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Journal ArticleDOI

An Update of Wallace’s Zoogeographic Regions of the World

TL;DR: A global map of zoogeographic regions is generated by combining data on the distributions and phylogenetic relationships of 21,037 species of amphibians, birds, and mammals, and it is shown that spatial turnover in the phylogenetic composition of vertebrate assemblages is higher in the Southern than in the Northern Hemisphere.
Abstract: Modern attempts to produce biogeographic maps focus on the distribution of species, and the maps are typically drawn without phylogenetic considerations. Here, we generate a global map of zoogeographic regions by combining data on the distributions and phylogenetic relationships of 21,037 species of amphibians, birds, and mammals. We identify 20 distinct zoogeographic regions, which are grouped into 11 larger realms. We document the lack of support for several regions previously defined based on distributional data and show that spatial turnover in the phylogenetic composition of vertebrate assemblages is higher in the Southern than in the Northern Hemisphere. We further show that the integration of phylogenetic information provides valuable insight on historical relationships among regions, permitting the identification of evolutionarily unique regions of the world.
Citations
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28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Guojie Zhang1, Guojie Zhang2, Cai Li1, Qiye Li1, Bo Li1, Denis M. Larkin3, Chul Hee Lee4, Jay F. Storz5, Agostinho Antunes6, Matthew J. Greenwold7, Robert W. Meredith8, Anders Ödeen9, Jie Cui10, Qi Zhou11, Luohao Xu1, Hailin Pan1, Zongji Wang12, Lijun Jin1, Pei Zhang1, Haofu Hu1, Wei Yang1, Jiang Hu1, Jin Xiao1, Zhikai Yang1, Yang Liu1, Qiaolin Xie1, Hao Yu1, Jinmin Lian1, Ping Wen1, Fang Zhang1, Hui Li1, Yongli Zeng1, Zijun Xiong1, Shiping Liu12, Long Zhou1, Zhiyong Huang1, Na An1, Jie Wang13, Qiumei Zheng1, Yingqi Xiong1, Guangbiao Wang1, Bo Wang1, Jingjing Wang1, Yu Fan14, Rute R. da Fonseca2, Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez2, Mikkel Schubert2, Ludovic Orlando2, Tobias Mourier2, Jason T. Howard15, Ganeshkumar Ganapathy15, Andreas R. Pfenning15, Osceola Whitney15, Miriam V. Rivas15, Erina Hara15, Julia Smith15, Marta Farré3, Jitendra Narayan16, Gancho T. Slavov16, Michael N Romanov17, Rui Borges6, João Paulo Machado6, Imran Khan6, Mark S. Springer18, John Gatesy18, Federico G. Hoffmann19, Juan C. Opazo20, Olle Håstad21, Roger H. Sawyer7, Heebal Kim4, Kyu-Won Kim4, Hyeon Jeong Kim4, Seoae Cho4, Ning Li22, Yinhua Huang22, Michael William Bruford23, Xiangjiang Zhan13, Andrew Dixon, Mads F. Bertelsen24, Elizabeth P. Derryberry25, Wesley C. Warren26, Richard K. Wilson26, Shengbin Li27, David A. Ray19, Richard E. Green28, Stephen J. O'Brien29, Darren K. Griffin17, Warren E. Johnson30, David Haussler28, Oliver A. Ryder, Eske Willerslev2, Gary R. Graves31, Per Alström21, Jon Fjeldså32, David P. Mindell33, Scott V. Edwards34, Edward L. Braun35, Carsten Rahbek32, David W. Burt36, Peter Houde37, Yong Zhang1, Huanming Yang38, Jian Wang1, Erich D. Jarvis15, M. Thomas P. Gilbert39, M. Thomas P. Gilbert2, Jun Wang 
12 Dec 2014-Science
TL;DR: This work explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades to reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits.
Abstract: Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits.

872 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Mar 2014-Zootaxa
TL;DR: A biogeographic regionalisation of the Neotropical region is proposed as a hierarchical classification of sub-regions, dominions, provinces and districts that seeks to provide universality, objectivity and stability, such that it can be applied when describing distributional areas of particular taxa or comparing different biogeographical analyses.
Abstract: A biogeographic regionalisation of the Neotropical region is proposed as a hierarchical classification of sub-regions, dominions, provinces and districts. This regionalisation is based on biogeographic analyses of terrestrial plant and animal taxa, and seeks to provide universality, objectivity and stability, such that it can be applied when describing distributional areas of particular taxa or comparing different biogeographic analyses. The Neotropical region is currently comprised of three sub-regions (Antillean, Brazilian and Chacoan), two transition zones (Mexican and South American), seven dominions (Mesoamerican, Pacific, Boreal Brazilian, Southwestern Amazonian, Southeastern Amazonian, Chacoan and Parana) and 53 provinces. For some of the latter, sub-provinces and districts are recognized. Complete synonymies and brief descriptions of the areas are provided, as well as the endemic taxa that diagnose the different provinces.

