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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MOLCEL.2020.12.030

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres is a Self-Perpetuating Process in ALT-Associated PML Bodies

04 Mar 2021-Molecular Cell (Mendeley)-Vol. 81, Iss: 5
Abstract: Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is mediated by break-induced replication (BIR), but how BIR is regulated at telomeres is poorly understood. Here, we show that telomeric BIR is a self-perpetuating process. By tethering PML-IV to telomeres, we induced telomere clustering in ALT-associated PML bodies (APBs) and a POLD3-dependent ATR response at telomeres, showing that BIR generates replication stress. Ablation of BLM helicase activity in APBs abolishes telomere synthesis but causes multiple chromosome bridges between telomeres, revealing a function of BLM in processing inter-telomere BIR intermediates. Interestingly, the accumulation of BLM in APBs requires its own helicase activity and POLD3, suggesting that BIR triggers a feedforward loop to further recruit BLM. Enhancing BIR induces PIAS4-mediated TRF2 SUMOylation, and PIAS4 loss deprives APBs of repair proteins and compromises ALT telomere synthesis. Thus, a BLM-driven and PIAS4-mediated feedforward loop operates in APBs to perpetuate BIR, providing a critical mechanism to extend ALT telomeres.

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Topics: Telomere (52%)
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9 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22105391
Abstract: Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted E3 ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) are specialized enzymes that recognize SUMOylated proteins and attach ubiquitin to them. They therefore connect the cellular SUMOylation and ubiquitination circuits. STUbLs participate in diverse molecular processes that span cell cycle regulated events, including DNA repair, replication, mitosis, and transcription. They operate during unperturbed conditions and in response to challenges, such as genotoxic stress. These E3 ubiquitin ligases modify their target substrates by catalyzing ubiquitin chains that form different linkages, resulting in proteolytic or non-proteolytic outcomes. Often, STUbLs function in compartmentalized environments, such as the nuclear envelope or kinetochore, and actively aid in nuclear relocalization of damaged DNA and stalled replication forks to promote DNA repair or fork restart. Furthermore, STUbLs reside in the same vicinity as SUMO proteases and deubiquitinases (DUBs), providing spatiotemporal control of their targets. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms by which STUbLs help to maintain genome stability across different species.

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Topics: SUMO protein (57%), Ubiquitin (55%), DNA repair (51%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.DNAREP.2021.103179
Vincent Spegg1, Matthias Altmeyer1Institutions (1)
14 Jul 2021-DNA Repair
Abstract: Protein recruitment to DNA break sites is an integral part of the DNA damage response (DDR). Elucidation of the hierarchy and temporal order with which DNA damage sensors as well as repair and signaling factors assemble around chromosome breaks has painted a complex picture of tightly regulated macromolecular interactions that build specialized compartments to facilitate repair and maintenance of genome integrity. While many of the underlying interactions, e.g. between repair factors and damage-induced histone marks, can be explained by lock-and-key or induced fit binding models assuming fixed stoichiometries, structurally less well defined interactions, such as the highly dynamic multivalent interactions implicated in phase separation, also participate in the formation of multi-protein assemblies in response to genotoxic stress. Although much remains to be learned about these types of cooperative and highly dynamic interactions and their functional roles, the rapidly growing interest in material properties of biomolecular condensates and in concepts from polymer chemistry and soft matter physics to understand biological processes at different scales holds great promises. Here, we discuss nuclear condensates in the context of genome integrity maintenance, highlighting the cooperative potential between clustered stoichiometric binding and phase separation. Rather than viewing them as opposing scenarios, their combined effects can balance structural specificity with favorable physicochemical properties relevant for the regulation and function of multilayered nuclear condensates.

