scispace - formally typeset
Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2020.110076

Analysis of gut microbiota and intestinal integrity markers of inpatients with major depressive disorder

02 Mar 2021-Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (Elsevier)-Vol. 106, pp 110076
Abstract: Previous studies have reported on the relationship between gut microbiota and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, there remain gaps in literature concerning the role of the intestinal barrier and microflora in the pathogenesis of depression. This study analyzes the potential causative relationship between gut microbiota and inflammatory and gut integrity markers and clinical symptoms in inpatients with depressive episodes. Sixteen inpatients (50% females) being treated with escitalopram (5–20 mg daily) in standardized conditions were included in the study. The composition of fecal microbiota was evaluated at baseline and endpoint using 16S rRNA sequencing. A significant correlation between depression severity was found, as measured with HDRS24 (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 item), and the following abundance in bacteria: positive correlation with Paraprevotella (r = 0.80, q = 0.012), strong, negative correlations with Clostridiales (r = −0.70, q = 0.016), Clostridia (r = −0.71, q = 0.026), Firmicutes (r = −0.67. q = 0.032), and the RF32 order (r = −0.70, p = 0.016) in the Alphaproteobacteria (r = −0.66, q = 0.031). After six weeks of treatment, clinical outcomes were found to have a negative correlation with levels of plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP) at the beginning of the study. Still they had a positive correlation with changes in fecal calprotectin during hospitalization. In conclusion, gut microbiota was associated with the severity of depressive symptoms. However, these findings do not serve as predictors of symptomatic improvement during antidepressant treatment in inpatient treatment for MDD. In turn, intestinal integrity and inflammation markers were associated with the response to treatment of patients with MDD and symptom severity. Additional studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings.

... read more

Topics: Gut flora (56%), Major depressive disorder (52%), Calprotectin (51%) ... show more
Citations
  More

12 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2020.110111
Abstract: One very promising hypothesis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) pathogenesis is the gut-brain axis (GBA) dysfunction, which can lead to subclinical inflammation, hypothalamic–pituitary (HPA) axis dysregulation, and altered neural, metabolic and endocrine pathways. One of the most important parts of GBA is gut microbiota, which was shown to regulate different functions in the central nervous system (CNS). The purpose of this scoping review was to present the current state of research on the relationship between MDD and gut microbiota and extract causal relationships. Further, we presented the relationship between the use of probiotics and antidepressants, and the microbiota changes. We evaluated the data from 27 studies aimed to investigate microbial fingerprints associated with depression phenotype. We abstracted data from 16 and 11 observational and clinical studies, respectively; the latter was divided into trials evaluating the effects of psychiatric treatment (n = 3) and probiotic intervention (n = 9) on the microbiome composition and function. In total, the data of 1187 individuals from observational studies were assessed. In clinical studies, there were 490 individuals analysed. In probiotic studies, 220 and 218 patients with MDD received the intervention and non-active study comparator, respectively. It was concluded that in MDD, the microbiota is altered. Although the mechanism of this relationship is unknown, we hypothesise that the taxonomic changes observed in patients with MDD are associated with bacterial proinflammatory activity, reduced Schort Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) production, impaired intestinal barrier integrity and neurotransmitter production, impaired carbohydrates, tryptophane and glutamate metabolic pathways. However, only in few publications this effect was confirmed by metagenomic, metabolomic analysis, or by assessment of immunological parameters or intestinal permeability markers. Future research requires standardisation process starting from patient selection, material collection, DNA sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis. We did not observe whether antidepressive medications influence on gut microbiota, but the use of psychobiotics in patients with MDD has great prospects; however, this procedure requires also standardisation and thorough mechanistic research. The microbiota should be treated as an environmental element, which considers the aetiopathogenesis of the disease and provides new possibilities for monitoring and treating patients with MDD.

... read more

Topics: Gut flora (55%), Microbiome (51%)

13 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13020690
21 Feb 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: The gut microbiota (GM) represents a diverse and dynamic population of microorganisms and about 100 trillion symbiotic microbial cells that dwell in the gastrointestinal tract. Studies suggest that the GM can influence the health of the host, and several factors can modify the GM composition, such as diet, drug intake, lifestyle, and geographical locations. Gut dysbiosis can affect brain immune homeostasis through the microbiota–gut–brain axis and can play a key role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The relationship between gut dysbiosis and AD is still elusive, but emerging evidence suggests that it can enhance the secretion of lipopolysaccharides and amyloids that may disturb intestinal permeability and the blood–brain barrier. In addition, it can promote the hallmarks of AD, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, amyloid-beta formation, insulin resistance, and ultimately the causation of neural death. Poor dietary habits and aging, along with inflammatory responses due to dysbiosis, may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. Thus, GM modulation through diet, probiotics, or fecal microbiota transplantation could represent potential therapeutics in AD. In this review, we discuss the role of GM dysbiosis in AD and potential therapeutic strategies to modulate GM in AD.

