02 Mar 2021-Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Oxford Academic)-Vol. 502, Iss: 3, pp 4377-4391

Abstract: To construct the rotation curve of the Galaxy, classical Cepheids with proper motions, parallaxes and line-of-sight velocities from the Gaia DR2 Catalog are used in large part. The working sample formed from literature data contains about 800 Cepheids with estimates of their age. We determined that the linear rotation velocity of the Galaxy at a solar distance is $V_0=240\pm3$~km s$^{-1}$. In this case, the distance from the Sun to the axis of rotation of the Galaxy is found to be $R_0=8.27\pm0.10$~kpc. A spectral analysis of radial and residual tangential velocities of Cepheids younger than 120 Myr showed close estimates of the parameters of the spiral density wave obtained from data both at present time and in the past. So, the value of the wavelength $\lambda_{R,\theta}$ is in the range of [2.4--3.0] kpc, the pitch angle $i_{R,\theta}$ is in the range of [$-13^\circ$,$-10^\circ$] for a four-arm pattern model, the amplitudes of the radial and tangential perturbations are $f_R\sim12$~km s$^{-1}$ and $f_\theta\sim9$~km s$^{-1}$, respectively. Velocities of Cepheids older than 120 Myr are currently giving a wavelength $\lambda_{R,\theta}\sim5$~kpc. This value differs significantly from one that we obtained from the samples of young Cepheids. An analysis of positions and velocities of old Cepheids, calculated by integrating their orbits backward in time, made it possible to determine significantly more reliable values of the parameters of the spiral density wave: wavelength $\lambda_{R,\theta}=2.7$~kpc, amplitudes of radial and tangential perturbations are $f_R=7.9$~km s$^{-1}$ and $f_\theta=5$~km s$^{-1}$, respectively.

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Topics: Galaxy rotation curve (51%)

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5 results found

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Abstract: The analysis is focused on the ability of galactic open clusters to trace the spiral arms, based on the recent data releases from Gaia. For this, a simple 1D description of the motion of spiral arms and clusters is introduced. As next step, results are verified using a widely accepted kinematic model of the motion in spiral galaxies. As expected, both approaches show that open clusters older than about 100 Myr are bad tracers of spiral arms. The younger clusters (ideally < 30 Myr) should be used instead. This agrees with the most recent observational evidence. The latest maps of the diffuse interstellar bands are compared with the spiral structure of the Milky Way and the Antennae Galaxies. The idea of these bands being useful for studying a galactic structure cannot be supported based on the current data.

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Topics: Spiral galaxy (61%), Galaxy (58%), Open cluster (57%) ... show more

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Abstract: Using data from the literature, we made a list of individual estimates of the solar Galactocentric distance, which were performed after 2017 by different methods. These values have not yet been used to calculate the best value of mean $R_0$. For the sample containing 21 estimates, based on the standard approach, we found the weighted mean ${\overline R_0}=8.14$ kpc with the dispersion $\sigma=0.16$ kpc, and using the median statistics, we obtained the estimate $R_0=8.15\pm0.11$ kpc. For practical use, the value $R_0=8.1\pm0.1$ kpc can be recommended.

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W. H. Elsanhoury^{1}, Mohamed I. Nouh, Richard Lacy Branham, Amnah S. Al-Johani^{2}•Institutions (2)

Abstract: Truly, kinematics in the Solar neighborhood has provided important information both for the structure and for the evolution of the Galaxy since the early 20th century. The relationship between Oort constants and the ratio of the velocity dispersion are important quantities in stellar kinematics. In the present paper, we calculated the kinematical parameters and the Oort constants of various samples of late to intermediate M-type stars. We calculated the velocity dispersion ({\sigma}_1,{\sigma}_2,{\sigma}_3 ) in units of km s-1 for the samples under study. The longitude of the vertex (l_2 ) having negative values with our analysis; i.e., the program I (538 stars), l_2 =-0_.^o 5410, program II (100 stars), l_2=-0_.^o 4937 and program III (60 stars), l_2=-0_.^o 9495. We calculate the Oort constants as A=14.69+-0.61 km s-1 kpc-1 and B=-16.70+-0.67 km s-1 kpc-1, and the rotational velocity V_o=257.38+-9.40 km s^(-1). A possible explanation for the overestimated values of the second Oort constants has been presented.

