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Book ChapterDOI

American English Dialects

Gavin Jones1
16 Feb 2009-pp 274-280
About: The article was published on 2009-02-16. It has received 12 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Modern English & Early Modern English.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This investigation of the accuracy with which normal individuals vocally imitated the pitch-time trajectories of spoken sentences and sung melodies, presented in their original form and with phonetic information removed found that these results do not accord with accounts of modular pitch processing that emphasize information encapsulation.

45 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
16 Sep 2010
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the social impact of gender and educational setting on patterns of variation in the use of /θ/, / d ǫ / and / ð / by means of instrumental as well as auditory techniques.
Abstract: The use of instrumental techniques in studies on the correlation of social variables with consonantal variation is a new trend in linguistic research. This trend is part of a new eclectic research area called socio-phonetics. This technique, to our knowledge, has not been so far utilized in investigating the phonological variations in Arabic. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the social impact of gender and educational setting on patterns of variation in the use of /θ/, / d ʒ /and / ð / by means of instrumental as well as auditory techniques. A pictorial interview was used to elicit data from the speech of 40 male and female respondents from two educational backgrounds. The main results of the study indicate that gender and educational setting differences affect the use of linguistic variants. Auditory examination reveals that men and individuals with high school education have a higher tendency to maintain the use of local variants, whereas women and individuals with university education have a higher tendency to adopt non-local prestigious variants. Furthermore, employment of acoustic measurements uncovered that in the use of local variants female respondents tend to consciously lower the degree of salience of these variants. In conclusion, male and female speech behavior depends on social priority. Men are driven by the concept of masculinity and toughness, while women are driven by prestige and softness.

14 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Investigation of speech-language pathologists’ linguistic bias towards non-standard language forms and dialects finds a significantly positive association was found between professional development on cultural and linguistic diversity and positive attitudes towards Factors 1 and 3.
Abstract: Dialectal variations are present in all languages, originating from cultural, geographic and socioeconomic diversity. This study investigates speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) linguistic bias towards non-standard language forms and dialects, and factors that may impact on these attitudes. Language attitude studies reveal that negative attitudes towards variation can lead to bias against speakers of non-standard dialects. If SLPs hold linguistic bias towards speakers of non-standard dialects, this has the potential to impact upon their clinical judgement of difference vs. disorder and lead to inequality of service provision. A total of 129 Australian SLPs completed an online survey, which involved ranking 28 attitudinal statements regarding language variation on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The survey data were analysed using a factor analysis in SPSS to identify latent factors that identified attitudes towards non-standard dialects followed by inferential analyses to investigate how attitudes were related to the demographic data of participants. Results identified five key factors from the survey, these were (1) Use of non-standard English, (2) Language impurity, (3) Diversity in form, (4) Social acceptability, and (5) Prescriptive language rules. SLPs held generally positive attitudes towards the use of non-standard forms and the socially determined acceptability of language. SLPs were more neutral in their attitudes towards diversity in form and the need for prescriptive rules and generally held negative views towards language purity (e.g., the use of "youse" as a plural form of you). A significantly positive association was found between professional development (PD) on cultural and linguistic diversity and positive attitudes towards Factors 1 and 3. Years of practice were significantly related to Factor 2, with less experienced SLPs holding more negative views relating to language purity. While many SLPs identify the value of language variation and its reflection of a person's cultural and linguistic diversity, negative attitudes towards non-standard forms and variation in school and occupational settings have the potential to negatively impact differential diagnosis, goal setting and the delivery of culturally responsive speech-language pathology services to speakers of non-standard dialects.

13 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the use of greetings in Sweden-Swedish and Finland Sweden service encounters and the social meaning of different greeting forms, and showed that the sequential position of a greeting plays a part in the choice of greeting, and demonstrates that pragmatic variation emerges in interaction.

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Song and Wiese as discussed by the authors proposed a framework to account for nonstandard spelling of certain words in English, French and other languages in a framework couched in Optimality Theory, partly drawing on a set of constraints already proposed in existing literature and proposing new ones justified on phonetic, cognitive or system-internal grounds.
Abstract: Nonstandard spelling of certain words in English, French and other languages is quite a widespread phenomenon, commonly referred to as Eye Dialect. Typical examples are instead of in English and instead of in French. Eye Dialect, despite using nonstandard spelling, maintains grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences that reflect standard pronunciation, unlike Casual Speech Spelling, which aims to transcribe substandard forms (e.g., ). In this paper I attempt to account for both phenomena in a framework couched in Optimality Theory, partly drawing on a set of constraints already proposed in existing literature (Song & Wiese, 2010), at the same time as proposing new ones justified on phonetic, cognitive or system-internal grounds. It is shown how Eye Dialect and Casual Speech Spelling, instead of creating new sound-to-letter relationships, promote the more general ones, at the expense of very specific or idiosyncratic phoneme-to-grapheme map...

8 citations