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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MOLECULES26051337

Ameliorating the Adverse Effects of Tomato mosaic tobamovirus Infecting Tomato Plants in Egypt by Boosting Immunity in Tomato Plants Using Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

02 Mar 2021-Molecules (MDPI AG)-Vol. 26, Iss: 5, pp 1337
Abstract: Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) is one of the economically damageable Tobamovirus infecting the tomato in Egypt that has caused significant losses. It is therefore of great interest to trigger systemic resistance to ToMV. In this endeavor, we aimed to explore the capacity of ZnO-NPs (zinc oxide nanoparticles) to trigger tomato plant resistance against ToMV. Effects of ZnO-NPs on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) growth indices and antioxidant defense system activity under ToMV stress were investigated. Noticeably that treatment with ZnO-NPs showed remarkably increased growth indices, photosynthetic attributes, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants compared to the challenge control. Interestingly, oxidative damage caused by ToMV was reduced by reducing malondialdehyde, H2O2, and O2 levels. Overall, ZnO-NPs offer a safe and economic antiviral agent against ToMV.

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Topics: Tomato mosaic virus (60%), Tobamovirus (55%)
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15 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11356-021-13585-3
Abstract: Approximately 6% of the world's total land area and 20% of the irrigated land are affected by salt stress. Egypt is one such country affected by salt-stress problems. This paper focuses on the role of isolated bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, in alleviating the harmful effects of salt stress. The results show that the irrigation of plants with different concentrations of saline water (0, 75, and 150 mM NaCl) leads to significantly decreased growth criteria, photosynthetic pigments (i.e., chl a, chl b, and carotenoids), and membrane stability index (MSI) values. Moreover, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione content, endogenous proline, the antioxidant defense system, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content, ACC synthase (ACS), ACC oxidase (ACO), and Na+ content were significantly increased under NaCl-stress exposure. On the contrary, treatment with endophytic bacteria significantly increased the resistance of pea plants to salt stress by increasing the enzymatic antioxidant defenses (i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione reductase), non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses (i.e., glutathione), osmolyte substances such as proline, and antioxidant enzyme gene expression. As a result, endophytic bacteria's use was significantly higher compared to control values for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid GA3, MSI, and photosynthetic pigments. The use of endophytic bacteria significantly decreased Na+ accumulation while, at the same time, promoting K+ uptake. In conclusion, the induction of endophytic bacterium-induced salt tolerance in pea plants depends primarily on the effect of endophytic bacteria on osmoregulation, the antioxidant capacity, and ion uptake adjustment by limiting the uptake of Na+ and, alternatively, increasing the accumulation of K+ in plant tissue.

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Topics: Glutathione reductase (55%), Antioxidant (54%), Glutathione (53%) ... show more

10 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PLANTS10061221
Vishnu D. Rajput1, Tatiana Minkina1, Arpna Kumari2, Harish3  +6 moreInstitutions (4)
15 Jun 2021-
Abstract: Abiotic stress in plants is a crucial issue worldwide, especially heavy-metal contaminants, salinity, and drought. These stresses may raise a lot of issues such as the generation of reactive oxygen species, membrane damage, loss of photosynthetic efficiency, etc. that could alter crop growth and developments by affecting biochemical, physiological, and molecular processes, causing a significant loss in productivity. To overcome the impact of these abiotic stressors, many strategies could be considered to support plant growth including the use of nanoparticles (NPs). However, the majority of studies have focused on understanding the toxicity of NPs on aquatic flora and fauna, and relatively less attention has been paid to the topic of the beneficial role of NPs in plants stress response, growth, and development. More scientific attention is required to understand the behavior of NPs on crops under these stress conditions. Therefore, the present work aims to comprehensively review the beneficial roles of NPs in plants under different abiotic stresses, especially heavy metals, salinity, and drought. This review provides deep insights about mechanisms of abiotic stress alleviation in plants under NP application.

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Topics: Abiotic stress (58%), Abiotic component (55%)

7 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/03650340.2021.1949709
Abstract: Salinity is among the most significant threats hindering global food security. The impact of Trichoderma, biochar, and combination on Spinach plants under salt stress conditions was investigated. O...

