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Analysis of rectangular microstrip antennas

01 Mar 1984-Vol. 84, pp 20735
TL;DR: In this paper, the problem of microstrip antennas covered by a dielectric substrate is formulated in terms of coupled integro-differential equations with the current distribution on the conducting patch as an unknown quantity.
Abstract: The problem of microstrip antennas covered by a dielectric substrate is formulated in terms of coupled integro-differential equations with the current distribution on the conducting patch as an unknown quantity. The Galerkin method is used to solve for the unknown patch current. Using the present formulation, the radiation pattern, the resonant frequency, and the bandwidth of a rectangular microstrip antenna are computed. Design data for a rectangular microstrip antenna are also presented.

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Citations
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
15 Jun 1987
TL;DR: In this article, a broadband, contiguous stacked, two-layer, square microstrip patch antenna element design is described which can be used for linear or circular polarization, and the theory is modified to predict radiation patterns and resonant frequencies.
Abstract: A broadband, contiguous stacked, two-layer, square microstrip patch antenna element design is described which can be used for linear or circular polarization. Single layer microstrip patch theory for the rectangular patch radiator is presented and used as a basis for understanding the two-layer patch configuration. The theory is modified to predict radiation patterns and resonant frequencies of the two-layer microstrip patch antenna element. Experimental results include the radiation patterns, dominant resonant frequencies (TM1 0 mode), return loss (S11 ), and bandwidth for X band elements as a function of dielectric constants, dielectric thicknesses, and patch sizes.

61 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
11 Jun 2020-Sensors
TL;DR: A low-profile high-directivity, and double-negative (DNG) metamaterial-loaded antenna with a slotted patch with potential for future 5G applications, like Internet of Things (IoT), healthcare systems, smart homes, etc.
Abstract: A low-profile high-directivity, and double-negative (DNG) metamaterial-loaded antenna with a slotted patch is proposed for the 5G application. The radiated slotted arm as a V shape has been extended to provide a low-profile feature with a two-isometric view square patch structure, which accelerates the electromagnetic (EM) resonance. Besides, the tapered patch with two vertically split parabolic horns and the unit cell metamaterial expedite achieve more directive radiation. Two adjacent splits with meta units enhance the surface current to modify the actual electric current, which is induced by a substrate-isolated EM field. As a result, the slotted antenna shows a 7.14 dBi realized gain with 80% radiation efficiency, which is quite significant. The operation bandwidth is 4.27-4.40 GHz, and characteristic impedance approximately remains the same (50 Ω) to give a VSWR (voltage Standing wave ratio) of less than 2, which is ideal for the expected application field. The overall size of the antenna is 60 × 40 × 1.52 mm. Hence, it has potential for future 5G applications, like Internet of Things (IoT), healthcare systems, smart homes, etc.

10 citations


Cites background or methods from "Analysis of rectangular microstrip ..."

  • ...However, using these two equations and applying the green function, the solution obtained for any arbitrary patch [44] is:...

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  • ...Numerous reported articles have considering various facts like the dielectric layer [42], and key parameter analysis like the radiation pattern, Q factor [43], green function for the wave equation [44], etc....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2006
TL;DR: In this paper, identical patches with holes of different sizes are used to change the resonant frequency and give in turn a change in the phase of the reradiated field and allow directing the main lobe of the radiation pattern off broadside.
Abstract: The key issue in the design of microstrip reflectarray antennas is the technique used to obtain the required phase shift in the field scattered by each element. Many solutions have been proposed in the past. Stub loaded patches, patches of variable size and patches with variable rotation angles are currently the most popular techniques. This paper introduces a different technique. The approach is based on identical patches with holes of different size to change the resonant frequency. This gives in turn a change in the phase of the reradiated field and allows directing the main lobe of the radiation pattern off broadside. The analysis was carried out at 33.5 GHz, first on a single element and then extended to arrays of finite dimensions. Some arrays were built and measurements were carried out on these prototypes. There is good agreement between theoretical results and measurements.

