# Alternative <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline"><mml:mi>k</mml:mi><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mo>−</mml:mo><mml:mn>1</mml:mn></mml:math> loop quantum cosmology

TL;DR: An alternative quantization of the gravitational Hamiltonian constraint of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model is proposed by treating the Euclidean term and the Lorentzian term independently, mimicking the treatment of full loop quantum gravity as mentioned in this paper .

Abstract: An alternative quantization of the gravitational Hamiltonian constraint of the $k=-1$ Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model is proposed by treating the Euclidean term and the Lorentzian term independently, mimicking the treatment of full loop quantum gravity. The resulting Hamiltonian constraint operator for the $k=-1$ model with a massless scalar field is successfully constructed, and is shown to have the corrected classical limit. Compared to the former quantization schemes in the literature where only the Euclidean term is quantized, the new quantum dynamics of the $k=-1$ model with a massless scalar field indicates that the classical big-bang singularity is replaced by an asymmetric quantum bounce.

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TL;DR: In this article , the authors provide an introduction to the loop quantum black hole model, a summary of the progress made in this field, as well as the quantum effective dynamics and physical applications of these models.

Abstract: In recent decades, there has been growing interest in the quantization of black holes using techniques developed in loop quantum cosmology. Due to the quantum geometry effect, the resulting quantum-corrected black hole provides non-singular models. The quantization scheme can be roughly divided into four types: (1) the μ0 scheme, (2) the μ¯ scheme, (3) the generalized μ0 scheme, and (4) the quantum collapsing model. This paper provides an introduction of the loop quantum black hole model, a summary of the progress made in this field, as well as the quantum effective dynamics and physical applications of these models.

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TL;DR: Loop quantum gravity as discussed by the authors is a background-independent, non-perturbative approach to the problem of unification of general relativity and quantum physics, based on a quantum theory of geometry.

Abstract: The goal of this review is to present an introduction to loop quantum gravity—a background-independent, non-perturbative approach to the problem of unification of general relativity and quantum physics, based on a quantum theory of geometry. Our presentation is pedagogical. Thus, in addition to providing a bird's eye view of the present status of the subject, the review should also serve as a vehicle to enter the field and explore it in detail. To aid non-experts, very little is assumed beyond elements of general relativity, gauge theories and quantum field theory. While the review is essentially self-contained, the emphasis is on communicating the underlying ideas and the significance of results rather than on presenting systematic derivations and detailed proofs. (These can be found in the listed references.) The subject can be approached in different ways. We have chosen one which is deeply rooted in well-established physics and also has sufficient mathematical precision to ensure that there are no hidden infinities. In order to keep the review to a reasonable size, and to avoid overwhelming non-experts, we have had to leave out several interesting topics, results and viewpoints; this is meant to be an introduction to the subject rather than an exhaustive review of it.

1,804 citations

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01 Sep 2007TL;DR: The field of Canonical Quantum General Relation (CQGR) as mentioned in this paper is an attempt to define a mathematically rigorous, non-perturbative, background independent theory of Lorentzian quantum gravity in four spacetime dimensions in the continuum.

Abstract: This is an introduction to the by now fifteen years old research field of canonical quantum general relativity, sometimes called "loop quantum gravity". The term "modern" in the title refers to the fact that the quantum theory is based on formulating classical general relativity as a theory of connections rather than metrics as compared to in original version due to Arnowitt, Deser and Misner. Canonical quantum general relativity is an attempt to define a mathematically rigorous, non-perturbative, background independent theory of Lorentzian quantum gravity in four spacetime dimensions in the continuum. The approach is minimal in that one simply analyzes the logical consequences of combining the principles of general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics. The requirement to preserve background independence has lead to new, fascinating mathematical structures which one does not see in perturbative approaches, e.g. a fundamental discreteness of spacetime seems to be a prediction of the theory providing a first substantial evidence for a theory in which the gravitational field acts as a natural UV cut-off. An effort has been made to provide a self-contained exposition of a restricted amount of material at the appropriate level of rigour which at the same time is accessible to graduate students with only basic knowledge of general relativity and quantum field theory on Minkowski space.

1,686 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the spectrum of the volume in nonperturbative quantum gravity, and showed that the spectrum can be computed by diagonalizing finite dimensional matrices, which can be seen as a generalization of the spin networks.

1,212 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an improved Hamiltonian constraint operator is introduced in loop quantum cosmology for the isotropic model with a massless scalar field and the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce.

Abstract: An improved Hamiltonian constraint operator is introduced in loop quantum cosmology. Quantum dynamics of the spatially flat, isotropic model with a massless scalar field is then studied in detail using analytical and numerical methods. The scalar field continues to serve as ''emergent time'', the big bang is again replaced by a quantum bounce, and quantum evolution remains deterministic across the deep Planck regime. However, while with the Hamiltonian constraint used so far in loop quantum cosmology the quantum bounce can occur even at low matter densities, with the new Hamiltonian constraint it occurs only at a Planck-scale density. Thus, the new quantum dynamics retains the attractive features of current evolutions in loop quantum cosmology but, at the same time, cures their main weakness.

1,171 citations

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TL;DR: Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) as mentioned in this paper is the result of applying principles of loop quantum gravity to cosmological settings, where quantum geometry creates a brand new repulsive force which is totally negligible at low spacetime curvature but rises very rapidly in the Planck regime, overwhelming the classical gravitational attraction.

Abstract: Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the result of applying principles of loop quantum gravity (LQG) to cosmological settings. The distinguishing feature of LQC is the prominent role played by the quantum geometry effects of LQG. In particular, quantum geometry creates a brand new repulsive force which is totally negligible at low spacetime curvature but rises very rapidly in the Planck regime, overwhelming the classical gravitational attraction. In cosmological models, while Einstein's equations hold to an excellent degree of approximation at low curvature, they undergo major modifications in the Planck regime: for matter satisfying the usual energy conditions, any time a curvature invariant grows to the Planck scale, quantum geometry effects dilute it, thereby resolving singularities of general relativity. Quantum geometry corrections become more sophisticated as the models become richer. In particular, in anisotropic models, there are significant changes in the dynamics of shear potentials which tame their singular behavior in striking contrast to older results on anisotropies in bouncing models. Once singularities are resolved, the conceptual paradigm of cosmology changes and one has to revisit many of the standard issues—e.g. the 'horizon problem'—from a new perspective. Such conceptual issues as well as potential observational consequences of the new Planck scale physics are being explored, especially within the inflationary paradigm. These considerations have given rise to a burst of activity in LQC in recent years, with contributions from quantum gravity experts, mathematical physicists and cosmologists. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of the art in LQC for three sets of audiences: young researchers interested in entering this area; the quantum gravity community in general and cosmologists who wish to apply LQC to probe modifications in the standard paradigm of the early universe. In this review, effort has been made to streamline the material so that each of these communities can read only the sections they are most interested in, without loss of continuity.

1,162 citations