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Journal ArticleDOI

Alternative Explanations of the Cosmic Microwave Background: A Historical and an Epistemological Perspective

TL;DR: In this article, the authors trace various nonconventional explanations for the origin of the cosmic microwave background and discuss their merit, while analyzing the dynamics of their rejection, as well as the relevant physical and methodological reasons for it.
Abstract: We historically trace various non-conventional explanations for the origin of the cosmic microwave background and discuss their merit, while analyzing the dynamics of their rejection, as well as the relevant physical and methodological reasons for it. It turns out that there have been many such unorthodox interpretations; not only those developed in the context of theories rejecting the relativistic ("Big Bang") paradigm entirely (e.g., by Alfven, Hoyle and Narlikar) but also those coming from the camp of original thinkers firmly entrenched in the relativistic milieu (e.g., by Rees, Ellis, Rowan-Robinson, Layzer and Hively). In fact, the orthodox interpretation has only incrementally won out against the alternatives over the course of the three decades of its multi-stage development. While on the whole, none of the alternatives to the hot Big Bang scenario is persuasive today, we discuss the epistemic ramifications of establishing orthodoxy and eliminating alternatives in science, an issue recently discussed by philosophers and historians of science for other areas of physics. Finally, we single out some plausible and possibly fruitful ideas offered by the alternatives.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The meaning and evolution of the notion of "temperature" (which is a key concept for the condensed and gaseous matter theories) are addressed from the different points of view and the relation of the temperature to the metrics of the configurational space describing the behavior of the system built from non-interacting particles is demonstrated.
Abstract: The meaning and evolution of the notion of "temperature" (which is a key concept for the condensed and gaseous matter theories) are addressed from the different points of view. The concept of temperature turns out to be much more fundamental than it is conventionally thought. In particular, the temperature may be introduced for the systems built of "small" number of particles and particles in rest. The Kelvin temperature scale may be introduced into the quantum and relativistic physics due to the fact, that the efficiency of the quantum and relativistic Carnot cycles coincides with that of the classical one. The relation of the temperature to the metrics of the configurational space describing the behavior of the system built from non-interacting particles is demonstrated. The Landauer principle asserts that the temperature of the system is the only physical value defining the energy cost of isothermal erasing of the single bit of information. The role of the temperature the cosmic microwave background in modern cosmology is discussed.

7 citations


Cites background from "Alternative Explanations of the Cos..."

  • ...The fundamental role of the notion of temperature becomes even more pronounced in the context of the effect of the cosmic microwave background [44]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
03 Dec 2020-Entropy
TL;DR: The meaning and evolution of the notion of “temperature” (which is a key concept for the condensed and gaseous matter theories) are addressed from different points of view and the Kelvin temperature scale may be introduced into quantum and relativistic physics.
Abstract: The meaning and evolution of the notion of “temperature” (which is a key concept for the condensed and gaseous matter theories) are addressed from different points of view. The concept of temperature has turned out to be much more fundamental than conventionally thought. In particular, the temperature may be introduced for systems built of a “small” number of particles and particles at rest. The Kelvin temperature scale may be introduced into quantum and relativistic physics due to the fact that the efficiency of the quantum and relativistic Carnot cycles coincides with that of the classical one. The relation of temperature with the metrics of the configurational space describing the behavior of systems built from non-interacting particles is demonstrated. The role of temperature in constituting inertia and gravity forces treated as entropy forces is addressed. The Landauer principle asserts that the temperature of a system is the only physical value defining the energy cost of the isothermal erasure of a single bit of information. The fundamental role of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background in modern cosmology is discussed. The range of problems and controversies related to the negative absolute temperature is treated.

5 citations


Cites background from "Alternative Explanations of the Cos..."

  • ...Dicke was a turning point in modern-century cosmology [50]....

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  • ...The fundamental role of the notion of temperature becomes even more pronounced in the context of the effect of the cosmic microwave background [50]....

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  • ...The fundamental importance of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background in the grounding of basic ideas of modern cosmology is addressed [50]....

