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Journal ArticleDOI

An overview of concentrated solar energy and its applications

17 Nov 2018-International journal of ambient energy (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 39, Iss: 8, pp 898-903
Abstract: Overview of the present-day concentrated solar energy (CSE) technologies is presented. Approaches to concentrating solar energy are reviewed and the current projects worldwide of CSE technologies are compared. This paper presents general descriptions, current projects and summary of the CSE technologies. Parabolic trough collectors (PTCs) technology is found to be a mature technology. The linear Fresnel collectors (LFCs) technology is still in the experimental stage. The tower solar power (TSP) technology is preferred for large scale due to the cheapness. Sterling/dish collectors (SDCs) technology is designed especially for remote applications and has the highest overall efficiency and the highest operating temperature. The application areas show that CSE can be used in a wide variety of systems, could provide significant environmental and monetary benefits.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2020-Applied Energy
Abstract: Hydrogen production via a two-step thermochemical cycle has attracted considerable research interest as it can directly utilize the heat of the high temperature reactor, which eliminates the need for power generation steps and increases energy efficiency, and is understood to be a promising method for producing hydrogen on an industrial scale. The thermochemical cycle uses a metal oxide as a catalyst and involves two steps: thermal reduction and water splitting. The cycle process only requires the input of heat and water to continuously regenerate hydrogen and oxygen, which has almost no impact on the environment and has the potential for sustainable development. Herein we reviewed the two-step thermochemical cycle with regard to reaction heat source, metal oxide characteristics, and chemical reactors. The performance of volatile and non-volatile metal oxides in the cycle reactions has been thoroughly investigated. To date, the most widely studied metal oxides are ZnO/Zn, SnO2/SnO, ceria-based oxides, and iron-based oxides. Among them, doped-ceria and iron-based oxides, which have high redox activities and cycle stabilities, are considered to be the most promising materials. The possibility of achieving large-scale industrial production and the perspective on future material development were also analyzed. It was proved that the poly-cation oxides (PCOs) studied have great potential for hydrolysis, and the use of oxygen transport membrane reactor provides a new perspective for solar hydrogen production.

23 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: World climate is an area of concern due to the use of fossil fuels that have been the most commonly preferred resource of energy since the industrial revolution and urbanization. The target to maintain the lowest level of carbon emissions and greenhouse gases has created an urge to look for renewable energy resources. Among the renewable energy resources available worldwide, solar energy is considered as one of the feasible and mature technologies in view of large-scale commercial deployment. Solar photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion (STC) techniques have been implemented so far and are still advancing towards cost-effective solutions. Parabolic trough collector (PTC) is one such economical and feasible STC technology as far as high-temperature thermal applications are concerned and are being widely used for power generation. This paper is an attempt to present the current scenario of PTC technology along with its various advancements over the years. Further in this paper, selective coatings, coating techniques and heat collection element (HCE) or receiver are discussed in detail with regard to their advancements. The present work also illustrates the progressive trends in PTC technology, particularly with respect to various heat transfer fluids, HCE inserts, selective coatings and other performance factors along with some futuristic aspects with respect to coatings and receiver inserts in view of high thermal performance.

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The main target of this study is to apply thermal integration on a five-steps ZnSI thermochemical hydrogen production cycle in order to improving the process efficiency. In this process water enters the Bunsen system at a 298 K, 1 bar with flow rate of 0.5 mol/s, and CO2 is the input stream into the zinc system at 298 K and 1 bar. Oxygen and CO are output streams of Bunsen and zinc systems, respectively. Hydrogen is output of the HI system, which is obtained as a final product at 313 K, 1 bar with the flow rate of 0.5 mol/s. A solar thermal system which uses solar dish collector is applied in order to provide a portion of the required thermal load in the process. Modeling of the solar system is done through Matlab software. By using ZnSI instead of SI process, temperature of reaction decreases. Also hydrogen and carbon monoxide are produced. The results demonstrate that by this modification number of units of the Zn system reduces and the chemical process is simplified. By performing thermal integration, heat duty of the system decreases and accordingly thermal efficiency increase by 61.06%. As well as, the minimum required hot and cold utilities decrease by 51.94% and 65.52%, respectively. Solar fraction and collector thermal efficiency were obtained 42.57% and the 82% respectively. Finnaly a parametric assessment is done on the key parameters which influence performance of the process.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this study, “Concentrated Solar Energy (CSE)” is applied for soldering and is named as the “Concentrated Solar Energy Soldering (CSES) technique.” Lead-free solders are used for comparing novel CSES technique solder joints with CSI (Conventional Soldering Iron) solder joints. Tensile strength, bending/flexural strength, microhardness, electrical resistivity, fractography, optical microstructures, SEM microstructures, and EDS analysis were used to compare CSES solder joints with CSI solder joints. The salt spray test (SST) was used for corrosion analysis of CSES and CSI solder joints. Experimental results reveal that the tensile response, bending strength, and microhardness of the CSES solder joints were almost equal to those of the CSI solder joints. It was observed that after corrosion, the tensile strength, bending strength, and microhardness for CSES and CSI solder joints reduced. CSES solder joints were found to be slightly better than CSI solder joints for electrical resistivity. Electrical resistivity for all the cases studied was found to increase slightly after corrosion. Interfacial integrity and effect of corrosion were clearly observed on CSES and CSI solder joint microstructures. The intermetallic compounds (IMC) formed in case of CSES solder joints were found to be having slightly less thickness than that of CSI solder joints. The results demonstrate CSES technique as a green technology and a potential substitute to the CSI method.

