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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2021.02.020

An expanded universe of cancer targets.

04 Mar 2021-Cell (Elsevier)-Vol. 184, Iss: 5, pp 1142-1155
Abstract: The characterization of cancer genomes has provided insight into somatically altered genes across tumors, transformed our understanding of cancer biology, and enabled tailoring of therapeutic strategies. However, the function of most cancer alleles remains mysterious, and many cancer features transcend their genomes. Consequently, tumor genomic characterization does not influence therapy for most patients. Approaches to understand the function and circuitry of cancer genes provide complementary approaches to elucidate both oncogene and non-oncogene dependencies. Emerging work indicates that the diversity of therapeutic targets engendered by non-oncogene dependencies is much larger than the list of recurrently mutated genes. Here we describe a framework for this expanded list of cancer targets, providing novel opportunities for clinical translation.

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Topics: Cancer (53%)
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28 results found


Open access
Dohoon Kim1, Brian P. Fiske1, Kıvanç Birsoy1, Elizaveta Freinkman1  +15 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Apr 2015-
Abstract: Cancer cells adapt their metabolic processes to support rapid proliferation, but less is known about how cancer cells alter metabolism to promote cell survival in a poorly vascularized tumour microenvironment. Here we identify a key role for serine and glycine metabolism in the survival of brain cancer cells within the ischaemic zones of gliomas. In human glioblastoma multiforme, mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT2) and glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) are highly expressed in the pseudopalisading cells that surround necrotic foci. We find that SHMT2 activity limits that of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) and reduces oxygen consumption, eliciting a metabolic state that confers a profound survival advantage to cells in poorly vascularized tumour regions. GLDC inhibition impairs cells with high SHMT2 levels as the excess glycine not metabolized by GLDC can be converted to the toxic molecules aminoacetone and methylglyoxal. Thus, SHMT2 is required for cancer cells to adapt to the tumour environment, but also renders these cells sensitive to glycine cleavage system inhibition.

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Topics: Glycine cleavage system (61%), Cancer cell (57%), Serine (54%) ... show more

61 Citations


Open access
Mikhail Binnewies1, Edward W. Roberts1, Kelly Kersten1, Vincent Chan1  +15 moreInstitutions (12)
01 Apr 2018-
Abstract: The clinical successes in immunotherapy have been both astounding and at the same time unsatisfactory. Countless patients with varied tumor types have seen pronounced clinical response with immunotherapeutic intervention; however, many more patients have experienced minimal or no clinical benefit when provided the same treatment. As technology has advanced, so has the understanding of the complexity and diversity of the immune context of the tumor microenvironment and its influence on response to therapy. It has been possible to identify different subclasses of immune environment that have an influence on tumor initiation and response and therapy; by parsing the unique classes and subclasses of tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) that exist within a patient's tumor, the ability to predict and guide immunotherapeutic responsiveness will improve, and new therapeutic targets will be revealed.

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25 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13081769
07 Apr 2021-Cancers
Abstract: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is a histological subtype of ovarian cancer that is more frequent in Asian countries (~25% of ovarian cancers) than in US/European countries (less than 10%). OCCC is refractory to conventional platinum-based chemotherapy, which is effective against high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), a major histological subtype of ovarian cancer. Notably, deleterious mutations in SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling genes, such as ARID1A, are common in OCCC but rare in HGSC. Because this complex regulates multiple cellular processes, including transcription and DNA repair, molecularly targeted therapies that exploit the consequences of SWI/SNF deficiency may have clinical efficacy against OCCC. Three such strategies have been proposed to date: prioritizing a gemcitabine-based chemotherapeutic regimen, synthetic lethal therapy targeting vulnerabilities conferred by SWI/SNF deficiency, and immune checkpoint blockade therapy that exploits the high mutational burden of ARID1A-deficient tumor. Thus, ARID1A deficiency has potential as a biomarker for precision medicine of ovarian cancer.

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Topics: ARID1A (58%), Ovarian cancer (56%), Clear cell carcinoma (53%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.07.29.453321
31 Jul 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Nucleotide sequence reagents underpin a range of molecular genetics techniques that have been applied across hundreds of thousands of research publications. We have previously reported wrongly identified nucleotide sequence reagents in human gene function publications and described a semi-automated screening tool Seek & Blastn to fact-check the targeting or non-targeting status of nucleotide sequence reagents. We applied Seek & Blastn to screen 11,799 publications across 5 literature corpora, which included all original publications in Gene from 2007-2018 and all original open-access publications in Oncology Reports from 2014-2018. After manually checking the Seek & Blastn screening outputs for over 3,400 human research papers, we identified 712 papers across 78 journals that described at least one wrongly identified nucleotide sequence. Verifying the claimed identities of over 13,700 nucleotide sequences highlighted 1,535 wrongly identified sequences, most of which were claimed targeting reagents for the analysis of 365 human protein-coding genes and 120 non-coding RNAs, respectively. The 712 problematic papers have received over 17,000 citations, which include citations by human clinical trials. Given our estimate that approximately one quarter of problematic papers are likely to misinform or distract the future development of therapies against human disease, urgent measures are required to address the problem of unreliable gene function papers within the literature. Author summary This is the first study to have screened the gene function literature for nucleotide sequence errors at the scale that we describe. The unacceptably high rates of human gene function papers with incorrect nucleotide sequences that we have discovered represent a major challenge to the research fields that aim to translate genomics investments to patients, and that commonly rely upon reliable descriptions of gene function. Indeed, wrongly identified nucleotide sequence reagents represent a double concern, as both the incorrect reagents themselves and their associated results can mislead future research, both in terms of the research directions that are chosen and the experiments that are undertaken. We hope that our research will inspire researchers and journals to seek out other problematic human gene function papers, as we are unfortunately concerned that our results represent the tip of a much larger problem within the literature. We hope that our research will encourage more rigorous reporting and peer review of gene function results, and we propose a series of responses for the research and publishing communities.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13143417
08 Jul 2021-Cancers
Abstract: Several approaches have shown that the immune response against tumors strongly affects patients' clinical outcome. Thus, the study of anti-tumor immunity is critical to understand and potentiate the mechanisms underlying the elimination of tumor cells. Natural killer (NK) cells are members of innate immunity and represent powerful anti-tumor effectors, able to eliminate tumor cells without a previous sensitization. Thus, the study of their involvement in anti-tumor responses is critical for clinical translation. This analysis has been performed in vitro, co-incubating NK with tumor cells and quantifying the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. In vivo confirmation has been applied to overcome the limits of in vitro testing, however, the innate immunity of mice and humans is different, leading to discrepancies. Different activating receptors on NK cells and counter-ligands on tumor cells are involved in the antitumor response, and innate immunity is strictly dependent on the specific microenvironment where it takes place. Thus, three-dimensional (3D) culture systems, where NK and tumor cells can interact in a tissue-like architecture, have been created. For example, tumor cell spheroids and primary organoids derived from several tumor types, have been used so far to analyze innate immune response, replacing animal models. Herein, we briefly introduce NK cells and analyze and discuss in detail the properties of 3D tumor culture systems and their use for the study of tumor cell interactions with NK cells.

