scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks

01 Oct 2002-IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS)-Vol. 1, Iss: 4, pp 660-670

TL;DR: This work develops and analyzes low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH), a protocol architecture for microsensor networks that combines the ideas of energy-efficient cluster-based routing and media access together with application-specific data aggregation to achieve good performance in terms of system lifetime, latency, and application-perceived quality.
Abstract: Networking together hundreds or thousands of cheap microsensor nodes allows users to accurately monitor a remote environment by intelligently combining the data from the individual nodes. These networks require robust wireless communication protocols that are energy efficient and provide low latency. We develop and analyze low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH), a protocol architecture for microsensor networks that combines the ideas of energy-efficient cluster-based routing and media access together with application-specific data aggregation to achieve good performance in terms of system lifetime, latency, and application-perceived quality. LEACH includes a new, distributed cluster formation technique that enables self-organization of large numbers of nodes, algorithms for adapting clusters and rotating cluster head positions to evenly distribute the energy load among all the nodes, and techniques to enable distributed signal processing to save communication resources. Our results show that LEACH can improve system lifetime by an order of magnitude compared with general-purpose multihop approaches.
Topics: Routing protocol (56%), Wireless Application Protocol (52%), Cluster analysis (51%), Wireless (50%), Network performance (50%)
Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
O. Younis1, Sonia Fahmy1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: It is proved that, with appropriate bounds on node density and intracluster and intercluster transmission ranges, HEED can asymptotically almost surely guarantee connectivity of clustered networks.
Abstract: Topology control in a sensor network balances load on sensor nodes and increases network scalability and lifetime. Clustering sensor nodes is an effective topology control approach. We propose a novel distributed clustering approach for long-lived ad hoc sensor networks. Our proposed approach does not make any assumptions about the presence of infrastructure or about node capabilities, other than the availability of multiple power levels in sensor nodes. We present a protocol, HEED (Hybrid Energy-Efficient Distributed clustering), that periodically selects cluster heads according to a hybrid of the node residual energy and a secondary parameter, such as node proximity to its neighbors or node degree. HEED terminates in O(1) iterations, incurs low message overhead, and achieves fairly uniform cluster head distribution across the network. We prove that, with appropriate bounds on node density and intracluster and intercluster transmission ranges, HEED can asymptotically almost surely guarantee connectivity of clustered networks. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed approach is effective in prolonging the network lifetime and supporting scalable data aggregation.

4,649 citations


Cites background or methods from "An application-specific protocol ar..."

  • ...Based on this approach, we have introduced the HEED protocol, which terminates in a constant number of iterations, independent of network diameter....

    [...]

  • ...This research has been sponsored in part by a US National Science Foundation grant ANI-0238294 (CAREER) and the Schlumberger Foundation....

    [...]

  • ...A key feature of our approach is that it exploits the availability of multiple transmission power levels at sensor nodes....

    [...]

  • ...This can be achieved by recursive application at upper tiers using bottom-up cluster formation [19]....

    [...]

  • ...Index Terms—Sensor networks, clustering, network lifetime, energy efficiency, fault tolerance....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Ameer Ahmed Abbasi, Mohamed Younis1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: A taxonomy and general classification of published clustering schemes for WSNs is presented, highlighting their objectives, features, complexity, etc and comparing of these clustering algorithms based on metrics such as convergence rate, cluster stability, cluster overlapping, location-awareness and support for node mobility.
Abstract: The past few years have witnessed increased interest in the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in applications such as disaster management, combat field reconnaissance, border protection and security surveillance. Sensors in these applications are expected to be remotely deployed in large numbers and to operate autonomously in unattended environments. To support scalability, nodes are often grouped into disjoint and mostly non-overlapping clusters. In this paper, we present a taxonomy and general classification of published clustering schemes. We survey different clustering algorithms for WSNs; highlighting their objectives, features, complexity, etc. We also compare of these clustering algorithms based on metrics such as convergence rate, cluster stability, cluster overlapping, location-awareness and support for node mobility.

2,176 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Shuguang Cui1, Andrea Goldsmith2, Ahmad Bahai3Institutions (3)
TL;DR: It is shown that up to 80% energy savings is achievable over nonoptimized systems and that the benefit of coding varies with the transmission distance and the underlying modulation schemes.
Abstract: Wireless systems where the nodes operate on batteries so that energy consumption must be minimized while satisfying given throughput and delay requirements are considered. In this context, the best modulation strategy to minimize the total energy consumption required to send a given number of bits is analyzed. The total energy consumption includes both the transmission energy and the circuit energy consumption. For uncoded systems, by optimizing the transmission time and the modulation parameters, it is shown that up to 80% energy savings is achievable over nonoptimized systems. For coded systems, it is shown that the benefit of coding varies with the transmission distance and the underlying modulation schemes.