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  • ...The fundamental role of the notion of temperature becomes even more pronounced in the c text of the effect of the cosmic microwave background [50]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A special issue on dark matter and modified gravity was published in this paper , with the focus on the history and philosophy of modern physics and history of science, and six papers were collected in the special issue.
Abstract: Editorial of a special issue on dark matter & modified gravity, distributed across the journals Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics and Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. Published version of the open access editorial (in SHPS) available here: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shpsa.2021.08.015. The six papers are collected here: https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-science-part-b-studies-in-history-and-philosophy-of-modern-physics/special-issue/10CR71RJLWM.

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2022-Galaxies
TL;DR: In this article , the authors compare the results of the standard ΛCDM cosmological model and some static cosmology models, including Zwicky's "tired-light" model.
Abstract: The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which has recently become operational, is capable of detecting objects at record-breaking redshifts, z≳15. This is a crucial advance for observational cosmology, as at these redshifts the differences between alternative cosmological models manifest themselves in the most obvious way. In recent years, some observational hints have emerged indicating that the Standard Cosmological Model could require correcting. One of these hints is related to the discovery of remote galaxies whose redshifts correspond to the very young Universe (less than one billion years after the Big Bang) but which are similar to nearby galaxies. The issue is that such galaxies in the early Universe do not have enough time to evolve into something similar to the late-Universe galaxies. JWST observations of high-redshift objects are expected to shed light on the origin of this issue. Here we provide results on performing the “angular diameter—redshift” cosmological test for the first JWST observation data. We compare this result with predictions of the standard ΛCDM cosmological model and some static cosmological models, including Zwicky’s “tired-light” model. The latter is currently assumed to be ruled out by observations. We challenge this assumption and show that a static model can provide a natural and straightforward way of solving the puzzle of the well-evolved galaxies and better agreements with the results of the JWST “angular diameter—redshift” test at high redshifts than the correcting evolution model within the ΛCDM framework. We discuss several cosmological tests that will be important for further research on the possibility of revising the expanding Universe paradigm.

1 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 1962

24,003 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a combination of seven-year data from WMAP and improved astrophysical data rigorously tests the standard cosmological model and places new constraints on its basic parameters and extensions.
Abstract: The combination of seven-year data from WMAP and improved astrophysical data rigorously tests the standard cosmological model and places new constraints on its basic parameters and extensions. By combining the WMAP data with the latest distance measurements from the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the distribution of galaxies and the Hubble constant (H0) measurement, we determine the parameters of the simplest six-parameter ΛCDM model. The power-law index of the primordial power spectrum is ns = 0.968 ± 0.012 (68% CL) for this data combination, a measurement that excludes the Harrison–Zel’dovich–Peebles spectrum by 99.5% CL. The other parameters, including those beyond the minimal set, are also consistent with, and improved from, the five-year results. We find no convincing deviations from the minimal model. The seven-year temperature power spectrum gives a better determination of the third acoustic peak, which results in a better determination of the redshift of the matter-radiation equality epoch. Notable examples of improved parameters are the total mass of neutrinos, � mν < 0.58 eV (95% CL), and the effective number of neutrino species, Neff = 4.34 +0.86 −0.88 (68% CL), which benefit from better determinations of the third peak and H0. The limit on a constant dark energy equation of state parameter from WMAP+BAO+H0, without high-redshift Type Ia supernovae, is w =− 1.10 ± 0.14 (68% CL). We detect the effect of primordial helium on the temperature power spectrum and provide a new test of big bang nucleosynthesis by measuring Yp = 0.326 ± 0.075 (68% CL). We detect, and show on the map for the first time, the tangential and radial polarization patterns around hot and cold spots of temperature fluctuations, an important test of physical processes at z = 1090 and the dominance of adiabatic scalar fluctuations. The seven-year polarization data have significantly improved: we now detect the temperature–E-mode polarization cross power spectrum at 21σ , compared with 13σ from the five-year data. With the seven-year temperature–B-mode cross power spectrum, the limit on a rotation of the polarization plane due to potential parity-violating effects has improved by 38% to Δα =− 1. 1 ± 1. 4(statistical) ± 1. 5(systematic) (68% CL). We report significant detections of the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) effect at the locations of known clusters of galaxies. The measured SZ signal agrees well with the expected signal from the X-ray data on a cluster-by-cluster basis. However, it is a factor of 0.5–0.7 times the predictions from “universal profile” of Arnaud et al., analytical models, and hydrodynamical simulations. We find, for the first time in the SZ effect, a significant difference between the cooling-flow and non-cooling-flow clusters (or relaxed and non-relaxed clusters), which can explain some of the discrepancy. This lower amplitude is consistent with the lower-than-theoretically expected SZ power spectrum recently measured by the South Pole Telescope Collaboration.

