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Journal ArticleDOI

American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Progression Models in Resistance Training for Healthy Adults

01 Feb 2002-Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise (Med Sci Sports Exerc)-Vol. 34, Iss: 2, pp 364-380

TL;DR: In order to stimulate further adaptation toward a specific training goal(s), progression in the type of resistance training protocol used is necessary and emphasis should be placed on multiple-joint exercises, especially those involving the total body.
Abstract: In order to stimulate further adaptation toward a specific training goal(s), progression in the type of resistance training protocol used is necessary. The optimal characteristics of strength-specific programs include the use of both concentric and eccentric muscle actions and the performance of both single- and multiple-joint exercises. It is also recommended that the strength program sequence exercises to optimize the quality of the exercise intensity (large before small muscle group exercises, multiple-joint exercises before single-joint exercises, and higher intensity before lower intensity exercises). For initial resistances, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) be used in novice training. For intermediate to advanced training, it is recommended that individuals use a wider loading range, from 1-12 RM in a periodized fashion, with eventual emphasis on heavy loading (1-6 RM) using at least 3-min rest periods between sets performed at a moderate contraction velocity (1-2 s concentric, 1-2 s eccentric). When training at a specific RM load, it is recommended that 2-10% increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number. The recommendation for training frequency is 2-3 d x wk(-1) for novice and intermediate training and 4-5 d x wk(-1) for advanced training. Similar program designs are recommended for hypertrophy training with respect to exercise selection and frequency. For loading, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 1-12 RM be used in periodized fashion, with emphasis on the 6-12 RM zone using 1- to 2-min rest periods between sets at a moderate velocity. Higher volume, multiple-set programs are recommended for maximizing hypertrophy. Progression in power training entails two general loading strategies: 1) strength training, and 2) use of light loads (30-60% of 1 RM) performed at a fast contraction velocity with 2-3 min of rest between sets for multiple sets per exercise. It is also recommended that emphasis be placed on multiple-joint exercises, especially those involving the total body. For local muscular endurance training, it is recommended that light to moderate loads (40-60% of 1 RM) be performed for high repetitions (> 15) using short rest periods (< 90 s). In the interpretation of this position stand, as with prior ones, the recommendations should be viewed in context of the individual's target goals, physical capacity, and training status.
Topics: Strength training (56%), One-repetition maximum (54%), Biceps curl (52%), Endurance training (51%), Exercise intensity (50%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide guidance to professionals who counsel and prescribe individualized exercise to apparently healthy adults of all ages. These recommendations also may apply to adults with certain chronic diseases or disabilities, when appropriately evaluated and advised by a health professional. This document supersedes the 1998 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Position Stand, "The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults." The scientific evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of exercise is indisputable, and the benefits of exercise far outweigh the risks in most adults. A program of regular exercise that includes cardiorespiratory, resistance, flexibility, and neuromotor exercise training beyond activities of daily living to improve and maintain physical fitness and health is essential for most adults. The ACSM recommends that most adults engage in moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥30 min·d on ≥5 d·wk for a total of ≥150 min·wk, vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥20 min·d on ≥3 d·wk (≥75 min·wk), or a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise to achieve a total energy expenditure of ≥500-1000 MET·min·wk. On 2-3 d·wk, adults should also perform resistance exercises for each of the major muscle groups, and neuromotor exercise involving balance, agility, and coordination. Crucial to maintaining joint range of movement, completing a series of flexibility exercises for each the major muscle-tendon groups (a total of 60 s per exercise) on ≥2 d·wk is recommended. The exercise program should be modified according to an individual's habitual physical activity, physical function, health status, exercise responses, and stated goals. Adults who are unable or unwilling to meet the exercise targets outlined here still can benefit from engaging in amounts of exercise less than recommended. In addition to exercising regularly, there are health benefits in concurrently reducing total time engaged in sedentary pursuits and also by interspersing frequent, short bouts of standing and physical activity between periods of sedentary activity, even in physically active adults. Behaviorally based exercise interventions, the use of behavior change strategies, supervision by an experienced fitness instructor, and exercise that is pleasant and enjoyable can improve adoption and adherence to prescribed exercise programs. Educating adults about and screening for signs and symptoms of CHD and gradual progression of exercise intensity and volume may reduce the risks of exercise. Consultations with a medical professional and diagnostic exercise testing for CHD are useful when clinically indicated but are not recommended for universal screening to enhance the safety of exercise.

