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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Analysis of Quantum Key Distribution Based Satellite Communication

TL;DR: The noisy quantum channel is modeled and implemented by the redundancy-free quantum error correction scheme which provides better security and throughput efficiency as shown in simulation results.
Abstract: Quantum key distribution is an effective encryption technique which can be used to perform secure quantum communication between satellite and ground stations. Quantum cryptography enhances security in various networks such as optical fibers and wireless networks. In addition to this, these networks become vulnerable in presence of high attenuation due to atmospheric effects and noise. Hence, errors occurs due to decoherence. The noisy quantum channel is modeled and implemented by the redundancy-free quantum error correction scheme which provides better security and throughput efficiency as shown in simulation results.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: 6G with additional technical requirements beyond those of 5G will enable faster and further communications to the extent that the boundary between physical and cyber worlds disappears.
Abstract: The fifth generation (5G) wireless communication networks are being deployed worldwide from 2020 and more capabilities are in the process of being standardized, such as mass connectivity, ultra-reliability, and guaranteed low latency. However, 5G will not meet all requirements of the future in 2030 and beyond, and sixth generation (6G) wireless communication networks are expected to provide global coverage, enhanced spectral/energy/cost efficiency, better intelligence level and security, etc. To meet these requirements, 6G networks will rely on new enabling technologies, i.e., air interface and transmission technologies and novel network architecture, such as waveform design, multiple access, channel coding schemes, multi-antenna technologies, network slicing, cell-free architecture, and cloud/fog/edge computing. Our vision on 6G is that it will have four new paradigm shifts. First, to satisfy the requirement of global coverage, 6G will not be limited to terrestrial communication networks, which will need to be complemented with non-terrestrial networks such as satellite and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) communication networks, thus achieving a space-air-ground-sea integrated communication network. Second, all spectra will be fully explored to further increase data rates and connection density, including the sub-6 GHz, millimeter wave (mmWave), terahertz (THz), and optical frequency bands. Third, facing the big datasets generated by the use of extremely heterogeneous networks, diverse communication scenarios, large numbers of antennas, wide bandwidths, and new service requirements, 6G networks will enable a new range of smart applications with the aid of artificial intelligence (AI) and big data technologies. Fourth, network security will have to be strengthened when developing 6G networks. This article provides a comprehensive survey of recent advances and future trends in these four aspects. Clearly, 6G with additional technical requirements beyond those of 5G will enable faster and further communications to the extent that the boundary between physical and cyber worlds disappears.

935 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel QC-assisted and QML-based framework for 6G communication networks is proposed while articulating its challenges and potential enabling technologies at the network infrastructure, network edge, air interface, and user end.
Abstract: The upcoming fifth generation (5G) of wireless networks is expected to lay a foundation of intelligent networks with the provision of some isolated artificial intelligence (AI) operations. However, fully intelligent network orchestration and management for providing innovative services will only be realized in Beyond 5G (B5G) networks. To this end, we envisage that the sixth generation (6G) of wireless networks will be driven by on-demand self-reconfiguration to ensure a many-fold increase in the network performance and service types. The increasingly stringent performance requirements of emerging networks may finally trigger the deployment of some interesting new technologies, such as large intelligent surfaces, electromagnetic–orbital angular momentum, visible light communications, and cell-free communications, to name a few. Our vision for 6G is a massively connected complex network capable of rapidly responding to the users’ service calls through real-time learning of the network state as described by the network edge (e.g., base-station locations and cache contents), air interface (e.g., radio spectrum and propagation channel), and the user-side (e.g., battery-life and locations). The multi-state, multi-dimensional nature of the network state, requiring the real-time knowledge, can be viewed as a quantum uncertainty problem. In this regard, the emerging paradigms of machine learning (ML), quantum computing (QC), and quantum ML (QML) and their synergies with communication networks can be considered as core 6G enablers. Considering these potentials, starting with the 5G target services and enabling technologies, we provide a comprehensive review of the related state of the art in the domains of ML (including deep learning), QC, and QML and identify their potential benefits, issues, and use cases for their applications in the B5G networks. Subsequently, we propose a novel QC-assisted and QML-based framework for 6G communication networks while articulating its challenges and potential enabling technologies at the network infrastructure, network edge, air interface, and user end. Finally, some promising future research directions for the quantum- and QML-assisted B5G networks are identified and discussed.

339 citations


Cites background from "Analysis of Quantum Key Distributio..."

