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Journal ArticleDOI

An integrated digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip for clinical diagnostics on human physiological fluids

19 Jul 2004-Lab on a Chip (The Royal Society of Chemistry)-Vol. 4, Iss: 4, pp 310-315
TL;DR: This work presents an alternative paradigm--a fully integrated and reconfigurable droplet-based "digital" microfluidic lab-on-a-chip for clinical diagnostics on human physiological fluids, and demonstrates reliable and repeatable high-speed transport of microdroplets.
Abstract: Clinical diagnostics is one of the most promising applications for microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems, especially in a point-of-care setting. Conventional microfluidic devices are usually based on continuous-flow in microchannels, and offer little flexibility in terms of reconfigurability and scalability. Handling of real physiological samples has also been a major challenge in these devices. We present an alternative paradigm—a fully integrated and reconfigurable droplet-based “digital” microfluidic lab-on-a-chip for clinical diagnostics on human physiological fluids. The microdroplets, which act as solution-phase reaction chambers, are manipulated using the electrowetting effect. Reliable and repeatable high-speed transport of microdroplets of human whole blood, serum, plasma, urine, saliva, sweat and tear, is demonstrated to establish the basic compatibility of these physiological fluids with the electrowetting platform. We further performed a colorimetric enzymatic glucose assay on serum, plasma, urine, and saliva, to show the feasibility of performing bioassays on real samples in our system. The concentrations obtained compare well with those obtained using a reference method, except for urine, where there is a significant difference due to interference by uric acid. A lab-on-a-chip architecture, integrating previously developed digital microfluidic components, is proposed for integrated and automated analysis of multiple analytes on a monolithic device. The lab-on-a-chip integrates sample injection, on-chip reservoirs, droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas and optical detection sites, on the same substrate. The pipelined operation of two glucose assays is shown on a prototype digital microfluidic lab-on-chip, as a proof-of-concept.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Experimental results support the assertion that the dominant contribution to the dynamics of break-up arises from the pressure drop across the emerging droplet or bubble.
Abstract: This article describes the process of formation of droplets and bubbles in microfluidic T-junction geometries. At low capillary numbers break-up is not dominated by shear stresses: experimental results support the assertion that the dominant contribution to the dynamics of break-up arises from the pressure drop across the emerging droplet or bubble. This pressure drop results from the high resistance to flow of the continuous (carrier) fluid in the thin films that separate the droplet from the walls of the microchannel when the droplet fills almost the entire cross-section of the channel. A simple scaling relation, based on this assertion, predicts the size of droplets and bubbles produced in the T-junctions over a range of rates of flow of the two immiscible phases, the viscosity of the continuous phase, the interfacial tension, and the geometrical dimensions of the device.

2,071 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compare the various approaches used to derive the basic electrowetting equation, which has been shown to be very reliable as long as the applied voltage is not too high.
Abstract: Electrowetting has become one of the most widely used tools for manipulating tiny amounts of liquids on surfaces. Applications range from 'lab-on-a-chip' devices to adjustable lenses and new kinds of electronic displays. In the present article, we review the recent progress in this rapidly growing field including both fundamental and applied aspects. We compare the various approaches used to derive the basic electrowetting equation, which has been shown to be very reliable as long as the applied voltage is not too high. We discuss in detail the origin of the electrostatic forces that induce both contact angle reduction and the motion of entire droplets. We examine the limitations of the electrowetting equation and present a variety of recent extensions to the theory that account for distortions of the liquid surface due to local electric fields, for the finite penetration depth of electric fields into the liquid, as well as for finite conductivity effects in the presence of AC voltage. The most prominent failure of the electrowetting equation, namely the saturation of the contact angle at high voltage, is discussed in a separate section. Recent work in this direction indicates that a variety of distinct physical effects?rather than a unique one?are responsible for the saturation phenomenon, depending on experimental details. In the presence of suitable electrode patterns or topographic structures on the substrate surface, variations of the contact angle can give rise not only to continuous changes of the droplet shape, but also to discontinuous morphological transitions between distinct liquid morphologies. The dynamics of electrowetting are discussed briefly. Finally, we give an overview of recent work aimed at commercial applications, in particular in the fields of adjustable lenses, display technology, fibre optics, and biotechnology-related microfluidic devices.

1,962 citations


Cites background or methods from "An integrated digital microfluidic ..."

  • ...Recently, devices based on the manipulation of individual droplets with volumes in the range of nanoliters or less have attracted increasing attention [4-10]....

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  • ...the obvious practical importance of this oil film – both for reducing contact angle hysteresis as well as for preventing unspecific adsorption of biomolecules onto the substrates [5] – little is known experimentally....