6,173 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Gerald F. Fletcher1, Philip A. Ades, Paul Kligfield, Ross Arena2  +11 moreInstitutions (2)
20 Aug 2013-Circulation
TL;DR: These guidelines are a revision of the 1995 standards of the AHA that addressed the issues of exercise testing and training and current issues of practical importance in the clinical use of these standards are considered.
Abstract: The purpose of this report is to provide revised standards and guidelines for the exercise testing and training of individuals who are free from clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease and those with known cardiovascular disease. These guidelines are intended for physicians, nurses, exercise physiologists, specialists, technologists, and other healthcare professionals involved in exercise testing and training of these populations. This report is in accord with the “Statement on Exercise” published by the American Heart Association (AHA).1 These guidelines are a revision of the 1995 standards of the AHA that addressed the issues of exercise testing and training.2 An update of background, scientific rationale, and selected references is provided, and current issues of practical importance in the clinical use of these standards are considered. These guidelines are in accord with the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/AHA Guidelines for Exercise Testing.3 ### The Cardiovascular Response to Exercise Exercise, a common physiological stress, can elicit cardiovascular abnormalities that are not present at rest, and it can be used to determine the adequacy of cardiac function. Because exercise is only one of many stresses to which humans can be exposed, it is more appropriate to call an exercise test exactly that and not a “stress test.” This is particularly relevant considering the increased use of nonexercise stress tests. ### Types of Exercise Three types of muscular contraction or exercise can be applied as a stress to the cardiovascular system: isometric (static), isotonic (dynamic or locomotory), and resistance (a combination of isometric and isotonic).4,5 Isotonic exercise, which is defined as a muscular contraction resulting in movement, primarily provides a volume load to the left ventricle, and the response is proportional to the size of the working muscle mass and the intensity of exercise. Isometric exercise is defined as a muscular contraction without movement (eg, handgrip) and imposes greater pressure than volume …

2,634 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A careful system of goal targeting, exercise testing, proper exercise technique, supervision, and optimal exercise prescription all contribute to the successful implementation of a resistance training program.
Abstract: KRAEMER, W. J., and N. A. RATAMESS. Fundamentals of Resistance Training: Progression and Exercise Prescription. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 674–688, 2004. Progression in resistance training is a dynamic process that requires an exercise prescription process, evaluation of tr

1,282 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
31 Jul 2007-Circulation
TL;DR: Clinicians are provided with recommendations to facilitate the use of this valuable modality and role of RT in modifying cardiovascular disease risk factors and prescriptive methods.
Abstract: Prescribed and supervised resistance training (RT) enhances muscular strength and endurance, functional capacity and independence, and quality of life while reducing disability in persons with and without cardiovascular disease. These benefits have made RT an accepted component of programs for health and fitness. The American Heart Association recommendations describing the rationale for participation in and considerations for prescribing RT were published in 2000. This update provides current information regarding the (1) health benefits of RT, (2) impact of RT on the cardiovascular system structure and function, (3) role of RT in modifying cardiovascular disease risk factors, (4) benefits in selected populations, (5) process of medical evaluation for participation in RT, and (6) prescriptive methods. The purpose of this update is to provide clinicians with recommendations to facilitate the use of this valuable modality.

1,048 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Roger M. Enoka1, Jacques Duchateau2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: Experimental approaches that focus on identifying the mechanisms that limit task failure rather than those that cause muscle fatigue are reviewed, providing insight into the rate‐limiting adjustments that constrain muscle function during fatiguing contractions.
Abstract: Much is known about the physiological impairments that can cause muscle fatigue. It is known that fatigue can be caused by many different mechanisms, ranging from the accumulation of metabolites within muscle fibres to the generation of an inadequate motor command in the motor cortex, and that there is no global mechanism responsible for muscle fatigue. Rather, the mechanisms that cause fatigue are specific to the task being performed. The development of muscle fatigue is typically quantified as a decline in the maximal force or power capacity of muscle, which means that submaximal contractions can be sustained after the onset of muscle fatigue. There is even evidence that the duration of some sustained tasks is not limited by fatigue of the principal muscles. Here we review experimental approaches that focus on identifying the mechanisms that limit task failure rather than those that cause muscle fatigue. Selected comparisons of tasks, groups of individuals and interventions with the task-failure approach can provide insight into the rate-limiting adjustments that constrain muscle function during fatiguing contractions.

910 citations


Cites background from "American College of Sports Medicine..."

  • ...This concept is analogous to the principle of specificity that characterizes the adaptations evoked by several weeks of physical training (Kraemer et al. 2002; Aagaard & Bangsbo, 2006)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
13 Jun 1990-JAMA
TL;DR: It is concluded that high-resistance weight training leads to significant gains in muscle strength, size, and functional mobility among frail residents of nursing homes up to 96 years of age.
Abstract: Muscle dysfunction and associated mobility impairment, common among the frail elderly, increase the risk of falls, fractures, and functional dependency. We sought to characterize the muscle weakness of the very old and its reversibility through strength training. Ten frail, institutionalized volunteers aged 90 ± 1 years undertook 8 weeks of high-intensity resistance training. Initially, quadriceps strength was correlated negatively with walking time (r= -.745). Fat-free mass (r=.732) and regional muscle mass (r=.752) were correlated positively with muscle strength. Strength gains averaged 174% ±31% (mean ± SEM) in the 9 subjects who completed training. Midthigh muscle area increased 9.0%± 4.5%. Mean tandem gait speed improved 48% after training. We conclude that high-resistance weight training leads to significant gains in muscle strength, size, and functional mobility among frail residents of nursing homes up to 96 years of age. (JAMA. 1990;263:3029-3034)