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Topics: Innate immune system (59%), Immune system (58%), Immunity (51%) ... show more

1 Citations


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129 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRC3239
Drew M. Pardoll1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Immune checkpoints refer to the plethora of inhibitory pathways that are crucial to maintaining self-tolerance. Tumour cells induce immune checkpoints to evade immunosurveillance. This Review discusses the progress in targeting immune checkpoints, the considerations for combinatorial therapy and the potential for additional immune-checkpoint targets.

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Topics: Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy (60%), Immune checkpoint (60%), Immunosurveillance (54%) ... show more

8,577 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NM.3394
Daniela F. Quail1, Johanna A. Joyce1Institutions (1)
01 Nov 2013-Nature Medicine
Abstract: Cancers develop in complex tissue environments, which they depend on for sustained growth, invasion and metastasis. Unlike tumor cells, stromal cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) are genetically stable and thus represent an attractive therapeutic target with reduced risk of resistance and tumor recurrence. However, specifically disrupting the pro-tumorigenic TME is a challenging undertaking, as the TME has diverse capacities to induce both beneficial and adverse consequences for tumorigenesis. Furthermore, many studies have shown that the microenvironment is capable of normalizing tumor cells, suggesting that re-education of stromal cells, rather than targeted ablation per se, may be an effective strategy for treating cancer. Here we discuss the paradoxical roles of the TME during specific stages of cancer progression and metastasis, as well as recent therapeutic attempts to re-educate stromal cells within the TME to have anti-tumorigenic effects.

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Topics: Tumor progression (58%), Tumor microenvironment (56%), Stromal cell (55%) ... show more

3,971 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE08822
Rameen Beroukhim, Craig H. Mermel1, Craig H. Mermel2, Dale Porter3  +83 moreInstitutions (19)
18 Feb 2010-Nature
Abstract: A powerful way to discover key genes with causal roles in oncogenesis is to identify genomic regions that undergo frequent alteration in human cancers. Here we present high-resolution analyses of somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) from 3,131 cancer specimens, belonging largely to 26 histological types. We identify 158 regions of focal SCNA that are altered at significant frequency across several cancer types, of which 122 cannot be explained by the presence of a known cancer target gene located within these regions. Several gene families are enriched among these regions of focal SCNA, including the BCL2 family of apoptosis regulators and the NF-kappaBeta pathway. We show that cancer cells containing amplifications surrounding the MCL1 and BCL2L1 anti-apoptotic genes depend on the expression of these genes for survival. Finally, we demonstrate that a large majority of SCNAs identified in individual cancer types are present in several cancer types.

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Topics: SCNA (56%), Cancer (54%), Carcinogenesis (51%) ... show more

2,968 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE07943
09 Apr 2009-Nature
Abstract: All cancers arise as a result of changes that have occurred in the DNA sequence of the genomes of cancer cells. Over the past quarter of a century much has been learnt about these mutations and the abnormal genes that operate in human cancers. We are now, however, moving into an era in which it will be possible to obtain the complete DNA sequence of large numbers of cancer genomes. These studies will provide us with a detailed and comprehensive perspective on how individual cancers have developed.

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Topics: Cancer Genome Project (62%), Human genome (56%), Genomics (54%) ... show more

2,800 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1709684
Abstract: BackgroundNivolumab combined with ipilimumab resulted in longer progression-free survival and a higher objective response rate than ipilimumab alone in a phase 3 trial involving patients with advanced melanoma. We now report 3-year overall survival outcomes in this trial. MethodsWe randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, patients with previously untreated advanced melanoma to receive nivolumab at a dose of 1 mg per kilogram of body weight plus ipilimumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram every 3 weeks for four doses, followed by nivolumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram every 2 weeks; nivolumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram every 2 weeks plus placebo; or ipilimumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram every 3 weeks for four doses plus placebo, until progression, the occurrence of unacceptable toxic effects, or withdrawal of consent. Randomization was stratified according to programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) status, BRAF mutation status, and metastasis stage. The two primary end points were progression-free survival a...

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Topics: Nivolumab (59%), Ipilimumab (58%), Survival rate (50%)

2,669 Citations


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