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Topics: Trichoderma harzianum (58%), Biochar (58%), Trichoderma (53%) ... show more

6 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00253-021-11501-W
Abstract: In the current study, the polyurethane acrylate (PUA) polymer was synthesized by the addition reaction between an isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate and cured by polyol. Different properties of the synthesized PUA were determined through diverse analysis methods. The polyurethane acrylate (PUA)/natural filler-based composite (rhizome water extract of Costus speciosus) was prepared as an antifouling agent. The results revealed that the lowest weight loss percentages were detected at 2 wt% PUA/natural filler composite loadings with Escherichia coli (ATCC 23,282) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10,145). The decreased weight loss percentage may be attributed to the well dispersed natural composite resulting in a slippery surface that can prevent fouling adhesion. It was concluded that the PUA/natural filler composite might be considered an eco-friendly and economical solution to the biofouling problem. • A novel strategy for anti-biofouling. • A new composite reduced Gram-negative bacteria.

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Topics: Isophorone diisocyanate (53%), Acrylate (52%), Polyurethane (51%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.15835/NBHA49312461
Mona S. Agha1, M. Abbas1, Mahmoud R. Sofy2, S. A. Haroun1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: The aid of beneficial microbes, which is a well-accepted strategy, may improve plant salt tolerance. However, the mechanisms that underpin it are unclear. In this study, seedling experiments were carried out to assess the effect of Bradyrhizobium and Enterobacter on the germination, growth, nonenzymatic and enzymatic content in soybean (Glycine max L.) under salt stress. Water was sprayed on the seeds as a control, and with 75 mM, 150 mM NaCl as salt stress. The findings demonstrate that salt stress (75, 150 mM) caused a significant decrease in germination, morphological criteria, and membrane stability index (MSI) when compared to control seeds but increased lipid peroxidation (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL), osmotic pressure, proline, citric acid, sugar content, antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, endophytic Bradyrhizobium and Enterobacter inoculation resulted in a significant rise in all of the above metrics.; however, these treatments resulted in significant reductions in ROS, EL, and MDA in stressed plants. Finally, the findings showed that combining Bradyrhizobium and Enterobacter was the most efficient in reducing the harmful effects of salt on soybean plants by boosting antioxidant up-regulation and lowering membrane leakage and ROS.

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Topics: Bradyrhizobium (52%), Enterobacter (50%)

2 Citations


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78 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5
Abstract: The antiradical activities of various antioxidants were determined using the free radical, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*). In its radical form. DPPH* has an absorption band at 515 nm which dissappears upon reduction by an antiradical compound. Twenty compounds were reacted with the DPPH* and shown to follow one of three possible reaction kinetic types. Ascorbic acid, isoascorbic acid and isoeugenol reacted quickly with the DPPH* reaching a steady state immediately. Rosmarinic acid and δ-tocopherol reacted a little slower and reached a steady state within 30 min. The remaining compounds reacted more progressively with the DPPH* reaching a steady state from 1 to 6 h. Caffeic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid showed the highest antiradical activities with a stoichiometry of 4 to 6 reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Vanillin, phenol, γ-resorcylic acid and vanillic acid were found to be poor antiradical compounds. The stoichiometry for the other 13 phenolic compounds varied from one to three reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the experimental results.

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Topics: DPPH (64%), Ascorbic acid (58%), Vanillic acid (55%) ... show more

16,150 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/BF00018060
L. S. Bates1, R. P. Waldren1, I. D. Teare1Institutions (1)
01 Aug 1973-Plant and Soil
Abstract: Proline, which increases proportionately faster than other amino acids in plants under water stress, has been suggested as an evaluating parameter for irrigation scheduling and for selecting drought-resistant varieties. The necessity to analyze numerous samples from multiple replications of field grown materials prompted the development of a simple, rapid colorimetric determination of proline. The method detected proline in the 0.1 to 36.0 μmoles/g range of fresh weight leaf material.