10 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2006
TL;DR: In this paper, a passive phasing technique for the designing microstrip reflectarray antennas is proposed, where the antenna elements in the array are identical slotted patches and the slots are loaded with a SMD capacitor to set the required phase shift needed for array implementation.
Abstract: A passive phasing technique for the designing microstrip reflectarray antennas is proposed. The antenna elements in the array are identical slotted patches. The slots are loaded with a SMD capacitor to set the required phase shift needed for array implementation. The design procedure and critical parameters are discussed and compared to alternative phase shifting techniques. Simulations show promising results. Mounting a SMD capacitor in such a configuration can be considered as the first step in using capacitive loading on a slotted patch for active microstrip reflectarrays. It is shown that by adjusting the capacitance values it is possible to scan the beam.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new set of entire domain basis functions employable in the numerical solution via the Method of Moments of the Electric Field Integral Equation on a metallic patch with a convex polygonal shape is presented in this paper.
Abstract: A new set of entire domain basis functions employable in the numerical solution via the Method of Moments (MoM) of the Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE) on a metallic patch with a convex polygonal shape is presented in this paper. Such new basis functions are built by imposing both the boundary conditions for the normal component of the current density on the patch edges and other constraints coming from the physical distribution of the current on the metallization. Accuracy and fastness of common MoM procedure implemented by numerical codes based on subdomain basis functions are improved, when applied to patches with convex polygonal shape. Some numerical results are presented in order to show the capabilities of the new entire domain functions in the solution of radiation problems involving microstrip patch antennas.

9 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a simple theory based on the cavity model was developed to analyze microstrip antennas, and the theoretically predicted radiation patterns and impedance loci closely agree with those measured for many antennas of various shapes and dimensions investigated thus far.
Abstract: A simple theory based on the cavity model is developed to analyze microstrip antennas. Formulas for numerous canonical shapes are given. In general the theoretically predicted radiation patterns and impedance loci closely agree with those measured for many antennas of various shapes and dimensions investigated thus far. In fact, this theory enables the computation of both patterns and impedance loci with little effort. The input admittance locus generally follows a circle of nearly constant conductance, but its center is shifted to the inductive region in the Smith chart plot. Peculiar properties for the case with degenerate or slightly degenerate eigenvalues are discussed. An accurate formula for determining the resonant frequency of a rectangular microstrip antenna is also given.

882 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an equivalent network for square and rectangular shaped microstrip radiating elements is derived, where the radiating element is considered as two slots separated by a transmission line of low characteristic impedance.
Abstract: An equivalent network for square and rectangular shaped microstrip radiating elements is derived. In order to simplify the problem the radiating element is considered as two slots separated by a transmission line of low characteristic impedance. The slots are characterized by their radiation pattern, directivity, and equivalent admittance. A design procedure for open circuit halfwave resonators and for arrays of such resonators is given. Finally, some antennas in the X band are designed and measured.

271 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A method for analyzing characterisitcs of open microstrip disk structures is presented, based on the spectral domain immittance matrix approach, and all the wave phenomena associated with the structures are incorporated.
Abstract: A method for analyzing characterisitcs of open microstrip disk structures is presented. The method is based on the spectral domain immittance matrix approach, and all the wave phenomena associated with the structures are incorporated. The method provides a number of unique and convenient features both in analytical and numerical phases. A numerical example illustrating the usefulness of the method is included. Some numerical results are compared with experimental data.

216 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a theoretical treatment of the rectangular microstrip radiating element has been performed, where the element was modeled as a line resonator with radiation taking place at the open-circuited ends.
Abstract: A theoretical treatment of the rectangular microstrip radiating element has been performed. The element has been modeled as a line resonator with radiation taking place at the open-circuited ends. This has been verified by using a liquid crystal visual detector. With the simplified model, the input impedance and the far fields have been calculated for different resonant modes. The interaction between the radiating ends will effect the input impedance, and this has been considered by defining a mutual conductance. Also, a mutual conductance between microstrip elements has been expressed in far-field quantities and plotted as a function of spacing along the E - and H - planes. The directivity of an isolated element has been calculated as the directivity of one radiating end times the contribution due to the array factor.

187 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1976
TL;DR: In this article, a method to analyze a microstrip antenna is presented, which involves representing the antenna by a fine wire grid immersed in a dielectric medium and then using Richmond's reaction formulation to evaluate the piecewise sinusoidal currents on the wire grid segments.
Abstract: A method to analyze a microstrip antenna is presented. It involves representing the antenna by a fine wire grid immersed in a dielectric medium and then using Richmond's reaction formulation to evaluate the piecewise sinusoidal currents on the wire grid segments. The calculated results are then modified to account for the finite dielectric discontinuity. A comparison of calculated and measured results is presented. This technique will serve as an excellent tool to design microstrip antennas.

78 citations