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Topics: Oort constants (61%), Stellar kinematics (52%), Stars (51%) ... show more

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Abstract: Using data from the literature, we made a list of individual estimates of the solar Galactocentric distance, which were performed after 2017 by different methods. These values have not yet been used to calculate the best value of mean $${{R}_{0}}$$
. For the sample containing 21 estimates, based on the standard approach, we found the weighted mean $${{\bar {R}}_{0}} = 8.14$$
kpc with the dispersion $$\sigma = 0.16$$
kpc, and using the median statistics, we obtained the estimate $${{R}_{0}} = 8.15 \pm 0.11$$
kpc. For practical use, the value $${{R}_{0}} = 8.1 \pm 0.1$$
kpc can be recommended.

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104 results found

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Adam G. Riess^{1}, Alexei V. Filippenko^{1}, Peter Challis^{2}, Alejandro Clocchiatti^{3} +17 more•Institutions (9)

Abstract: We present spectral and photometric observations of 10 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.16 " z " 0.62. The luminosity distances of these objects are determined by methods that employ relations between SN Ia luminosity and light curve shape. Combined with previous data from our High-z Supernova Search Team and recent results by Riess et al., this expanded set of 16 high-redshift supernovae and a set of 34 nearby supernovae are used to place constraints on the following cosmo- logical parameters: the Hubble constant the mass density the cosmological constant (i.e., the (H 0 ), () M ), vacuum energy density, the deceleration parameter and the dynamical age of the universe ) " ), (q 0 ), ) M \ 1) methods. We estimate the dynamical age of the universe to be 14.2 ^ 1.7 Gyr including systematic uncer- tainties in the current Cepheid distance scale. We estimate the likely e†ect of several sources of system- atic error, including progenitor and metallicity evolution, extinction, sample selection bias, local perturbations in the expansion rate, gravitational lensing, and sample contamination. Presently, none of these e†ects appear to reconcile the data with and ) " \ 0 q 0 " 0.

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Topics: Deceleration parameter (61%), Supernova Legacy Survey (61%), Cosmological constant (59%) ... show more

15,427 Citations

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Saul Perlmutter^{1}, Saul Perlmutter^{2}, Greg Aldering^{2}, Gerson Goldhaber^{1} +41 more•Institutions (13)

Abstract: We report measurements of the mass density, Omega_M, and
cosmological-constant energy density, Omega_Lambda, of the universe based on
the analysis of 42 Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology
Project. The magnitude-redshift data for these SNe, at redshifts between 0.18
and 0.83, are fit jointly with a set of SNe from the Calan/Tololo Supernova
Survey, at redshifts below 0.1, to yield values for the cosmological
parameters. All SN peak magnitudes are standardized using a SN Ia lightcurve
width-luminosity relation. The measurement yields a joint probability
distribution of the cosmological parameters that is approximated by the
relation 0.8 Omega_M - 0.6 Omega_Lambda ~= -0.2 +/- 0.1 in the region of
interest (Omega_M <~ 1.5). For a flat (Omega_M + Omega_Lambda = 1) cosmology we
find Omega_M = 0.28{+0.09,-0.08} (1 sigma statistical) {+0.05,-0.04}
(identified systematics). The data are strongly inconsistent with a Lambda = 0
flat cosmology, the simplest inflationary universe model. An open, Lambda = 0
cosmology also does not fit the data well: the data indicate that the
cosmological constant is non-zero and positive, with a confidence of P(Lambda >
0) = 99%, including the identified systematic uncertainties. The best-fit age
of the universe relative to the Hubble time is t_0 = 14.9{+1.4,-1.1} (0.63/h)
Gyr for a flat cosmology. The size of our sample allows us to perform a variety
of statistical tests to check for possible systematic errors and biases. We
find no significant differences in either the host reddening distribution or
Malmquist bias between the low-redshift Calan/Tololo sample and our
high-redshift sample. The conclusions are robust whether or not a
width-luminosity relation is used to standardize the SN peak magnitudes.

