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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JCM10051068

An Update on Eight "New" Antibiotics against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria.

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Clinical Medicine (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 10, Iss: 5, pp 1068
Abstract: Infections in the ICU are often caused by Gram-negative bacteria. When these microorganisms are resistant to third-generation cephalosporines (due to extended-spectrum (ESBL) or AmpC beta-lactamases) or to carbapenems (for example carbapenem producing Enterobacteriales (CPE)), the treatment options become limited. In the last six years, fortunately, there have been new antibiotics approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with predominant activities against Gram-negative bacteria. We aimed to review these antibiotics: plazomicin, eravacycline, temocillin, cefiderocol, ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam, meropenem/vaborbactam, and imipenem/relebactam. Temocillin is an antibiotic that was only approved in Belgium and the UK several decades ago. We reviewed the in vitro activities of these new antibiotics, especially against ESBL and CPE microorganisms, potential side effects, and clinical studies in complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI), intra-abdominal infections (cIAI), and hospital-acquired pneumonia/ventilator-associatedpneumonia (HAP/VAP). All of these new antibiotics are active against ESBL, and almost all of them are active against CPE caused by KPC beta-lactamase, but only some of them are active against CPE due to MBL or OXA beta-lactamases. At present, all of these new antibiotics are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for cUTI (except eravacycline) and most of them for cIAI (eravacycline, ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam, and imipenem/relebactam) and for HAP or VAP (cefiderocol, ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam, and imipenem/relebactam).

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Topics: Ceftolozane (67%), Avibactam (65%), Eravacycline (62%) ... read more
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/LIFE11060519
03 Jun 2021-Life
Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remains one of the top public health issues of global concern. Among the most important strategies for AMR control there is the correct and appropriate use of antibiotics, including those available for the treatment of AMR pathogens. In this article, after briefly reviewing the most important and clinically relevant multi-drug-resistant bacteria and their main resistance mechanisms, we describe the emerging antimicrobial options for both MDR Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli, including recently marketed agents, molecules just approved or under evaluation and rediscovered older antibiotics that have regained importance due to their antimicrobial spectrum. Specifically, emerging options for Gram-positive cocci we reviewed include ceftaroline, ceftobiprole, tedizolid, dalbavancin, and fosfomycin. Emerging treatment options for Gram-negative bacilli we considered comprise ceftolozane-tazobactam, ceftazidime-avibactam, meropenem-vaborbactam, imipenem-relebactam, aztreonam-avibactam, minocycline, fosfomycin, eravacycline, plazomicin, and cefiderocol. An exciting scenario is opening today with the long awaited growing availability of novel molecules for the treatment of AMR bacteria. Knowledge of mechanisms of action and resistance patterns allows physicians to increasingly drive antimicrobial treatment towards a precision medicine approach. Strict adherence to antimicrobial stewardship practices will allow us to preserve the emerging antimicrobials for our future.

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Topics: Antimicrobial stewardship (54%), Eravacycline (52%), Plazomicin (51%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PHARMACEUTICS13050660
05 May 2021-Pharmaceutics
Abstract: Flavonoids are among the most abundant natural bioactive compounds produced by plants. Many different activities have been reported for these secondary metabolites against numerous cells and systems. One of the most interesting is certainly the antimicrobial, which is stimulated through various molecular mechanisms. In fact, flavonoids are effective both in directly damaging the envelope of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria but also by acting toward specific molecular targets essential for the survival of these microorganisms. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the most interesting results obtained in the research focused on the study of the interactions between flavonoids and bacterial proteins. Despite the great structural heterogeneity of these plant metabolites, it is interesting to observe that many flavonoids affect the same cellular pathways. Furthermore, it is evident that some of these compounds interact with more than one target, producing multiple effects. Taken together, the reported data demonstrate the great potential of flavonoids in developing innovative systems, which can help address the increasingly serious problem of antibiotic resistance.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/14787210.2022.1999804
Abstract: There is an ever-increasing range of antibiotic-resistant pathogens that have led to higher community-acquired infections, and substantial mortality rates in critically ill patients.We have critica...