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  • ...Therefore, lab-on-achip devices are frequently operated with oil as surrounding medium [5]....

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  • ...In particular, electrowetting also occurs in the presence of bio molecules such as DNA or proteins [5, 21, 63, 64] and has even been demonstrated for physiological fluids [5]....

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  • ...Routine tasks such as moving, merging, mixing, and splitting of droplets have been demonstrated, first independently and later integrated into more complex devices (see [5], [71], and references therein)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review summarizes developments in microfluidic platforms that enable the miniaturization, integration, automation and parallelization of (bio-)chemical assays and attempts to provide a selection scheme based on key requirements of different applications and market segments.
Abstract: This critical review summarizes developments in microfluidic platforms that enable the miniaturization, integration, automation and parallelization of (bio-)chemical assays (see S. Haeberle and R. Zengerle, Lab Chip, 2007, 7, 1094–1110, for an earlier review). In contrast to isolated application-specific solutions, a microfluidic platform provides a set of fluidic unit operations, which are designed for easy combination within a well-defined fabrication technology. This allows the easy, fast, and cost-efficient implementation of different application-specific (bio-)chemical processes. In our review we focus on recent developments from the last decade (2000s). We start with a brief introduction into technical advances, major market segments and promising applications. We continue with a detailed characterization of different microfluidic platforms, comprising a short definition, the functional principle, microfluidic unit operations, application examples as well as strengths and limitations of every platform. The microfluidic platforms in focus are lateral flow tests, linear actuated devices, pressure driven laminar flow, microfluidic large scale integration, segmented flow microfluidics, centrifugal microfluidics, electrokinetics, electrowetting, surface acoustic waves, and dedicated systems for massively parallel analysis. This review concludes with the attempt to provide a selection scheme for microfluidic platforms which is based on their characteristics according to key requirements of different applications and market segments. Applied selection criteria comprise portability, costs of instrument and disposability, sample throughput, number of parameters per sample, reagent consumption, precision, diversity of microfluidic unit operations and the flexibility in programming different liquid handling protocols (295 references).

1,536 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Sep 2017-ACS Nano
TL;DR: The term "lab-on-skin" is introduced to describe a set of electronic devices that have physical properties, such as thickness, thermal mass, elastic modulus, and water-vapor permeability, which resemble those of the skin, which provide accurate, non-invasive, long-term, and continuous health monitoring.
Abstract: Skin is the largest organ of the human body, and it offers a diagnostic interface rich with vital biological signals from the inner organs, blood vessels, muscles, and dermis/epidermis. Soft, flexible, and stretchable electronic devices provide a novel platform to interface with soft tissues for robotic feedback and control, regenerative medicine, and continuous health monitoring. Here, we introduce the term “lab-on-skin” to describe a set of electronic devices that have physical properties, such as thickness, thermal mass, elastic modulus, and water-vapor permeability, which resemble those of the skin. These devices can conformally laminate on the epidermis to mitigate motion artifacts and mismatches in mechanical properties created by conventional, rigid electronics while simultaneously providing accurate, non-invasive, long-term, and continuous health monitoring. Recent progress in the design and fabrication of soft sensors with more advanced capabilities and enhanced reliability suggest an impending t...

1,122 citations


Cites background from "An integrated digital microfluidic ..."

  • ...overall health of the human body.(198) The human skin offers an ideal interface to access...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These kinds of platforms only that allow performance of a set of microfluidic functions which can be easily combined within a well defined and consistent fabrication technology to implement application specific biochemical assays in an easy, flexible and ideally monolithically way are reviewed.
Abstract: We review microfluidic platforms that enable the miniaturization, integration and automation of biochemical assays. Nowadays nearly an unmanageable variety of alternative approaches exists that can do this in principle. Here we focus on those kinds of platforms only that allow performance of a set of microfluidic functions—defined as microfluidic unit operations—which can be easily combined within a well defined and consistent fabrication technology to implement application specific biochemical assays in an easy, flexible and ideally monolithically way. The microfluidic platforms discussed in the following are capillary test strips, also known as lateral flow assays, the “microfluidic large scale integration” approach, centrifugal microfluidics, the electrokinetic platform, pressure driven droplet based microfluidics, electrowetting based microfluidics, SAW driven microfluidics and, last but not least, “free scalable non-contact dispensing”. The microfluidic unit operations discussed within those platforms are fluid transport, metering, mixing, switching, incubation, separation, droplet formation, droplet splitting, nL and pL dispensing, and detection.