  • ...Recently, authors in [126] VOLUME xx, 201x 15 investigated the application of QKD in the satellite communication system to perform secure quantum communication between ground stations and the satellite....

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  • ...For example, authors in [126] discussed and analyzed the applicability of QKD protocols in quantum-assisted SatCom systems in order to perform secure communication between ground stations and the satellite....

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  • ...The QKD can be used to enhance security in various networks including optical networks, terrestrial wireless networks and satellite networks....

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  • ...Some of the promising quantum communication protocols to expand the possibility of classical data transmission in quantum-based systems include quantum key distribution (QKD) [126], [127], quantum teleportation [128] and dense coding [129]....

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  • ...In this QKD approach, quantum mechanism provides the unconditional guarantee of the security of the key....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In SARG04 QKD protocol with two decoy states, the optimum signal-state mean photon number is independent of the link distance and is valid for the attacks considered here, highlighting its use in a realistic scenario of satellite quantum communication.
Abstract: Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a key exchange protocol which is implemented over free space optical links or optical fiber cable. When direct communication is not possible, QKD is performed over fiber cables, but the imperfections in detectors used at the receiver side and also the material properties of fiber cables limit the long-distance communication. Free space-based QKD is free from such limitations and can pave the way for satellite-based quantum communication to set up a global network for sharing secret messages. To implement free space optical links, it is essential to study the effect of atmospheric turbulence. Here, an analysis is made for satellite-based quantum communication using QKD protocols. We assume two specific attacks, namely PNS (photon number splitting) and IRUD (intercept-resend with unambiguous discrimination), which could be main threats for future QKD-based satellite applications. The key generation rates and the error rates of the considered QKD protocols are presented. Other parameters such as optimum signal and decoy states mean photon numbers are calculated for each protocol and distance. Further, in SARG04 QKD protocol with two decoy states, the optimum signal-state mean photon number is independent of the link distance and is valid for the attacks considered here. This is significant, highlighting its use in a realistic scenario of satellite quantum communication.

22 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work focuses on the envisaged gap existing between currently in use strategies for design of Hardware-Software (HW-SW) systems and what the AI-driven 6G will demand, in terms of adaptivity, flexibility and evolution.
Abstract: To date, 5G (5th generation of mobile communications) roll out has been going on for more than two years, and the most of it has still to come. Meanwhile, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) of Beyond-5G (B5G) and 6G (6th generation of mobile communications) are already at stake, looking at 2030. Future networks will leverage autonomous and evolutionary characteristics, triggered by the cornerstone of Artificial Intelligence (AI), falling well-beyond the scopes of 5G. Besides, seamless increase of KPIs, across the transition from 5G to 6G, with 100-1000 times higher data rate per user, latency reduction and reliability improvement, also stepping into the domain of (sub-)THz and optical communications, will set unparalleled demands for Hardware (HW) systems and components. This work focuses on the envisaged gap existing between currently in use strategies for design of Hardware-Software (HW-SW) systems and what the AI-driven 6G will demand, in terms of adaptivity, flexibility and evolution. An important part is forecasted for Micro/Nano technologies, devices and systems, in enabling 6G functionalities, especially at the network edge, stimulating partial reconceptualization of the classical idea of HW, in fact, rising its level of abstraction.

13 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an add-drop multiplexer capable of pushing and withdrawing a single photon into an optical fiber cable which carries quantum bits from multiusers is used to combine different single photon channels into a single path.
Abstract: For combining different single photon channels into a single path, we use an effective and reliable technique which is known as quantum multiple access. We take advantage of an add-drop multiplexer capable of pushing and withdrawing a single photon into an optical fiber cable which carries quantum bits from multiusers. In addition to this, spreading spreads the channel noise at receiver side and use of filters stop the overlapping of adjacent channels, which helps in reducing the noise level and improved signal-to-noise ratio. In this way, we obtain enhanced performance of code division multiple access-based QKD links with a single photon without necessity of amplifiers and modulators.

9 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A protocol for coin-tossing by exchange of quantum messages is presented, which is secure against traditional kinds of cheating, even by an opponent with unlimited computing power, but ironically can be subverted by use of a still subtler quantum phenomenon, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox.