2,149 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present paper is concerned with the central part of the motoneuron and the significance of its size in synaptic transmission and asks whether the cell bodies (and dendrites) connected with large and small motor fibers have different functional properties which can be recognized by their discharge characteristics.
Abstract: SINCE THE BEGINNINGS OF NEUROHISTOLOGY it has been recognized that neurons within the central nervous system vary widely in size, but the functional significance of this basic observation has never emerged from the realm of speculation. The largest cells have surface areas which are at least 100, perhaps 1,000, times greater than those of the smallest cells. Correspondingly, the diameters of axons in the central and peripheral portions of the nervous system range from less than .25 p. to more than 20 c-c. This broad spectrum of physical dimensions invites a search for functional correlates. This is one of a series of studies on the problem of size as it relates to spinal motoneurons. The preceding papers (21, 25) were concerned chiefly with the peripheral part of the motoneuron and the muscle fibers it innervates. They provided experimental evidence that the diameter of a motor nerve fiber is related to the number of muscle fibers it supplies. This finding seemed to make good sense: if a motor fiber innervates many muscle fibers and forms a large motor unit, it must have sufficient axonal substance to give off a large number of terminals. The present paper is concerned with the central part of the motoneuron and the significance of its size in synaptic transmission. It asks whether the cell bodies (and dendrites) connected with large and small motor fibers have different functional properties which can be recognized by their discharge characteristics. In order to investigate this problem one must be able to distinguish the signals of a large motoneuron from those of a small one. This may be done by recording their action potentials from thin filaments of lumbar ventral roots. As Gasser (8) demonstrated, the amplitudes of nerve impulses recorded externally from peripheral nerves are directly related to the diameters of their fibers. If it may be assumed that the diameters of axons are also related to the sizes of their cell bodies, as scattered histo-

2,103 citations


"American College of Sports Medicine..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Force generation is further dependent upon motor unit activation, and motor units are recruited according to their recruitment threshold that typically involves the activation of the slower (lower force-producing) motor units before the faster (higher force-producing) units, that is, size principle (114)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
10 Mar 1994-Nature
TL;DR: A new in vitro assay using a feedback enhanced laser trap system allows direct measurement of force and displacement that results from the interaction of a single myosin molecule with a single suspended actin filament.
Abstract: A new in vitro assay using a feedback enhanced laser trap system allows direct measurement of force and displacement that results from the interaction of a single myosin molecule with a single suspended actin filament. Discrete stepwise movements averaging 11 nm were seen under conditions of low load, and single force transients averaging 3-4 pN were measured under isometric conditions. The magnitudes of the single forces and displacements are consistent with predictions of the conventional swinging-crossbridge model of muscle contraction.

1,733 citations


"American College of Sports Medicine..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) is positively related to maximal force production (71)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Data suggest that MM is a major determinant of the age- and gender-related differences in skeletal muscle strength, independent of muscle location (upper vs. lower extremities) and function (extension vs. flexion).
Abstract: The isokinetic strength of the elbow and knee extensors and flexors was measured in 200 healthy 45- to 78-yr-old men and women to examine the relationship between muscle strength, age, and body com...

988 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
22 Feb 2000-Circulation
TL;DR: This advisory reviews the role of resistance training in persons with and without cardiovascular disease, with specific reference to health and fitness benefits, rationale, the complementary role of stretching, relevant physiological considerations, and safety.
Abstract: Position paper endorsed by the American College of Sports Medicine Although exercise programs have traditionally emphasized dynamic lower-extremity exercise, research increasingly suggests that complementary resistance training, when appropriately prescribed and supervised, has favorable effects on muscular strength and endurance, cardiovascular function, metabolism, coronary risk factors, and psychosocial well-being. This advisory reviews the role of resistance training in persons with and without cardiovascular disease, with specific reference to health and fitness benefits, rationale, the complementary role of stretching, relevant physiological considerations, and safety. Participation criteria and prescriptive guidelines are also provided. Although resistance training has long been accepted as a means for developing and maintaining muscular strength, endurance, power, and muscle mass (hypertrophy),1 2 its beneficial relationship to health factors and chronic disease has been recognized only recently.3 4 5 Prior to 1990, resistance training was not a part of the recommended guidelines for exercise training and rehabilitation for either the American Heart Association or the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). In 1990, the ACSM first recognized resistance training as a significant component of a comprehensive fitness program for healthy adults of all ages.6 Both aerobic endurance exercise and resistance training can promote substantial benefits in physical fitness and health-related factors.3 5 Table 1⇓ summarizes these benefits and attempts to weigh them according to the current literature.3 Although both training modalities elicit benefits in most of the variables listed, the estimated weightings (ie, in terms of physiological benefits) are often substantially different. Aerobic endurance training weighs higher in the development of maximum oxygen uptake (Vo2max) and associated cardiopulmonary variables, and it more effectively modifies cardiovascular risk factors associated with the development of coronary artery disease. Resistance training offers greater development of muscular strength, endurance, and mass. It also assists in the …

948 citations