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Proceedings ArticleDOI

An Analysis on Blockchain Consensus Protocols for Fault Tolerance

21 May 2021-pp 1-4
TL;DR: The consensus protocol in the cryptography and peer-to-peer architecture is one of the essential parts of the blockchain technology as discussed by the authors, and the best consensus protocol provides the fault tolerance.
Abstract: The revolution with technologies happens very often, here is one such technology called “Blockchain” which will be a game-changer in many functional sectors of the society. Initially, this technology was developed to support cryptocurrencies (such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin etc).Now a days it is gaining the attention of the researchers in almost the entire field. The consensus protocol in the cryptography and peer to peer architecture is one of the essential parts of the blockchain technology. The best consensus protocol in a blockchain system provides the fault tolerance. These censuses in blockchain are broadly classified in to two types. The absolute-finality consensus protocol and probabilistic-finality consensus protocols. In this paper, the different types of censuses protocols are discussed along with their working, strength and weakness. It also gives the overview on the different types of blockchain technology with their advantages and disadvantages. At the last we also presented a comparison of these consensus protocols by considering different qualitative parameters.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A blockchain-based verifiable user data access control policy for secured cloud data storage is suggested for a version associated with big data in health care, which operates based on blockchain technology.
Abstract: Adding the adequate level of security of information systems dealing with sensitive data, privacy, or defense systems involves some form of access control. The audits performed are dealing with the determination of the allowed activities of the legal users, when attempting to access resources of the system. Usually, full access is provided after the user has been successfully authenticated through an authentication mechanism (e.g., password), while the corresponding authorization control is based on the confidentiality level of the respective resources and the authorization level assigned to each user. A very important diversification occurring in modern digital technologies is related to the identification based on blockchain technology, which is presented as a public, distributed data series, unable to modify its history and grouped in time-numbered blocks. In this work, a blockchain-based verifiable user data access control policy for secured cloud data storage is suggested for a version associated with big data in health care. It is an innovative system of applying classified access policies to secure resources in the cloud, which operates based on blockchain technology. System evaluation is carried out by studying a case in its resilience to Eclipse attack under different malicious user capabilities for routing table poisoning.

1 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Albanian Generals Problem as mentioned in this paper is a generalization of Dijkstra's dining philosophers problem, where two generals have to come to a common agreement on whether to attack or retreat, but can communicate only by sending messengers who might never arrive.
Abstract: I have long felt that, because it was posed as a cute problem about philosophers seated around a table, Dijkstra’s dining philosopher’s problem received much more attention than it deserves. (For example, it has probably received more attention in the theory community than the readers/writers problem, which illustrates the same principles and has much more practical importance.) I believed that the problem introduced in [41] was very important and deserved the attention of computer scientists. The popularity of the dining philosophers problem taught me that the best way to attract attention to a problem is to present it in terms of a story. There is a problem in distributed computing that is sometimes called the Chinese Generals Problem, in which two generals have to come to a common agreement on whether to attack or retreat, but can communicate only by sending messengers who might never arrive. I stole the idea of the generals and posed the problem in terms of a group of generals, some of whom may be traitors, who have to reach a common decision. I wanted to assign the generals a nationality that would not offend any readers. At the time, Albania was a completely closed society, and I felt it unlikely that there would be any Albanians around to object, so the original title of this paper was The Albanian Generals Problem. Jack Goldberg was smart enough to realize that there were Albanians in the world outside Albania, and Albania might not always be a black hole, so he suggested that I find another name. The obviously more appropriate Byzantine generals then occurred to me. The main reason for writing this paper was to assign the new name to the problem. But a new paper needed new results as well. I came up with a simpler way to describe the general 3n+1-processor algorithm. (Shostak’s 4-processor algorithm was subtle but easy to understand; Pease’s generalization was a remarkable tour de force.) We also added a generalization to networks that were not completely connected. (I don’t remember whose work that was.) I also added some discussion of practical implementation details.

5,208 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
22 Feb 1999
TL;DR: A new replication algorithm that is able to tolerate Byzantine faults that works in asynchronous environments like the Internet and incorporates several important optimizations that improve the response time of previous algorithms by more than an order of magnitude.
Abstract: This paper describes a new replication algorithm that is able to tolerate Byzantine faults. We believe that Byzantinefault-tolerant algorithms will be increasingly important in the future because malicious attacks and software errors are increasingly common and can cause faulty nodes to exhibit arbitrary behavior. Whereas previous algorithms assumed a synchronous system or were too slow to be used in practice, the algorithm described in this paper is practical: it works in asynchronous environments like the Internet and incorporates several important optimizations that improve the response time of previous algorithms by more than an order of magnitude. We implemented a Byzantine-fault-tolerant NFS service using our algorithm and measured its performance. The results show that our service is only 3% slower than a standard unreplicated NFS.

3,562 citations

01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: Ethereum as mentioned in this paper is a transactional singleton machine with shared state, which can be seen as a simple application on a decentralised, but singleton, compute resource, and it provides a plurality of resources, each with a distinct state and operating code but able to interact through a message-passing framework with others.
Abstract: The blockchain paradigm when coupled with cryptographically-secured transactions has demonstrated its utility through a number of projects, not least Bitcoin. Each such project can be seen as a simple application on a decentralised, but singleton, compute resource. We can call this paradigm a transactional singleton machine with shared-state. Ethereum implements this paradigm in a generalised manner. Furthermore it provides a plurality of such resources, each with a distinct state and operating code but able to interact through a message-passing framework with others. We discuss its design, implementation issues, the opportunities it provides and the future hurdles we envisage.

2,755 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it is shown that it is impossible to achieve consistency, availability, and partition tolerance in the asynchronous network model, and then solutions to this dilemma in the partially synchronous model are discussed.
Abstract: When designing distributed web services, there are three properties that are commonly desired: consistency, availability, and partition tolerance. It is impossible to achieve all three. In this note, we prove this conjecture in the asynchronous network model, and then discuss solutions to this dilemma in the partially synchronous model.

1,456 citations

Trending Questions (1)
Is quorum blockchain is best for fault tolerance?

Quorum blockchain is not specifically mentioned in the paper. The paper discusses various consensus protocols for fault tolerance in blockchain, but does not focus on Quorum blockchain.