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Topics: Antimicrobial (53%), Antibiotics (52%)


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1MD00206F
27 Jul 2021-
Abstract: There is an urgent need for new therapies to overcome antimicrobial resistance (AMR) especially against Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). Multicomponent therapy combining antibiotics with enhancer molecules known as adjuvants is an emerging strategy to combat AMR. We have previously reported tobramycin-based adjuvants which are able to potentiate various antibiotics. In order to expand the repertoire of tobramycin hybrid adjuvants, a new hybrid containing niclosamide, an FDA approved anthelmintic which has recently demonstrated a variety of interesting biological effects, was synthesized. It was found that this conjugate can potentiate several antibiotics against multidrug-resistant GNB, including the recently approved siderophore cephalosporin cefiderocol. 8 μg ml-1 of the niclosamide-tobramycin hybrid in combination therapy against a pandrug-resistant strain of P. aeruginosa was able to lower the cefiderocol MIC 32-fold, from 8 μg ml-1 to 0.25 μg ml-1 in iron-rich media where siderophore uptake is reduced. These results indicate that a niclosamide-tobramycin hybrid adjuvant can serve to potentiate a newly approved antibiotic.

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Topics: Tobramycin (52%), Adjuvant (52%)

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85 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2009.1754
02 Dec 2009-JAMA
Abstract: Context Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. However, relatively little information is available about the global epidemiology of such infections. Objective To provide an up-to-date, international picture of the extent and patterns of infection in ICUs. Design, Setting, and Patients The Extended Prevalence of Infection in Intensive Care (EPIC II) study, a 1-day, prospective, point prevalence study with follow-up conducted on May 8, 2007. Demographic, physiological, bacteriological, therapeutic, and outcome data were collected for 14 414 patients in 1265 participating ICUs from 75 countries on the study day. Analyses focused on the data from the 13 796 adult (>18 years) patients. Results On the day of the study, 7087 of 13 796 patients (51%) were considered infected; 9084 (71%) were receiving antibiotics. The infection was of respiratory origin in 4503 (64%), and microbiological culture results were positive in 4947 (70%) of the infected patients; 62% of the positive isolates were gram-negative organisms, 47% were gram-positive, and 19% were fungi. Patients who had longer ICU stays prior to the study day had higher rates of infection, especially infections due to resistant staphylococci, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas species, and Candida species. The ICU mortality rate of infected patients was more than twice that of noninfected patients (25% [1688/6659] vs 11% [ 682/6352], respectively; P Conclusions Infections are common in patients in contemporary ICUs, and risk of infection increases with duration of ICU stay. In this large cohort, infection was independently associated with an increased risk of hospital death.

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Topics: Intensive care (60%), Intensive care unit (54%), Prevalence (52%)

2,349 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30753-3
Abstract: Summary Background The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a substantial threat to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to its large public health and societal implications, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has been long regarded by WHO as a global priority for investment in new drugs. In 2016, WHO was requested by member states to create a priority list of other antibiotic-resistant bacteria to support research and development of effective drugs. Methods We used a multicriteria decision analysis method to prioritise antibiotic-resistant bacteria; this method involved the identification of relevant criteria to assess priority against which each antibiotic-resistant bacterium was rated. The final priority ranking of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria was established after a preference-based survey was used to obtain expert weighting of criteria. Findings We selected 20 bacterial species with 25 patterns of acquired resistance and ten criteria to assess priority: mortality, health-care burden, community burden, prevalence of resistance, 10-year trend of resistance, transmissibility, preventability in the community setting, preventability in the health-care setting, treatability, and pipeline. We stratified the priority list into three tiers (critical, high, and medium priority), using the 33rd percentile of the bacterium's total scores as the cutoff. Critical-priority bacteria included carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and carbapenem-resistant and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The highest ranked Gram-positive bacteria (high priority) were vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . Of the bacteria typically responsible for community-acquired infections, clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori , and fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter spp, Neisseria gonorrhoeae , and Salmonella typhi were included in the high-priority tier. Interpretation Future development strategies should focus on antibiotics that are active against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and Gram-negative bacteria. The global strategy should include antibiotic-resistant bacteria responsible for community-acquired infections such as Salmonella spp, Campylobacter spp, N gonorrhoeae , and H pylori . Funding World Health Organization.