5,126 citations


"Analysis of Quantum Key Distributio..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...To improve the performance of QKD-based satellite communication under such situations, efficient quantum error correction methods are implemented [12], [13]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
28 Oct 1982-Nature
TL;DR: In this article, the linearity of quantum mechanics has been shown to prevent the replication of a photon of definite polarization in the presence of an excited atom, and the authors show that this conclusion holds for all quantum systems.
Abstract: If a photon of definite polarization encounters an excited atom, there is typically some nonvanishing probability that the atom will emit a second photon by stimulated emission. Such a photon is guaranteed to have the same polarization as the original photon. But is it possible by this or any other process to amplify a quantum state, that is, to produce several copies of a quantum system (the polarized photon in the present case) each having the same state as the original? If it were, the amplifying process could be used to ascertain the exact state of a quantum system: in the case of a photon, one could determine its polarization by first producing a beam of identically polarized copies and then measuring the Stokes parameters1. We show here that the linearity of quantum mechanics forbids such replication and that this conclusion holds for all quantum systems.

4,544 citations


"Analysis of Quantum Key Distributio..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Any eavesdropping attempt is detected by the measurement property of quantum mechanics [12]....

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  • ...To improve the performance of QKD-based satellite communication under such situations, efficient quantum error correction methods are implemented [12], [13]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An up-to-date survey on FSO communication systems is presented, describing FSO channel models and transmitter/receiver structures and details on information theoretical limits of FSO channels and algorithmic-level system design research activities to approach these limits are provided.
Abstract: Optical wireless communication (OWC) refers to transmission in unguided propagation media through the use of optical carriers, i.e., visible, infrared (IR), and ultraviolet (UV) bands. In this survey, we focus on outdoor terrestrial OWC links which operate in near IR band. These are widely referred to as free space optical (FSO) communication in the literature. FSO systems are used for high rate communication between two fixed points over distances up to several kilometers. In comparison to radio-frequency (RF) counterparts, FSO links have a very high optical bandwidth available, allowing much higher data rates. They are appealing for a wide range of applications such as metropolitan area network (MAN) extension, local area network (LAN)-to-LAN connectivity, fiber back-up, backhaul for wireless cellular networks, disaster recovery, high definition TV and medical image/video transmission, wireless video surveillance/monitoring, and quantum key distribution among others. Despite the major advantages of FSO technology and variety of its application areas, its widespread use has been hampered by its rather disappointing link reliability particularly in long ranges due to atmospheric turbulence-induced fading and sensitivity to weather conditions. In the last five years or so, there has been a surge of interest in FSO research to address these major technical challenges. Several innovative physical layer concepts, originally introduced in the context of RF systems, such as multiple-input multiple-output communication, cooperative diversity, and adaptive transmission have been recently explored for the design of next generation FSO systems. In this paper, we present an up-to-date survey on FSO communication systems. The first part describes FSO channel models and transmitter/receiver structures. In the second part, we provide details on information theoretical limits of FSO channels and algorithmic-level system design research activities to approach these limits. Specific topics include advances in modulation, channel coding, spatial/cooperative diversity techniques, adaptive transmission, and hybrid RF/FSO systems.

1,749 citations


"Analysis of Quantum Key Distributio..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Here we follow the redundancy-free error correction scheme [23], [24]....

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  • ...We consider the redundancy-free model [23], [24] in the quantum-based satellite communication to correct the transmitted qubits and obtain the improved keys, as shown in Fig....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A decoy-pulse method to overcome the photon-number-splitting attack for Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum key distribution protocol in the presence of high loss by intentionally and randomly replacing signal pulses by multiphoton pulses (decoy pulses).
Abstract: We propose a decoy-pulse method to overcome the photon-number-splitting attack for Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum key distribution protocol in the presence of high loss: A legitimate user intentionally and randomly replaces signal pulses by multiphoton pulses (decoy pulses). Then they check the loss of the decoy pulses. If the loss of the decoy pulses is abnormally less than that of signal pulses, the whole protocol is aborted. Otherwise, to continue the protocol, they estimate the loss of signal multiphoton pulses based on that of decoy pulses. This estimation can be done with an assumption that the two losses have similar values. We justify that assumption.

1,575 citations


"Analysis of Quantum Key Distributio..." refers background in this paper

  • ...It faces many problems such as turbulence generated losses, geometrical losses due to telescope dimensions, losses due to detector dark count rate, inefficient quantum devices responsible for information leakage, and disturbances due to eavesdropper attempts [18]–[20]....

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  • ...This sifted key is the same sequence of bits for both the sender and receiver [18]....

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