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An Efficient Spatial-Temporal Trajectory Planner for Autonomous Vehicles in Unstructured Environments

TL;DR: In this article , the authors propose a real-time trajectory optimization method that can generate a high-quality whole-body trajectory under arbitrary environmental constraints by leveraging the differential flatness property of car-like robots.
Abstract: As a core part of autonomous driving systems, motion planning has received extensive attention from academia and industry. However, real-time trajectory planning capable of spatial-temporal joint optimization is challenged by nonholonomic dynamics, particularly in the presence of unstructured environments and dynamic obstacles. To bridge the gap, we propose a real-time trajectory optimization method that can generate a high-quality whole-body trajectory under arbitrary environmental constraints. By leveraging the differential flatness property of car-like robots, we simplify the trajectory representation and analytically formulate the planning problem while maintaining the feasibility of the nonholonomic dynamics. Moreover, we achieve efficient obstacle avoidance with a safe driving corridor for unmodelled obstacles and signed distance approximations for dynamic moving objects. We present comprehensive benchmarks with State-of-the-Art methods, demonstrating the significance of the proposed method in terms of efficiency and trajectory quality. Real-world experiments verify the practicality of our algorithm. We will release our codes for the research community
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17,845 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive description of the primal-dual interior-point algorithm with a filter line-search method for nonlinear programming is provided, including the feasibility restoration phase for the filter method, second-order corrections, and inertia correction of the KKT matrix.
Abstract: We present a primal-dual interior-point algorithm with a filter line-search method for nonlinear programming. Local and global convergence properties of this method were analyzed in previous work. Here we provide a comprehensive description of the algorithm, including the feasibility restoration phase for the filter method, second-order corrections, and inertia correction of the KKT matrix. Heuristics are also considered that allow faster performance. This method has been implemented in the IPOPT code, which we demonstrate in a detailed numerical study based on 954 problems from the CUTEr test set. An evaluation is made of several line-search options, and a comparison is provided with two state-of-the-art interior-point codes for nonlinear programming.

7,966 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The numerical tests indicate that the L-BFGS method is faster than the method of Buckley and LeNir, and is better able to use additional storage to accelerate convergence, and the convergence properties are studied to prove global convergence on uniformly convex problems.
Abstract: We study the numerical performance of a limited memory quasi-Newton method for large scale optimization, which we call the L-BFGS method. We compare its performance with that of the method developed by Buckley and LeNir (1985), which combines cycles of BFGS steps and conjugate direction steps. Our numerical tests indicate that the L-BFGS method is faster than the method of Buckley and LeNir, and is better able to use additional storage to accelerate convergence. We show that the L-BFGS method can be greatly accelerated by means of a simple scaling. We then compare the L-BFGS method with the partitioned quasi-Newton method of Griewank and Toint (1982a). The results show that, for some problems, the partitioned quasi-Newton method is clearly superior to the L-BFGS method. However we find that for other problems the L-BFGS method is very competitive due to its low iteration cost. We also study the convergence properties of the L-BFGS method, and prove global convergence on uniformly convex problems.

7,004 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) as discussed by the authors is a data structure designed for path planning problems with high degrees of freedom and non-holonomic constraints, including dynamics.
Abstract: We introduce the concept of a Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) as a randomized data structure that is designed for a broad class of path planning problems. While they share many of the bene cial properties of existing randomized planning techniques, RRTs are specifically designed to handle nonholonomic constraints (including dynamics) and high degrees of freedom. An RRT is iteratively expanded by applying control inputs that drive the system slightly toward randomly-selected points, as opposed to requiring point-to-point convergence, as in the probabilistic roadmap approach. Several desirable properties and a basic implementation of RRTs are discussed. To date, we have successfully applied RRTs to holonomic, nonholonomic, and kinodynamic planning problems of up to twelve degrees of freedom.

3,474 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors studied the asymptotic behavior of the cost of the solution returned by stochastic sampling-based path planning algorithms as the number of samples increases.
Abstract: During the last decade, sampling-based path planning algorithms, such as probabilistic roadmaps (PRM) and rapidly exploring random trees (RRT), have been shown to work well in practice and possess theoretical guarantees such as probabilistic completeness. However, little effort has been devoted to the formal analysis of the quality of the solution returned by such algorithms, e.g. as a function of the number of samples. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap, by rigorously analyzing the asymptotic behavior of the cost of the solution returned by stochastic sampling-based algorithms as the number of samples increases. A number of negative results are provided, characterizing existing algorithms, e.g. showing that, under mild technical conditions, the cost of the solution returned by broadly used sampling-based algorithms converges almost surely to a non-optimal value. The main contribution of the paper is the introduction of new algorithms, namely, PRM* and RRT*, which are provably asymptotically optimal, i.e. such that the cost of the returned solution converges almost surely to the optimum. Moreover, it is shown that the computational complexity of the new algorithms is within a constant factor of that of their probabilistically complete (but not asymptotically optimal) counterparts. The analysis in this paper hinges on novel connections between stochastic sampling-based path planning algorithms and the theory of random geometric graphs.

3,438 citations