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Topics: Antibiotic resistance (54%)

1,696 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/CMR.18.2.306-325.2005
Abstract: The ascendancy of metallo-β-lactamases within the clinical sector, while not ubiquitous, has nonetheless been dramatic; some reports indicate that nearly 30% of imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains possess a metallo-β-lactamase. Acquisition of a metallo-β-lactamase gene will invariably mediate broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance in P. aeruginosa, but the level of in vitro resistance in Acinetobacter spp. and Enterobacteriaceae is less dependable. Their clinical significance is further embellished by their ability to hydrolyze all β-lactams and by the fact that there is currently no clinical inhibitor, nor is there likely to be for the foreseeable future. The genes encoding metallo-β-lactamases are often procured by class 1 (sometimes class 3) integrons, which, in turn, are embedded in transposons, resulting in a highly transmissible genetic apparatus. Moreover, other gene cassettes within the integrons often confer resistance to aminoglycosides, precluding their use as an alternative treatment. Thus far, the metallo-β-lactamases encoded on transferable genes include IMP, VIM, SPM, and GIM and have been reported from 28 countries. Their rapid dissemination is worrisome and necessitates the implementation of not just surveillance studies but also metallo-β-lactamase inhibitor studies securing the longevity of important anti-infectives.

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1,339 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70190-7
Abstract: Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) were originally identified in the USA in 1996. Since then, these versatile β-lactamases have spread internationally among Gram-negative bacteria, especially K pneumoniae, although their precise epidemiology is diverse across countries and regions. The mortality described among patients infected with organisms positive for KPC is high, perhaps as a result of the limited antibiotic options remaining (often colistin, tigecycline, or aminoglycosides). Triple drug combinations using colistin, tigecycline, and imipenem have recently been associated with improved survival among patients with bacteraemia. In this Review, we summarise the epidemiology of KPCs across continents, and discuss issues around detection, present antibiotic options and those in development, treatment outcome and mortality, and infection control. In view of the limitations of present treatments and the paucity of new drugs in the pipeline, infection control must be our primary defence for now.

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1,116 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/JAC/DKS121
Abstract: OXA-48-type carbapenem-hydrolysing class D β-lactamases are increasingly reported in enterobacterial species. To date, six OXA-48-like variants have been identified, with OXA-48 being the most widespread. They differ by a few amino acid substitutions or deletions (one to five amino acids). The enzymes hydrolyse penicillins at a high level and carbapenems at a low level, sparing broad-spectrum cephalosporins, and are not susceptible to β-lactamase inhibitors. When combining permeability defects, OXA-48-like producers may exhibit a high level of resistance to carbapenems. OXA-163 is an exception, hydrolysing broad-spectrum cephalosporins but carbapenems at a very low level, and being susceptible to β-lactamase inhibitors. The bla(OXA-48)-type genes are always plasmid-borne and have been identified in association with insertion sequences involved in their acquisition and expression. The current spread of the bla(OXA-48) gene is mostly linked to the dissemination of a single IncL/M-type self-transferable plasmid of 62 kb that does not carry any additional resistance gene. OXA-48-type carbapenemases have been identified mainly from North African countries, the Middle East, Turkey and India, those areas constituting the most important reservoirs; however, occurrence of OXA-48 producers in European countries is now well documented, with some reported hospital outbreaks. Since many OXA-48-like producers do not exhibit resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins, or only decreased susceptibility to carbapenems, their recognition and detection can be challenging. Adequate screening and detection methods are therefore required to prevent and control their dissemination.

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Topics: Carbapenem (54%)

656 Citations