1,068 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a review of the book.http://www.reviewreviews.com/reviews/book-reviews-of-the-book
Abstract: Review

2,157 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors report the completion of four fundamental fluidic operations considered essential to build digital microfluidic circuits, which can be used for lab-on-a-chip or micro total analysis system (/spl mu/TAS): 1) creating, 2) transporting, 3) cutting, and 4) merging liquid droplets, all by electrowetting.
Abstract: Reports the completion of four fundamental fluidic operations considered essential to build digital microfluidic circuits, which can be used for lab-on-a-chip or micro total analysis system (/spl mu/TAS): 1) creating, 2) transporting, 3) cutting, and 4) merging liquid droplets, all by electrowetting, i.e., controlling the wetting property of the surface through electric potential. The surface used in this report is, more specifically, an electrode covered with dielectrics, hence, called electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD). All the fluidic movement is confined between two plates, which we call parallel-plate channel, rather than through closed channels or on open surfaces. While transporting and merging droplets are easily verified, we discover that there exists a design criterion for a given set of materials beyond which the droplet simply cannot be cut by EWOD mechanism. The condition for successful cutting is theoretically analyzed by examining the channel gap, the droplet size and the degree of contact angle change by electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD). A series of experiments is run and verifies the criterion.

1,522 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an alternative approach to microfluidics based upon the micromanipulation of discrete droplets of aqueous electrolyte by electrowetting is reported.
Abstract: The serviceability of microfluidics-based instrumentation including ‘lab-on-a-chip’ systems critically depends on control of fluid motion. We are reporting here an alternative approach to microfluidics based upon the micromanipulation of discrete droplets of aqueous electrolyte by electrowetting. Using a simple open structure, consisting of two sets of opposing planar electrodes fabricated on glass substrates, positional and formational control of microdroplets ranging in size from several nanoliters to several microliters has been demonstrated at voltages between 15–100 V. Since there are no permanent channels or structures between the plates, the system is highly flexible and reconfigurable. Droplet transport is rapid and efficient with average velocities exceeding 10 cm s−1 having been observed. The dependence of the velocity on voltage is roughly independent of the droplet size within certain limits, thus the smallest droplets studied (∼3 nl) could be transported over 1000 times their length per second. Formation, mixing, and splitting of microdroplets was also demonstrated using the same microactuator structures. Thus, electrowetting provides a means to achieve high levels of functional integration and flexibility for microfluidic systems.

1,078 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
08 Nov 2004
TL;DR: The disposable plastic biochip incorporating smart passive microfluidics with embedded on-chip power sources and integrated biosensor array for applications in clinical diagnostics and point-of-care testing and a handheld analyzer capable of multiparameter detection of clinically relevant parameters is developed.
Abstract: This paper presents the development of a disposable plastic biochip incorporating smart passive microfluidics with embedded on-chip power sources and integrated biosensor array for applications in clinical diagnostics and point-of-care testing. The fully integrated disposable biochip is capable of precise volume control with smart microfluidic manipulation without costly on-chip microfluidic components. The biochip has a unique power source using on-chip pressurized air reservoirs, for microfluidic manipulation, avoiding the need for complex microfluidic pumps. In addition, the disposable plastic biochip has successfully been tested for the measurements of partial oxygen concentration, glucose, and lactate level in human blood using an integrated biosensor array. This paper presents details of the smart passive microfluidic system, the on-chip power source, and the biosensor array together with a detailed discussion of the plastic micromachining techniques used for chip fabrication. A handheld analyzer capable of multiparameter detection of clinically relevant parameters has also been developed to detect the signals from the cartridge type disposable biochip. The handheld analyzer developed in this work is currently the smallest analyzer capable of multiparameter detection for point-of-care testing.

546 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Few cases of microchip analysis of physiological samples or other “real‐world” matrices were found, but many of the examples presented have potential application for these samples, especially with ongoing parallel developments involving integration of sample pretreatment onto chips and the use of fluid propulsion mechanisms other than electrokinetic pumping.
Abstract: This review gives an overview of developments in the field of microchip analysis for clinical diagnostic and forensic applications. The approach chosen to review the literature is different from that in most microchip reviews to date, in that the information is presented in terms of analytes tested rather than microchip method. Analyte categories for which examples are presented include (i) drugs (quality control, seizures) and explosives residues, (ii) drugs and endogenous small molecules and ions in biofluids, (iii) proteins and peptides, and (iv) analysis of nucleic acids and oligonucleotides. Few cases of microchip analysis of physiological samples or other "real-world" matrices were found. However, many of the examples presented have potential application for these samples, especially with ongoing parallel developments involving integration of sample pretreatment onto chips and the use of fluid propulsion mechanisms other than electrokinetic pumping.

530 citations