelungwerealsointhemouth,butspecific bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus, Methylobacterium, and Ralstonia species were disproportionally represented in the lungs compared with values predicted by the neutral model. Tropheryma was

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Topics: Lung microbiome (60%), Microbiome (56%), Prospective cohort study (51%)

533 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/TC.2003.003889
01 Mar 2004-Tobacco Control
Abstract: Objectives: To examine (1) whether dust and surfaces in households of smokers are contaminated with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); (2) whether smoking parents can protect their infants by smoking outside and away from the infant; and (3) whether contaminated dust, surfaces, and air contribute to ETS exposure in infants. Design: Quasi-experiment comparing three types of households with infants: (1) non-smokers who believe they have protected their children from ETS; (2) smokers who believe they have protected their children from ETS; (3) smokers who expose their children to ETS. Setting: Homes of smokers and non-smokers. Participants: Smoking and non-smoking mothers and their infants ⩽ 1 year. Main outcome measures: ETS contamination as measured by nicotine in household dust, indoor air, and household surfaces. ETS exposure as measured by cotinine levels in infant urine. Results: ETS contamination and ETS exposure were 5–7 times higher in households of smokers trying to protect their infants by smoking outdoors than in households of non-smokers. ETS contamination and exposure were 3–8 times higher in households of smokers who exposed their infants to ETS by smoking indoors than in households of smokers trying to protect their children by smoking outdoors. Conclusions: Dust and surfaces in homes of smokers are contaminated with ETS. Infants of smokers are at risk of ETS exposure in their homes through dust, surfaces, and air. Smoking outside the home and away from the infant reduces but does not completely protect a smoker’s home from ETS contamination and a smoker’s infant from ETS exposure.

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Topics: Environmental exposure (56%)

388 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1289/EHP.1103500
Abstract: Background: There is broad consensus regarding the health impact of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure, yet considerable ambiguity exists about the nature and consequences of thirdhand smoke (THS). Objectives: We introduce definitions of THS and THS exposure and review recent findings about constituents, indoor sorption–desorption dynamics, and transformations of THS; distribution and persistence of THS in residential settings; implications for pathways of exposure; potential clinical significance and health effects; and behavioral and policy issues that affect and are affected by THS. Discussion: Physical and chemical transformations of tobacco smoke pollutants take place over time scales ranging from seconds to months and include the creation of secondary pollutants that in some cases are more toxic (e.g., tobacco-specific nitrosamines). THS persists in real-world residential settings in the air, dust, and surfaces and is associated with elevated levels of nicotine on hands and cotinine in urine of nonsmokers residing in homes previously occupied by smokers. Much still needs to be learned about the chemistry, exposure, toxicology, health risks, and policy implications of THS. Conclusion: The existing evidence on THS provides strong support for pursuing a programmatic research agenda to close gaps in our current understanding of the chemistry, exposure, toxicology, and health effects of THS, as well as its behavioral, economic, and sociocultural considerations and consequences. Such a research agenda is necessary to illuminate the role of THS in existing and future tobacco control efforts to decrease smoking initiation and smoking levels, to increase cessation attempts and sustained cessation, and to reduce the cumulative effects of tobacco use on morbidity and mortality.

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328 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/0022034510377203
Abstract: The subgingival microbiome is largely uncultivated, and therefore, cultivation-based and targeted molecular approaches have limited value in examining the effect of smoking on this community. We tested the hypothesis that the subgingival biofilm is compositionally different in current and never-smokers by using an open-ended molecular approach for bacterial identification. Subgingival plaque from deep sites of current and never-smokers matched for disease was analyzed by 16S sequencing. Smokers demonstrated greater abundance of Parvimonas, Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Bacteroides, and Treponema and lower levels of Veillonella, Neisseria, and Streptococcus. Several uncultivated Peptostreptococci, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter gracilis, Treponema socranskii, Dialister pneumosintes, and Tannerella forsythia were elevated in this group, while Veillonella sp. oral clone B2, Neisseria sp. oral clone 2.24, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Capnocytophaga sp. clone AH015 were at lower levels. The microbial profile of smoking-associated periodontitis is distinct from that of non-smokers, with significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of disease-associated and health-compatible organisms.

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Topics: Dialister pneumosintes (57%), Parvimonas micra (56%), Veillonella (54%) ... read more

190 Citations


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