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Journal ArticleDOI

An approach for evaluation of proposed air pollution control strategy to reduce levels of nitrogen oxides in an urban environment

TL;DR: In this paper, an atmospheric dispersion model along with a systematic emission inventory was used to explore the possible control strategy to reduce ambient levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in Kanpur city, India.
Abstract: In this study, an atmospheric dispersion model along with a systematic emission inventory was used to explore the possible control strategy to reduce ambient levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in Kanpur city, India. A GIS based emission inventory of NOx was developed for the base, 5th and 10th years. It was observed that the 5th and 10th years will experience increased emissions by factors of 1.7 and 2.5 of the base year if no control policy is implemented. Seventeen control options (i.e. introduction of Euro 6 to vehicles, banning of 15-year old private vehicles etc.) were considered for evaluation through the dispersion modelling. A control scenario comprising the following control options (1) implementation of Euro 6 for vehicles, (2) compressed natural gas (CNG) for commercial and public vehicles, etc. was found to be most effective in reducing the ambient NOx levels and attaining a 24-hour average air quality standard.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicated that vehicular emission was the major source for PAHs contamination with moderate effect of coal combustion and biomass combustion andcinogenic potency of PAH load in traffic soil was nearly 6.15 times higher as compared to the control/rural soil.

196 citations


Cites background from "An approach for evaluation of propo..."

  • ...In India in addition to gaseous and particulate air pollution (Shukla and Sharma, 2010; Behera et al., 2011, 2015; Singh et al., 2014; Behera et al., 2014) studies on PAH pollution on urban soil due to vehicular emission are also gaining importance (Ray et al....

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  • ...In India in addition to gaseous and particulate air pollution (Shukla and Sharma, 2010; Behera et al., 2011, 2015; Singh et al., 2014; Behera et al., 2014) studies on PAH pollution on urban soil due to vehicular emission are also gaining importance (Ray et al., 2008; Agarwal et al., 2006; Sharma et…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A fuzzy-stochastic mixed quadratic programming method (FSQ) is developed and introduced into a PPP for tackling atmospheric pollution issues with uncertainties and can facilitate the identification of optimized policies for alleviating population-production-emission conflict in the study region, as well as ameliorating the hazardous air pollution crisis at an urban level.

32 citations


Cites background from "An approach for evaluation of propo..."

  • ...…of the above uncertainties can lead to systemic complexities, which have challenged policymakers to generate desired decision alternatives (Huang, 1998; Tanaka et al., 2000; ApSimon et al., 2002; Li et al., 2006; Rapaport, 2010; Behera et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2013; Ichige et al., 2015)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed locations of air quality sampling sites for a long-term monitoring network in Delhi and Kanpur, respectively, based on the survey results on emission activities, meteorology and pollution maps.
Abstract: Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry through formation of secondary particulate nitrate that contributes a major portion to the mass of particulate matter (PM) that has several impacts on the environment in the scales of local, regional and global. NO 2 is regulated in most of the countries, because it acts as a precursor for nitrate formation and it shows significant negative effects on human health. The present study was conducted for measurement of NO 2 concentration at 204 and 101 sampling locations in two Indian large cities (population more than 4 million), Delhi and Kanpur, respectively by using passive samplers. From the experimental results, an average concentration of 68.6 ± 20.1 μg/m 3 was observed in Delhi and it was 36.9 ± 12.1 μg/m 3 in Kanpur. The observed data from all sampling sites were utilized on the platform of Geographic Information System (GIS) to generate spatially distributed pollution maps (using Kriging interpolation method) and maps of probability of exceedences of air quality standards. Based on the survey results on emission activities, meteorology and pollution maps, this study proposed locations of air quality sampling sites for a long-term monitoring network in Delhi and Kanpur.

20 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The 24h mean concentration of PM exceeded more than three times the WHO's air quality standard limit for both PM2.5 and PM10 indicating poor air quality in the urban area during monsoon season.

15 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An optimization model that suggests a portfolio of mitigation actions that captures realistic aspects of air quality policy-making such as implementation cost, pollution goals, interdependencies between alternatives, and managerial and regulatory constraints is proposed.

11 citations


Cites result from "An approach for evaluation of propo..."

  • ...In comparison to similar studies conducted in developing countries [11, 60], we propose an optimization model for the selection and scheduling of mitigation actions instead of a scenario analysis....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs, and ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults.

3,000 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A multidisciplinary approach using epidemiology, animal toxicology, and controlled human exposure studies has contributed to the database, and studies of humans but will also draw on findings from the other disciplines.
Abstract: Over the past three or four decades, there have been important advances in the understanding of the actions, exposure-response characteristics, and mechanisms of action of many common air pollutant

1,198 citations


"An approach for evaluation of propo..." refers background in this paper

  • ...NOx also has several adverse effects on human health and causes diseases such as pulmonary oedema and damage to the central nervous system, tissues, etc. (Lal and Patil 2001, Pandey et al. 2002, Kampa and Castanas 2008)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a broad overview of the available evidence on patterns and trends in urban growth in developing countries, highlighting regional differences where appropriate and examine the quality of past urban population projections and find that there has been considerable diversity in their quality by geographic region, level of development, and size of country.

774 citations


"An approach for evaluation of propo..." refers background in this paper

  • ...As a result, the motor transport system contributes significant emissions in densely populated urban areas of the world (Cohen 2004, Pucher et al. 2007)....

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  • ...Urban cities in the world are facing problems of a rapid increase in levels of ambient NOx due to fast growing transportation systems (Chow et al. 2004, Cohen 2004, Goyal et al. 2006)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Air pollution has serious impacts on public health, causes urban and regional haze, and has the potential to contribute significantly to climate change, yet, with appropriate planning, megacities can efficiently address their air quality problems through measures such as application of new emission control technologies and development of mass transit systems.
Abstract: About half of the world's population now lives in urban areas because of the opportunity for a better quality of life. Many of these urban centers are expanding rapidly, leading to the growth of megacities, which are defined as metropolitan areas with populations exceeding 10 million inhabitants. These concentrations of people and activity are exerting increasing stress on the natural environment, with impacts at urban, regional and global levels. In recent decades, air pollution has become one of the most important problems of megacities. Initially, the main air pollutants of concern were sulfur compounds, which were generated mostly by burning coal. Today, photochemical smog—induced primarily from traffic, but also from industrial activities, power generation, and solvents—has become the main source of concern for air quality, while sulfur is still a major problem in many cities of the developing world. Air pollution has serious impacts on public health, causes urban and regional haze, and has ...

591 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide precise directions for a long list of contaminants and all contaminants that can be analyzed or monitored with a given method to facilitate the use of their tools.

441 citations