1,500 citations


31 May 2004-
TL;DR: This work proposes SEP, a heterogeneous-aware protocol to prolong the time interval before the death of the first node (the authors refer to as stability period), which is crucial for many applications where the feedback from the sensor network must be reliable.
Abstract: We study the impact of heterogeneity of nodes, in terms of their energy, in wireless sensor networks that are hierarchically clustered. In these networks some of the nodes become cluster heads, aggregate the data of their cluster members and transmit it to the sink. We assume that a percentage of the population of sensor nodes is equipped with additional energy resources—this is a source of heterogeneity which may result from the initial setting or as the operation of the network evolves. We also assume that the sensors are randomly (uniformly) distributed and are not mobile, the coordinates of the sink and the dimensions of the sensor field are known. We show that the behavior of such sensor networks becomes very unstable once the first node dies, especially in the presence of node heterogeneity. Classical clustering protocols assume that all the nodes are equipped with the same amount of energy and as a result, they can not take full advantage of the presence of node heterogeneity. We propose SEP, a heterogeneous-aware protocol to prolong the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period), which is crucial for many applications where the feedback from the sensor network must be reliable. SEP is based on weighted election probabilities of each node to become cluster head according to the remaining energy in each node. We show by simulation that SEP always prolongs the stability period compared to (and that the average throughput is greater than) the one obtained using current clustering protocols. We conclude by studying the sensitivity of our SEP protocol to heterogeneity parameters capturing energy imbalance in the network. We found that SEP yields longer stability region for higher values of extra energy brought by more powerful nodes.

1,399 citations


Cites background or methods from "An application-specific protocol ar..."

  • ...In LEACH there is an optimal percentage popt (determined a priori) of nodes that has to become cluster heads in each round assuming uniform distribution of nodes in space [2, 3, 6, 7]....

    [...]

  • ...For the purpose of this study we use similar energy model and analysis as proposed in [7]....

    [...]

  • ...Previous work have studied either by simulation [6, 7] or analytically [2, 3] the optimal probability of a node being elected as a cluster head as a function of spatial density when nodes are uniformly distributed over the sensor field....

    [...]

  • ...A solution proposed in [7], called LEACH, guarantees that the energy load is well distributed by dynamically created clusters, using cluster heads dynamically elected according to a priori optimal probability....

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
O. Younis1, Sonia Fahmy1Institutions (1)
07 Mar 2004-
TL;DR: A protocol is presented, HEED (hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering), that periodically selects cluster heads according to a hybrid of their residual energy and a secondary parameter, such as node proximity to its neighbors or node degree, which outperforms weight-based clustering protocols in terms of several cluster characteristics.
Abstract: Prolonged network lifetime, scalability, and load balancing are important requirements for many ad-hoc sensor network applications. Clustering sensor nodes is an effective technique for achieving these goals. In this work, we propose a new energy-efficient approach for clustering nodes in ad-hoc sensor networks. Based on this approach, we present a protocol, HEED (hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering), that periodically selects cluster heads according to a hybrid of their residual energy and a secondary parameter, such as node proximity to its neighbors or node degree. HEED does not make any assumptions about the distribution or density of nodes, or about node capabilities, e.g., location-awareness. The clustering process terminates in O(1) iterations, and does not depend on the network topology or size. The protocol incurs low overhead in terms of processing cycles and messages exchanged. It also achieves fairly uniform cluster head distribution across the network. A careful selection of the secondary clustering parameter can balance load among cluster heads. Our simulation results demonstrate that HEED outperforms weight-based clustering protocols in terms of several cluster characteristics. We also apply our approach to a simple application to demonstrate its effectiveness in prolonging the network lifetime and supporting data aggregation.

1,357 citations


Cites background or methods from "An application-specific protocol ar..."

  • ...Hierarchical (clustering) techniques can aid in reducing useful energy consumption [12]....

    [...]

  • ...We consider one such application (simil ar to the one described in [12]) in this section....

    [...]

  • ...LEACH [12] is an application-specific data dissemination protocol that uses clustering to prolong the network lifeti me....

    [...]

  • ...approach (which we refer to as gen-LEACH) in which two features are added to the application-specific LEACH protoc ol, described in [12]....

    [...]

  • ...Section VI discusses applications that can use our approach , and compares HEED with a generalized energy-efficient version of LEACH [12]....

    [...]