... read more

Topics: Dysbiosis (64%), Gut flora (56%), Intestinal permeability (55%) ... show more

13 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.NEUBIOREV.2021.02.044
Abstract: There is increasing knowledge regarding the role of the microbiome in modulating the brain and behaviour. Indeed, the actions of microbial metabolites are key for appropriate gut-brain communication in humans. Among these metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, tryptophan, and bile acid metabolites/pathways show strong preclinical evidence for involvement in various aspects of brain function and behaviour. With the identification of neuroactive gut-brain modules, new predictive tools can be applied to existing datasets. We identified 278 studies relating to the human microbiota-gut-brain axis which included sequencing data. This spanned across psychiatric and neurological disorders with a small number also focused on normal behavioural development. With a consistent bioinformatics pipeline, thirty-five of these datasets were reanalysed from publicly available raw sequencing files and the remainder summarised and collated. Among the reanalysed studies, we uncovered evidence of disease-related alterations in microbial metabolic pathways in Alzheimer's Disease, schizophrenia, anxiety and depression. Amongst studies that could not be reanalysed, many sequencing and technical limitations hindered the discovery of specific biomarkers of microbes or metabolites conserved across studies. Future studies are warranted to confirm our findings. We also propose guidelines for future human microbiome analysis to increase reproducibility and consistency within the field.

... read more

Topics: Microbiome (51%)

13 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JPM11020155
Abstract: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder worldwide. It causes individual suffering, loss of productivity, increased health care costs and high suicide risk. Current pharmacologic interventions fail to produce at least partial response to approximately one third of these patients, and remission is obtained in approximately 30% of patients. This is known as Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD). The burden of TRD exponentially increases the longer it persists, with a higher risk of impaired functional and social functioning, vast losses in quality of life and significant risk of somatic morbidity and suicidality. Different approaches have been suggested and utilized, but the results have not been encouraging. In this review article, we present new approaches to identify and correct potential causes of TRD, thereby reducing its prevalence and with it the overall burden of this disease entity. We will address potential contributory factors to TRD, most of which can be investigated in many laboratories as routine tests. We discuss endocrinological aberrations, notably, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation and thyroid and gonadal dysfunction. We address the role of Vitamin D in contributing to depression. Pharmacogenomic testing is being increasingly used to determine Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Cytochrome P450, Serotonin Transporter, COMT, folic acid conversion (MTHFR). As the role of immune system dysregulation is being recognized as potentially a major contributory factor to TRD, the measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) and select immune biomarkers, where testing is available, can guide combination treatments with anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., selective COX-2 inhibitors) reversing treatment resistance. We focus on established and emerging test procedures, potential biomarkers and non-biologic assessments and interventions to apply personalized medicine to effectively manage treatment resistance in general and TRD specifically.

... read more

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MEDICINA56090469
13 Sep 2020-Medicina-lithuania
Abstract: Delirium, an acute alteration in mental status characterized by confusion, inattention and a fluctuating level of arousal, is a common problem in critically ill patients. Delirium prolongs hospital stay and is associated with higher mortality. The pathophysiology of delirium has not been fully elucidated. Neuroinflammation and neurotransmitter imbalance seem to be the most important factors for delirium development. In this review, we present the most important pathomechanisms of delirium in critically ill patients, such as neuroinflammation, neurotransmitter imbalance, hypoxia and hyperoxia, tryptophan pathway disorders, and gut microbiota imbalance. A thorough understanding of delirium pathomechanisms is essential for effective prevention and treatment of this underestimated pathology in critically ill patients.

... read more

Topics: Delirium (57%)