751 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Jun 2017-Nature
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that bats harbour a significantly higher proportion of zoonotic viruses than all other mammalian orders, and the taxa and geographic regions with the largest estimated number of ‘missing viruses’ and ‘ Missing zoonoses’ are identified and therefore of highest value for future surveillance.
Abstract: The majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, HIV, Ebola and SARS). Understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. However, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species boundaries. Here we conduct a comprehensive analysis of mammalian host-virus relationships and show that both the total number of viruses that infect a given species and the proportion likely to be zoonotic are predictable. After controlling for research effort, the proportion of zoonotic viruses per species is predicted by phylogenetic relatedness to humans, host taxonomy and human population within a species range-which may reflect human-wildlife contact. We demonstrate that bats harbour a significantly higher proportion of zoonotic viruses than all other mammalian orders. We also identify the taxa and geographic regions with the largest estimated number of 'missing viruses' and 'missing zoonoses' and therefore of highest value for future surveillance. We then show that phylogenetic host breadth and other viral traits are significant predictors of zoonotic potential, providing a novel framework to assess if a newly discovered mammalian virus could infect people.

742 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Thermal tolerances of a large number of terrestrial ectotherm, endotherm and plant species worldwide are analysed, and it is shown that tolerance to heat is largely conserved across lineages, while tolerance to cold varies between and within species.
Abstract: Climate change is altering phenology and distributions of many species and further changes are projected. Can species physiologically adapt to climate warming? We analyse thermal tolerances of a large number of terrestrial ectotherm (n = 697), endotherm (n = 227) and plant (n = 1816) species worldwide, and show that tolerance to heat is largely conserved across lineages, while tolerance to cold varies between and within species. This pattern, previously documented for ectotherms, is apparent for this group and for endotherms and plants, challenging the longstanding view that physiological tolerances of species change continuously across climatic gradients. An alternative view is proposed in which the thermal component of climatic niches would overlap across species more than expected. We argue that hard physiological boundaries exist that constrain evolution of tolerances of terrestrial organisms to high temperatures. In contrast, evolution of tolerances to cold should be more frequent. One consequence of conservatism of upper thermal tolerances is that estimated niches for cold-adapted species will tend to underestimate their upper thermal limits, thereby potentially inflating assessments of risk from climate change. In contrast, species whose climatic preferences are close to their upper thermal limits will unlikely evolve physiological tolerances to increased heat, thereby being predictably more affected by warming.

679 citations


Cites background or result from "An Update of Wallace’s Zoogeographi..."

  • ...…found in previous analyses (e.g. Addo-Bediako et al. 2000), and stronger relationships between lower limits and latitude than between upper limits and latitude (e.g. Sunday et al. 2011), we expected that a positive correlation should exist between lower thermal limits and ambient temperature....

    [...]

  • ...Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS (from Deutsch et al. 2008) and 24 amphibians, 43 birds and 137 mammals (from Holt et al. 2013)....

    [...]

References
More filters
28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new graphical display is proposed for partitioning techniques, where each cluster is represented by a so-called silhouette, which is based on the comparison of its tightness and separation, and provides an evaluation of clustering validity.

14,144 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The technic to be given below for imparting statistical validity to the procedures already in vogue can be viewed as a generalized form of regression with possible useful application to problems arising in quite different contexts.
Abstract: The problem of identifying subtle time-space clustering of disease, as may be occurring in leukemia, is described and reviewed. Published approaches, generally associated with studies of leukemia, not dependent on knowledge of the underlying population for their validity, are directed towards identifying clustering by establishing a relationship between the temporal and the spatial separations for the n ( n - 1)/2 possible pairs which can be formed from the n observed cases of disease. Here it is proposed that statistical power can be improved by applying a reciprocal transform to these separations. While a permutational approach can give valid probability levels for any observed association, for reasons of practicability, it is suggested that the observed association be tested relative to its permutational variance. Formulas and computational procedures for doing so are given. While the distance measures between points represent symmetric relationships subject to mathematical and geometric regularities, the variance formula developed is appropriate for arbitrary relationships. Simplified procedures are given for the case of symmetric and skew-symmetric relationships. The general procedure is indicated as being potentially useful in other situations as, for example, the study of interpersonal relationships. Viewing the procedure as a regression approach, the possibility for extending it to nonlinear and multivariate situations is suggested. Other aspects of the problem and of the procedure developed are discussed. Similarly, pure temporal clustering can be identified by a study of incidence rates in periods of widespread epidemics. In point of fact, many epidemics of communicable diseases are somewhat local in nature and so these do actually constitute temporal-spatial clusters. For leukemia and similar diseases in which cases seem to arise substantially at random rather than as clear-cut epidemics, it is necessary to devise sensitive and efficient procedures for detecting any nonrandom component of disease occurrence. Various ingenious procedures which statisticians have developed for the detection of disease clustering are reviewed here. These procedures can be generalized so as to increase their statistical validity and efficiency. The technic to be given below for imparting statistical validity to the procedures already in vogue can be viewed as a generalized form of regression with possible useful application to problems arising in quite different contexts.

11,408 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: UNLABELLED Analysis of Phylogenetics and Evolution (APE) is a package written in the R language for use in molecular evolution and phylogenetics that provides both utility functions for reading and writing data and manipulating phylogenetic trees.
Abstract: Summary: Analysis of Phylogenetics and Evolution (APE) is a package written in the R language for use in molecular evolution and phylogenetics. APE provides both utility functions for reading and writing data and manipulating phylogenetic trees, as well as several advanced methods for phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis (e.g. comparative and population genetic methods). APE takes advantage of the many R functions for statistics and graphics, and also provides a flexible framework for developing and implementing further statistical methods for the analysis of evolutionary processes. Availability: The program is free and available from the official R package archive at http://cran.r-project.org/src/contrib/PACKAGES.html#ape. APE is licensed under the GNU General Public License.

10,818 citations