References
More filters

Book
15 Jan 1996-
Abstract: From the Publisher: The indispensable guide to wireless communications—now fully revised and updated! Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, Second Edition is the definitive modern text for wireless communications technology and system design. Building on his classic first edition, Theodore S. Rappaport covers the fundamental issues impacting all wireless networks and reviews virtually every important new wireless standard and technological development, offering especially comprehensive coverage of the 3G systems and wireless local area networks (WLANs) that will transform communications in the coming years. Rappaport illustrates each key concept with practical examples, thoroughly explained and solved step by step. Coverage includes: An overview of key wireless technologies: voice, data, cordless, paging, fixed and mobile broadband wireless systems, and beyond Wireless system design fundamentals: channel assignment, handoffs, trunking efficiency, interference, frequency reuse, capacity planning, large-scale fading, and more Path loss, small-scale fading, multipath, reflection, diffraction, scattering, shadowing, spatial-temporal channel modeling, and microcell/indoor propagation Modulation, equalization, diversity, channel coding, and speech coding New wireless LAN technologies: IEEE 802.11a/b, HIPERLAN, BRAN, and other alternatives New 3G air interface standards, including W-CDMA, cdma2000, GPRS, UMTS, and EDGE Bluetooth wearable computers, fixed wireless and Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS), and other advanced technologies Updated glossary of abbreviations and acronyms, and a thorolist of references Dozens of new examples and end-of-chapter problems Whether you're a communications/network professional, manager, researcher, or student, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, Second Edition gives you an in-depth understanding of the state of the art in wireless technology—today's and tomorrow's.

16,896 citations


"An application-specific protocol ar..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...For the experiments described here, both the free space ( power loss) and the multipath fading ( power loss) channel models were used, depending on the distance between the transmitter and receiver5 [22]....

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
04 Jan 2000-
Abstract: Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have significant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our findings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multi-hop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show the LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional outing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated.

11,951 citations


01 Jan 2000-
TL;DR: LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network, is proposed.
Abstract: Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have signicant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our ndings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multihop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster base stations (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show that LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional routing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated.

11,410 citations


01 Jul 2003-
TL;DR: A logging instrument contains a pulsed neutron source and a pair of radiation detectors spaced along the length of the instrument to provide an indication of formation porosity which is substantially independent of the formation salinity.
Abstract: The Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol is intended for use by mobile nodes in an ad hoc network. It offers quick adaptation to dynamic link conditions, low processing and memory overhead, low network utilization, and determines unicast routes to destinations within the ad hoc network. It uses destination sequence numbers to ensure loop freedom at all times (even in the face of anomalous delivery of routing control messages), avoiding problems (such as "counting to infinity") associated with classical distance vector protocols.

11,293 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...These routing approaches have been incorporated into wireless networks using minor modi cations, resulting in destination-sequenced distance vector (DSDV) and ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocols [72, 71]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Gerard J. Foschini1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: This paper addresses digital communication in a Rayleigh fading environment when the channel characteristic is unknown at the transmitter but is known (tracked) at the receiver with the aim of leveraging the already highly developed 1-D codec technology.
Abstract: This paper addresses digital communication in a Rayleigh fading environment when the channel characteristic is unknown at the transmitter but is known (tracked) at the receiver. Inventing a codec architecture that can realize a significant portion of the great capacity promised by information theory is essential to a standout long-term position in highly competitive arenas like fixed and indoor wireless. Use (n T , n R ) to express the number of antenna elements at the transmitter and receiver. An (n, n) analysis shows that despite the n received waves interfering randomly, capacity grows linearly with n and is enormous. With n = 8 at 1% outage and 21-dB average SNR at each receiving element, 42 b/s/Hz is achieved. The capacity is more than 40 times that of a (1, 1) system at the same total radiated transmitter power and bandwidth. Moreover, in some applications, n could be much larger than 8. In striving for significant fractions of such huge capacities, the question arises: Can one construct an (n, n) system whose capacity scales linearly with n, using as building blocks n separately coded one-dimensional (1-D) subsystems of equal capacity? With the aim of leveraging the already highly developed 1-D codec technology, this paper reports just such an invention. In this new architecture, signals are layered in space and time as suggested by a tight capacity bound.

6,728 citations


"An application-specific protocol ar..." refers background in this paper

  • ...and the receiver to point not only the receiver but also the transmitter [29]....

    [...]


Network Information
Related Papers (5)
04 Jan 2000

Wendi Rabiner Heinzelman, Anantha P. Chandrakasan +1 more

15 Mar 2002, Computer Networks

Ian F. Akyildiz, Weilian Su +2 more

01 Aug 2002, IEEE Communications Magazine

Ian F. Akyildiz, Weilian Su +2 more

09 Mar 2002

S. Lindsey, Cauligi S. Raghavendra

Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202219
2021406
2020396
2019508
2018538
2017585