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5 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TCB.2021.07.005
Esther A. Epum1, James E. Haber1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Failure to complete DNA replication is one of the major sources of genome instability leading to aneuploidy, chromosome breakage, and chromosome rearrangements that are associated with human cancer. One of the surprising revelations of the past decade is that the completion of replication at so-called common fragile sites (CFS) occurs very late in the cell cycle – at mitosis – through a process termed MiDAS (mitotic DNA synthesis). MiDAS is strongly related to another cancer-promoting phenomenon: the activation of alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Our understanding of the mechanisms of ALT and MiDAS in mammalian cells has drawn heavily from recent advances in the study of break-induced replication (BIR), especially in budding yeast. We provide new insights into the BIR, MiDAS, and ALT pathways and their shared similarities.

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Topics: Chromosome breakage (57%), DNA replication (56%), Chromosomal fragile site (53%) ... show more

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.DNAREP.2021.103162
Takaaki Yasuhara1, Lee Zou2Institutions (2)
19 Jun 2021-DNA Repair
Abstract: The proper spatial organization of DNA, RNA, and proteins is critical for a variety of cellular processes. The genome is organized into numerous functional units, such as topologically associating domains (TADs), the formation of which is regulated by both proteins and RNA. In addition, a group of chromatin-bound proteins with the ability to undergo liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) can affect the spatial organization and compartmentalization of chromatin, RNA, and proteins by forming condensates, conferring unique properties to specific chromosomal regions. Although the regulation of DNA repair by histone modifications and chromatin accessibility is well established, the impacts of higher-order chromatin and protein organization on the DNA damage response (DDR) have not been appreciated until recently. In this review, we will focus on the movement of chromatin during the DDR, the compartmentalization of DDR proteins via LLPS, and the roles of membraneless nuclear bodies and transcription in DNA repair. With this backdrop, we will discuss the importance of the spatial organization of chromatin and proteins for the maintenance of genome integrity.

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Topics: Chromatin (68%), Histone (57%), DNA repair (55%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TCB.2021.06.002
Noa Lamm1, Samuel Rogers1, Anthony J. Cesare1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The nucleus is a dynamic environment containing chromatin, membraneless organelles, and specialized molecular structures at the nuclear membrane. Within the spectrum of DNA repair activities are observations of increased mobility of damaged chromatin and the displacement of DNA lesions to specific nuclear environments. Here, we focus on the role that nuclear-specific filamentous actin plays in mobilizing damaged chromatin in response to DNA double-strand breaks and replication stress. We also examine nuclear pore complexes and promyelocytic leukemia-nuclear bodies as specialized platforms for homology-directed repair. The literature suggests an emerging model where specific types of DNA lesions are subjected to nuclear-derived forces that mobilize damaged chromatin and promote interaction with repair hubs to facilitate specialized repair reactions.

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Topics: Chromatin (64%), DNA repair (58%), Homology directed repair (56%) ... show more

1 Citations


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54 results found


Open accessJournal Article
01 Sep 1999-Cancer Research
Abstract: Telomerase-negative immortalized human cells maintain their telomeres by a mechanism known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). We report here that ALT cells contain a novel promyelocytic leukemia (PML) body (ALT-associated PML body, APB). APBs are large donut-shaped nuclear structures containing PML protein, telomeric DNA, and the telomere binding proteins human telomere repeat binding factors 1 and 2. Immunostaining showed that APBs also contain replication factor A, RAD51, and RAD52, proteins involved in DNA synthesis and recombination. During immortalization, APBs appeared at exactly the same time as activation of ALT. APBs were found in ALT tumors and cell lines but not in mortal cell strains or in telomerase-positive cell lines or tumors.