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The present work aims at improving the design of an energy conversion system operating on solar radiation harvesting and converting it into electricity with the help of thermopiles. Here, the major...

5 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this paper a survey of the various types of solar thermal collectors and applications is presented. Initially, an analysis of the environmental problems related to the use of conventional sources of energy is presented and the benefits offered by renewable energy systems are outlined. A historical introduction into the uses of solar energy is attempted followed by a description of the various types of collectors including flat-plate, compound parabolic, evacuated tube, parabolic trough, Fresnel lens, parabolic dish and heliostat field collectors. This is followed by an optical, thermal and thermodynamic analysis of the collectors and a description of the methods used to evaluate their performance. Typical applications of the various types of collectors are presented in order to show to the reader the extent of their applicability. These include solar water heating, which comprise thermosyphon, integrated collector storage, direct and indirect systems and air systems, space heating and cooling, which comprise, space heating and service hot water, air and water systems and heat pumps, refrigeration, industrial process heat, which comprise air and water systems and steam generation systems, desalination, thermal power systems, which comprise the parabolic trough, power tower and dish systems, solar furnaces, and chemistry applications. As can be seen solar energy systems can be used for a wide range of applications and provide significant benefits, therefore, they should be used whenever possible.

2,285 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the parabolic-trough collectors that have been built and marketed during the past century, as well as the prototypes currently under development. It also presents a survey of systems which could incorporate this type of concentrating solar system to supply thermal energy up to 400 °C, especially steam power cycles for electricity generation, including examples of each application.

815 citations


"An overview of concentrated solar e..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Applications of CSE is found in different fields (Rabl 1976; Fernandez-Garcia et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2013; Francis and Bupesh Raja 2015)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Concentrated solar power plants (CSPs) are gaining increasing interest, mostly as parabolic trough collectors (PTC) or solar tower collectors (STC). Notwithstanding CSP benefits, the daily and monthly variation of the solar irradiation flux is a main drawback. Despite the approximate match between hours of the day where solar radiation and energy demand peak, CSPs experience short term variations on cloudy days and cannot provide energy during night hours unless incorporating thermal energy storage (TES) and/or backup systems (BS) to operate continuously. To determine the optimum design and operation of the CSP throughout the year, whilst defining the required TES and/or BS, an accurate estimation of the daily solar irradiation is needed. Local solar irradiation data are mostly only available as monthly averages, and a predictive conversion into hourly data and direct irradiation is needed to provide a more accurate input into the CSP design. The paper (i) briefly reviews CSP technologies and STC advantages; (ii) presents a methodology to predict hourly beam (direct) irradiation from available monthly averages, based upon combined previous literature findings and available meteorological data; (iii) illustrates predictions for different selected STC locations; and finally (iv) describes the use of the predictions in simulating the required plant configuration of an optimum STC. The methodology and results demonstrate the potential of CSPs in general, whilst also defining the design background of STC plants.

693 citations


25


"An overview of concentrated solar e..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Comparison between CSE technologies (Zhang et al. 2013)....

    [...]

  • ...Applications of CSE is found in different fields (Rabl 1976; Fernandez-Garcia et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2013; Francis and Bupesh Raja 2015)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper reviews the present day solar thermal technologies and performance analyses of existing designs, mathematical simulation, design and fabrication of innovative designs with suggested improvements have been discussed.
Abstract: The use of solar energy in recent years has reached a remarkable edge. The continuous research for an alternative power source due to the perceived scarcity of fuel fossils is its driving force. It has become even more popular as the cost of fossil fuel continues to rise. The earth receives in just 1 h, more energy from the sun than what we consume in the whole world for 1 year. Its application was proven to be most economical, as most systems in individual uses requires but a few kilowatt of power. This paper reviews the present day solar thermal technologies. Performance analyses of existing designs (study), mathematical simulation (design) and fabrication of innovative designs with suggested improvements (development) have been discussed in this paper.

541 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1976-Solar Energy
Abstract: Even though most variations of solar concentrators have been studied or built at some time or other, an important class of concentrators has been overlooked until very recently. These novel concentrators have been called ideal because of their optical properties, and an example, the compound parabolic concentrator, is being tested at Argonne National Laboratory. Ideal concentrators differ radically from conventional instruments such as focussing parabolas. They act as radiation funnel and do not have a focus. For a given acceptance angle their concentration surpasses that of other solar concentrators by a factor of two to four, but a rather large reflector area is required. The number of reflections varies with angle of incidence, with an average value around one in most cases of interest. In order to help provide a rational basis for deciding which concentrator type is best suited for a particular application, we have compared a variety of solar concentrators in terms of their most important general characteristics, namely concentration, acceptance angle, sensitivity to mirror errors, size of reflector area and average number of reflections. The connection between concentration, acceptance angle and operating temperature of a solar collector is analysed in simple intuitive terms, leading to a straightforward recipe for designing collectors with maximal concentration (no radiation emitted by the absorber must be allowed to leave the concentrator outside its acceptance angle). We propose some new concentrators, including the use of compound parabolic concentrators as second stage concentrators for conventional parabolic or Fresnel mirrors. Such a combination approaches the performance of an ideal concentrator without demanding a large reflector; it may offer significant advantages for high temperature solar systems.

516 citations


"An overview of concentrated solar e..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Applications of CSE is found in different fields (Rabl 1976; Fernandez-Garcia et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2013; Francis and Bupesh Raja 2015)....

    [...]


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