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12,637 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1432-1033.1974.TB03714.X
Stefan L. Marklund1, Gudrun Marklund1Institutions (1)
01 Sep 1974-FEBS Journal
Abstract: The autoxidation of pyrogallol was investigated in the presence of EDTA in the pH range 7.9–10.6. The rate of autoxidation increases with increasing pH. At pH 7.9 the reaction is inhibited to 99% by superoxide dismutase, indicating an almost total dependence on the participation of the superoxide anion radical, O2·−, in the reaction. Up to pH 9.1 the reaction is still inhibited to over 90% by superoxide dismutase, but at higher alkalinity, O2·− -independent mechanisms rapidly become dominant. Catalase has no effect on the autoxidation but decreases the oxygen consumption by half, showing that H2O2 is the stable product of oxygen and that H2O2 is not involved in the autoxidation mechanism. A simple and rapid method for the assay of superoxide dismutase is described, based on the ability of the enzyme to inhibit the autoxidation of pyrogallol. A plausible explanation is given for the non-competitive part of the inhibition of catechol O-methyltransferase brought about by pyrogallol.

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Topics: Autoxidation (65%), Superoxide (61%), Superoxide dismutase (59%) ... show more

8,110 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.PCP.A076232
Yoshiyuki Nakano1, Kozi Asada1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Intact spinach chloroplasts scavenge hydrogen peroxide with a peroxidase that uses a photoreductant as the electron donor, but the activity of ruptured chloroplasts is very low [Nakano and Asada (1980) Plant & Cell Physiol. 21: 1295]. Ruptured spinach chloroplasts recovered their ability to photoreduce hydrogen peroxide with the concomitant evolution of oxygen after the addition of glutathione and dehydroascorbate (DHA). In ruptured chloroplasts, DHA was photoreduced to ascorbate and oxygen was evolved in the process in the presence of glutathione. DHA reductase (EC 1.8.5.1) and a peroxidase whose electron donor is specific to L-ascorbate are localized in chloroplast stroma. These observations confirm that the electron donor for the scavenging of hydrogen peroxide in chloroplasts is L-ascorbate and that the L-ascorbate is regenerated from DHA by the system: photosystem I-*ferredoxin-*NADP^>glutathione. A preliminary characterization of the chloroplast peroxidase is given.

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Topics: Ascorbate glutathione cycle (62%), Peroxidase (61%), Chloroplast stroma (57%) ... show more

7,270 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0003-9861(68)90654-1
Robert L. Heath1, Lester Packer1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A photo-induced cyclic peroxidation in isolated chloroplasts is described In an osmotic buffered medium, chloroplasts upon illumination produce malondialdehyde (MDA)—a decomposition product of tri-unsaturated fatty acid hydroperoxides—bleach endogenous chlorophyll, and consume oxygen These processes show ( a ) no reaction in the absence of illumination; ( b ) an initial lag phase upon illumination of 10–20 minutes duration; ( c ) a linear phase in which the rate is proportional to the square root of the light intensity; ( d ) cessation of reaction occurring within 3 minutes after illumination ceases; and ( e ) a termination phase after several hours of illumination The kinetics of the above processes fit a cyclic peroxidation equation with velocity coefficients near those for chemical peroxidation The stoichiometry of MDA/O 2 = 002, and O 2 Chl bleached = 69 correlates well with MDA production efficiency in other biological systems and with the molar ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to chlorophyll The energies of activation for the lag and linear phases are 17 and 0 kcal/mole, respectively, the same as that for autoxidation During the linear phase of oxygen uptake the dependence upon temperature and O 2 concentration indicates that during the reaction, oxygen tension at the site of peroxidation is 100-fold lower than in the aqueous phase It is concluded that isolated chloroplasts upon illumination can undergo a cyclic peroxidation initiated by the light absorbed by chlorophyll Photoperoxidation results in a destruction of the chlorophyll and tri-unsaturated fatty acids of the chloroplast membranes

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Topics: Oxygen tension (56%), Light intensity (53%), Chlorophyll (53%) ... show more

7,148 Citations