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Topics: Angular diameter distance (59%), Omega (56%), Supernova Legacy Survey (53%) ... show more

15,392 Citations

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Abstract: We present observations of 10 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) between 0.16 0) and a current acceleration of the expansion (i.e., q_0 0, the spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia are consistent with q_0 0 at the 3.0 sigma and 4.0 sigma confidence levels, for two fitting methods respectively. Fixing a ``minimal'' mass density, Omega_M=0.2, results in the weakest detection, Omega_Lambda>0 at the 3.0 sigma confidence level. For a flat-Universe prior (Omega_M+Omega_Lambda=1), the spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia require Omega_Lambda >0 at 7 sigma and 9 sigma level for the two fitting methods. A Universe closed by ordinary matter (i.e., Omega_M=1) is ruled out at the 7 sigma to 8 sigma level. We estimate the size of systematic errors, including evolution, extinction, sample selection bias, local flows, gravitational lensing, and sample contamination. Presently, none of these effects reconciles the data with Omega_Lambda=0 and q_0 > 0.

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Topics: Omega (54%), Angular diameter distance (52%)

13,423 Citations

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Abstract: We report measurements of the mass density, Omega_M, and cosmological-constant energy density, Omega_Lambda, of the universe based on the analysis of 42 Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology Project. The magnitude-redshift data for these SNe, at redshifts between 0.18 and 0.83, are fit jointly with a set of SNe from the Calan/Tololo Supernova Survey, at redshifts below 0.1, to yield values for the cosmological parameters. All SN peak magnitudes are standardized using a SN Ia lightcurve width-luminosity relation. The measurement yields a joint probability distribution of the cosmological parameters that is approximated by the relation 0.8 Omega_M - 0.6 Omega_Lambda ~= -0.2 +/- 0.1 in the region of interest (Omega_M 0) = 99%, including the identified systematic uncertainties. The best-fit age of the universe relative to the Hubble time is t_0 = 14.9{+1.4,-1.1} (0.63/h) Gyr for a flat cosmology. The size of our sample allows us to perform a variety of statistical tests to check for possible systematic errors and biases. We find no significant differences in either the host reddening distribution or Malmquist bias between the low-redshift Calan/Tololo sample and our high-redshift sample. The conclusions are robust whether or not a width-luminosity relation is used to standardize the SN peak magnitudes.

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Topics: Supernova Legacy Survey (56%), Angular diameter distance (55%), Supernova (54%) ... show more

12,927 Citations

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Anthony G. A. Brown^{1}, Antonella Vallenari^{1}, T. Prusti^{1}, J. H. J. de Bruijne^{1} +449 more•Institutions (1)

Abstract: Context. We present the second Gaia data release, Gaia DR2, consisting of astrometry, photometry, radial velocities, and information on astrophysical parameters and variability, for sources brighter than magnitude 21. In addition epoch astrometry and photometry are provided for a modest sample of minor planets in the solar system. Aims: A summary of the contents of Gaia DR2 is presented, accompanied by a discussion on the differences with respect to Gaia DR1 and an overview of the main limitations which are still present in the survey. Recommendations are made on the responsible use of Gaia DR2 results. Methods: The raw data collected with the Gaia instruments during the first 22 months of the mission have been processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) and turned into this second data release, which represents a major advance with respect to Gaia DR1 in terms of completeness, performance, and richness of the data products. Results: Gaia DR2 contains celestial positions and the apparent brightness in G for approximately 1.7 billion sources. For 1.3 billion of those sources, parallaxes and proper motions are in addition available. The sample of sources for which variability information is provided is expanded to 0.5 million stars. This data release contains four new elements: broad-band colour information in the form of the apparent brightness in the GBP (330-680 nm) and GRP (630-1050 nm) bands is available for 1.4 billion sources; median radial velocities for some 7 million sources are presented; for between 77 and 161 million sources estimates are provided of the stellar effective temperature, extinction, reddening, and radius and luminosity; and for a pre-selected list of 14 000 minor planets in the solar system epoch astrometry and photometry are presented. Finally, Gaia DR2 also represents a new materialisation of the celestial reference frame in the optical, the Gaia-CRF2, which is the first optical reference frame based solely on extragalactic sources. There are notable changes in the photometric system and the catalogue source list with respect to Gaia DR1, and we stress the need to consider the two data releases as independent. Conclusions: Gaia DR2 represents a major achievement for the Gaia mission, delivering on the long standing promise to provide parallaxes and proper motions for over 1 billion stars, and representing a first step in the availability of complementary radial velocity and source astrophysical information for a sample of stars in the Gaia survey which covers a very substantial fraction of the volume of our galaxy.

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Topics: Astrometry (56%)

7,024 Citations