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Topics: Promyelocytic leukemia protein (60%), Telomere-binding protein (58%), Telomerase (57%) ... show more

646 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2016.06.010
Salman F. Banani1, Allyson M. Rice1, William B. Peeples1, Yuan Lin1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
28 Jul 2016-Cell
Abstract: Cellular bodies such as P bodies and PML nuclear bodies (PML NBs) appear to be phase-separated liquids organized by multivalent interactions among proteins and RNA molecules. Although many components of various cellular bodies are known, general principles that define body composition are lacking. We modeled cellular bodies using several engineered multivalent proteins and RNA. In vitro and in cells, these scaffold molecules form phase-separated liquids that concentrate low valency client proteins. Clients partition differently depending on the ratio of scaffolds, with a sharp switch across the phase diagram diagonal. Composition can switch rapidly through changes in scaffold concentration or valency. Natural PML NBs and P bodies show analogous partitioning behavior, suggesting how their compositions could be controlled by levels of PML SUMOylation or cellular mRNA concentration, respectively. The data suggest a conceptual framework for considering the composition and control thereof of cellular bodies assembled through heterotypic multivalent interactions.

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551 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2008.11.045
09 Jan 2009-Cell
Abstract: SUMMARY Eukaryotic DNA is bound and interpreted by numerous protein complexes in the context of chromatin. A description of the full set of proteins that regulate specific loci is critical to understanding regulation. Here, we describe a protocol called proteomics of isolated chromatin segments (PICh) that addresses this issue. PICh uses a specific nucleic acid probe to isolate genomic DNA with its associated proteins in sufficient quantity and purity to allow identification of the bound proteins. Purification of human telomeric chromatin using PICh identified the majority of known telomeric factors and uncovered a large number of novel associations. We compared proteins found at telomeres maintained by the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to proteins bound at telomeres maintained by telomerase. We identified and validated several proteins, including orphan nuclear receptors, that specifically bind to ALT telomeres, establishing PICh as a useful tool for characterizing chromatin composition.

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Topics: Chromatin (58%), Non-histone protein (57%), Eukaryotic DNA replication (52%) ... show more

458 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/SJ.ONC.1204765
29 Oct 2001-Oncogene
Abstract: PML is a component of a multiprotein complex, termed nuclear bodies, and the PML protein was originally discovered in patients suffering from acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL). APL is associated with a reciprocal chromosomal translocation of chromosomes 15 and 17, which results in a fusion protein comprising PML and the retinoic acid receptor alpha. The PML genomic locus is approximately 35 kb and is subdivided into nine exons. A large number of alternative spliced transcripts are synthesized from the PML gene, resulting in a variety of PML proteins ranging in molecular weight from 48-97 kDa. In this review we summarize the data on the known PML isoforms and splice variants and present a new unifying nomenclature. Although, the function/s of the PML variants are unclear, all PML isoforms contain an identical N-terminal region, suggesting that these sequences are indispensable for function, but differ in their C-terminal sequences. The N-terminal region harbours a RING-finger, two B-boxes and a predicted alpha-helical Coiled-Coil domain, that together form the RBCC/TRIM motif found in a large family of proteins. In PML this motif is essential for PML nuclear body formation in vivo and PML-homo and hetero interactions conferring growth suppressor, apoptotic and anti-viral activities. In APL oligomerization mediated by the RBCC/TRIM motif is essential for the transformation potential of the PML-RARalpha fusion protein.

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Topics: Protein PML (84%), Promyelocytic leukemia protein (58%), Retinoic acid receptor alpha (56%) ... show more

456 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MOLCEL.2006.09.013
03 Nov 2006-Molecular Cell
Abstract: PML nuclear bodies (NBs) are nuclear structures that have been implicated in processes such as transcriptional regulation, genome stability, response to viral infection, apoptosis, and tumor suppression. PML has been found to be essential for the formation of the NBs, as these structures do not form in Pml null cells, although PML add back fully rescues their formation. However, the basis for such a structural role of PML is unknown. We demonstrate that PML contains a SUMO binding motif that is independent of its SUMOylation sites and is surprisingly necessary for PML-NB formation. We demonstrate that the PML RING domain is critical for PML SUMOylation and PML-NB formation. We propose a model for PML-NB formation whereby PML SUMOylation and noncovalent binding of PML to SUMOylated PML through the SUMO binding motif constitutes the nucleation event for subsequent recruitment of SUMOylated proteins and/or proteins containing SUMO binding motifs to the PML NBs.

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437 Citations


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20219