11,309 citations

Book
01 Jan 1990
TL;DR: In this article, the Robertson-Walker Metric is used to measure the radius of the Planck Epoch in the expanding universe, which is a measure of the number of atoms in the universe.
Abstract: * Editors Foreword * The Universe Observed * Robertson-Walker Metric * Standard Cosmology * Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis * Thermodynamics in the Expanding Universe * Baryogenesis * Phase Transitions * Inflation * Structure Formation * Axions * Toward the Planck Epoch * Finale

6,319 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year WMAP data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmology data sets.
Abstract: We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year WMAP data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter CDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities, bh 2 , ch 2 , and , are each determined to a precision of 1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5 level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional CDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their CDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to k = 0.0027 +0.0039 0.0038 ; the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to P m < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within Ne = 3.84±0.40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on Ne and the primordial helium abundance, YHe, agrees with the prediction of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev‐Zel’dovich eect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological model and provides a striking illustration of acoustic oscillations and adiabatic initial conditions in the early universe. Subject headings: cosmic microwave background, cosmology: observations, early universe, dark matter, space vehicles, space vehicles: instruments, instrumentation: detectors, telescopes

5,488 citations

Book
01 Jan 1994
TL;DR: The logistic map, a canonical one-dimensional system exhibiting surprisingly complex and aperiodic behavior, is modeled as a function of its chaotic parameter, and the progression through period-doubling bifurcations to the onset of chaos is considered.
Abstract: We explore several basic aspects of chaos, chaotic systems, and non-linear dynamics through three different setups. The logistic map, a canonical one-dimensional system exhibiting surprisingly complex and aperiodic behavior, is modeled as a function of its chaotic parameter. We consider maps of its phase space, and the progression through period-doubling bifurcations to the onset of chaos. The Feigenbaum ratio of successive bifurcation periods is estimated at 4.674, in good agreement with the accepted value. The Liapunov exponent, governing the exponential growth of small perturbations in chaotic systems, is calculated and its fractal structure compared to the corresponding bifurcation diagram for the logistic map. Using a non-linear p-n junction circuit we analyze the return maps and power spectrums of the resulting time series at various types of system behavior. Similarly, an electronic analog to a ball bouncing on a vertically driven table provides insight into real-world applications of chaotic motion. For both systems we calculate the fractal information dimension and compare with theoretical behavior for dissipative versus Hamiltonian systems. Subject headings: non-linear dynamics; non-linear dynamical systems; fractal dimension; chaos; strange attractors; logistic map

5,372 citations


"Alternative Explanations of the Cos..." refers background in this paper

  • ... that chaos is the property of systems highly sensitive to initial conditions and that a small difference in the initial conditions leads to exponential divergences in the subsequent evolution (e.g., Strogatz 2001). Rees uses primordial chaos in operational terms, as a placeholder for initial inhomogeneities and anisotropies whose smoothing released the required CMB energy. He points out that in the standard pi...

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Trending Questions (1)
What are the alternative theories of the big bang?

The paper discusses various alternative explanations for the origin of the cosmic microwave background, including those proposed by Alfven, Hoyle, Narlikar, Rees, Ellis, Rowan-Robinson, Layzer, and Hively.