5 Citations


References
  More

113 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/JNNP.23.1.56
Abstract: Types of Rating Scale The value of this one, and its limitations, can best be considered against its background, so it is useful to consider the limitations of the various rating scales extant. They can be classified into four groups, the first of which has been devised for use on normal subjects. Patients suffering from mental disorders score very highly on some of the variables and these high scores serve as a measure of their illness. Such scales can be very useful, but have two defects: many symptoms are not found in normal persons; and less obviously, but more important, there is a qualitative difference between symptoms of mental illness and normal variations of behaviour. The difference between the two is not a philosophical problem but a biological one. There is always a loss of function in illness, with impaired efficiency. Self-rating scales are popular because they are easy to administer. Aside from the notorious unreliability of self-assessment, such scales are of little use for semiliterate patients and are no use for seriously ill patients who are unable to deal with them. Many rating scales for behaviour have been devised for assessing the social adjustment of patients and their behaviour in the hospital ward. They are very useful for their purpose but give little or no information about symptoms. Finally, a number of scales have been devised specifically for rating symptoms of mental illness. They cover the whole range of symptoms, but such all-inclusiveness has its disadvantages. In the first place, it is extremely difficult to differentiate some symptoms, e.g., apathy, retardation, stupor. These three look alike, but they are quite different and appear in different settings. Other symptoms are difficult to define, except in terms of their settings, e.g., mild agitation and derealization. A more serious difficulty lies in the fallacy of naming. For example, the term "delusions" covers schizophrenic, depressive, hypochrondriacal, and paranoid delusions. They are all quite different and should be clearly distinguished. Another difficulty may be summarized by saying that the weights given to symptoms should not be linear. Thus, in schizophrenia, the amount of anxiety is of no importance, whereas in anxiety states it is fundamental. Again, a schizophrenic patient who has delusions is not necessarily worse than one who has not, but a depressive patient who has, is much worse. Finally, although rating scales are not used for making a diagnosis, they should have some relation to it. Thus the schizophrenic patients should have a high score on schizophrenia and comparatively small scores on other syndromes. In practice, this does not occur. The present scale has been devised for use only on patients already diagnosed as suffering from affective disorder of depressive type. It is used for quantifying the results of an interview, and its value depends entirely on the skill of the interviewer in eliciting the necessary information. The interviewer may, and should, use all information available to help him with his interview and in making the final assessment. The scale has undergone a number of changes since it was first tried out, and although there is room for further improvement, it will be found efficient and simple in use. It has been found to be of great practical value in assessing results of treatment.

... read more

27,411 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0009490
10 Mar 2010-PLOS ONE
Abstract: Background We recently described FastTree, a tool for inferring phylogenies for alignments with up to hundreds of thousands of sequences. Here, we describe improvements to FastTree that improve its accuracy without sacrificing scalability.

... read more

7,488 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE11053
Tanya Yatsunenko1, Federico E. Rey1, Mark J. Manary2, Mark J. Manary1  +19 moreInstitutions (7)
14 Jun 2012-Nature
Abstract: Gut microbial communities represent one source of human genetic and metabolic diversity. To examine how gut microbiomes differ among human populations, here we characterize bacterial species in fecal samples from 531 individuals, plus the gene content of 110 of them. The cohort encompassed healthy children and adults from the Amazonas of Venezuela, rural Malawi and US metropolitan areas and included mono- and dizygotic twins. Shared features of the functional maturation of the gut microbiome were identified during the first three years of life in all three populations, including age-associated changes in the genes involved in vitamin biosynthesis and metabolism. Pronounced differences in bacterial assemblages and functional gene repertoires were noted between US residents and those in the other two countries. These distinctive features are evident in early infancy as well as adulthood. Our findings underscore the need to consider the microbiome when evaluating human development, nutritional needs, physiological variations and the impact of westernization.

... read more

Topics: Microbiome (59%), Human microbiome (56%), Enterotype (55%) ... show more

4,955 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41587-019-0209-9
Evan Bolyen1, Jai Ram Rideout1, Matthew R. Dillon1, Nicholas A. Bokulich1  +120 moreInstitutions (47)
Abstract: QIIME 2 development was primarily funded by NSF Awards 1565100 to J.G.C. and 1565057 to R.K. Partial support was also provided by the following: grants NIH U54CA143925 (J.G.C. and T.P.) and U54MD012388 (J.G.C. and T.P.); grants from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (J.G.C. and R.K.); ERCSTG project MetaPG (N.S.); the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences QYZDB-SSW-SMC021 (Y.B.); the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council APP1085372 (G.A.H., J.G.C., Von Bing Yap and R.K.); the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) to D.L.G.; and the State of Arizona Technology and Research Initiative Fund (TRIF), administered by the Arizona Board of Regents, through Northern Arizona University. All NCI coauthors were supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Cancer Institute. S.M.G. and C. Diener were supported by the Washington Research Foundation Distinguished Investigator Award.

... read more

3,456 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRN3346
John F. Cryan1, Timothy G. Dinan1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Recent years have witnessed the rise of the gut microbiota as a major topic of research interest in biology. Studies are revealing how variations and changes in the composition of the gut microbiota influence normal physiology and contribute to diseases ranging from inflammation to obesity. Accumulating data now indicate that the gut microbiota also communicates with the CNS — possibly through neural, endocrine and immune pathways — and thereby influences brain function and behaviour. Studies in germ-free animals and in animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotic bacteria or antibiotic drugs suggest a role for the gut microbiota in the regulation of anxiety, mood, cognition and pain. Thus, the emerging concept of a microbiota-gut-brain axis suggests that modulation of the gut microbiota may be a tractable strategy for developing novel therapeutics for complex CNS disorders.

... read more

Topics: Gut flora (59%), Gut–brain axis (57%)

2,446 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202111
20201