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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/BRV.12704

Animal migrations and parasitism: reciprocal effects within a unified framework.

04 Mar 2021-Biological Reviews of The Cambridge Philosophical Society (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 96, Iss: 4, pp 1331-1348
Abstract: Migrations, i.e. the recurring, roundtrip movement of animals between distant and distinct habitats, occur among diverse metazoan taxa. Although traditionally linked to avoidance of food shortages, predators or harsh abiotic conditions, there is increasing evidence that parasites may have played a role in the evolution of migration. On the one hand, selective pressures from parasites can favour migratory strategies that allow either avoidance of infections or recovery from them. On the other hand, infected animals incur physiological costs that may limit their migratory abilities, affecting their speed, the timing of their departure or arrival, and/or their condition upon reaching their destination. During migration, reduced immunocompetence as well as exposure to different external conditions and parasite infective stages can influence infection dynamics. Here, we first explore whether parasites represent extra costs for their hosts during migration. We then review how infection dynamics and infection risk are affected by host migration, thereby considering parasites as both causes and consequences of migration. We also evaluate the comparative evidence testing the hypothesis that migratory species harbour a richer parasite fauna than their closest free-living relatives, finding general support for the hypothesis. Then we consider the implications of host migratory behaviour for parasite ecology and evolution, which have received much less attention. Parasites of migratory hosts may achieve much greater spatial dispersal than those of non-migratory hosts, expanding their geographical range, and providing more opportunities for host-switching. Exploiting migratory hosts also exerts pressures on the parasite to adapt its phenology and life-cycle duration, including the timing of major developmental, reproduction and transmission events. Natural selection may even favour parasites that manipulate their host's migratory strategy in ways that can enhance parasite transmission. Finally, we propose a simple integrated framework based on eco-evolutionary feedbacks to consider the reciprocal selection pressures acting on migratory hosts and their parasites. Host migratory strategies and parasite traits evolve in tandem, each acting on the other along two-way causal paths and feedback loops. Their likely adjustments to predicted climate change will be understood best from this coevolutionary perspective.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/BRV.12774
Abstract: The crisis generated by the emergence and pandemic spread of COVID-19 has thrown into the global spotlight the dangers associated with novel diseases, as well as the key role of animals, especially wild animals, as potential sources of pathogens to humans. There is a widespread demand for a new relationship with wild and domestic animals, including suggested bans on hunting, wildlife trade, wet markets or consumption of wild animals. However, such policies risk ignoring essential elements of the problem as well as alienating and increasing hardship for local communities across the world, and might be unachievable at scale. There is thus a need for a more complex package of policy and practical responses. We undertook a solution scan to identify and collate 161 possible options for reducing the risks of further epidemic disease transmission from animals to humans, including potential further SARS-CoV-2 transmission (original or variants). We include all categories of animals in our responses (i.e. wildlife, captive, unmanaged/feral and domestic livestock and pets) and focus on pathogens (especially viruses) that, once transmitted from animals to humans, could acquire epidemic potential through high rates of human-to-human transmission. This excludes measures to prevent well-known zoonotic diseases, such as rabies, that cannot readily transmit between humans. We focused solutions on societal measures, excluding the development of vaccines and other preventive therapeutic medicine and veterinary medicine options that are discussed elsewhere. We derived our solutions through reading the scientific literature, NGO position papers, and industry guidelines, collating our own experiences, and consulting experts in different fields. Herein, we review the major zoonotic transmission pathways and present an extensive list of options. The potential solutions are organised according to the key stages of the trade chain and encompass solutions that can be applied at the local, regional and international scales. This is a set of options targeted at practitioners and policy makers to encourage careful examination of possible courses of action, validating their impact and documenting outcomes.

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Topics: Wildlife trade (53%)

12 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJPARA.2021.03.001
Abstract: Individuals of migratory species may be more likely to become infected by parasites because they cross different regions along their route, thereby being exposed to a wider range of parasites during their annual cycle. Conversely, migration may have a protective effect since migratory behaviour allows hosts to escape environments presenting a high risk of infection. Haemosporidians are one of the best studied, most prevalent and diverse groups of avian parasites, however the impact of avian host migration on infection by these parasites remains controversial. We tested whether migratory behaviour influenced the prevalence and richness of avian haemosporidian parasites among South American birds. We used a dataset comprising ~ 11,000 bird blood samples representing 260 bird species from 63 localities and Bayesian multi-level models to test the impact of migratory behaviour on prevalence and lineage richness of two avian haemosporidian genera (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus). We found that fully migratory species present higher parasite prevalence and higher richness of haemosporidian lineages. However, we found no difference between migratory and non-migratory species when evaluating prevalence separately for Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, or for the richness of Plasmodium lineages. Nevertheless, our results indicate that migratory behaviour is associated with an infection cost, namely a higher prevalence and greater variety of haemosporidian parasites.

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Topics: Avian malaria (53%), Haemoproteus (52%), Species richness (52%)

3 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.06.11.448006
12 Jun 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Co-infections with multiple pathogens are common in the wild and may act as a strong selective pressure on both host and parasite evolution. Yet, contrary to single infection, the factors that shape co-infection risk are largely under-investigated. Here, we explored the extent to which bird ecology and phylogeny impact single and co-infection probabilities by haemosporidian parasites using large datasets from museum collections and a Bayesian phylogenetic modelling framework. While both phylogeny and species attributes (e.g. size of the geographic range, life-history strategy, migration) were relevant predictors of co-infection risk, these factors were less pertinent in predicting the probability of being single infected. Our study suggests that co-infection risk is under a stronger deterministic control than single-infection risk. These results underscore the combined influence of host evolutionary history and species attributes in determining single and co-infection pattern providing new avenues regarding our ability to predict infection risk in the wild.

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Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.06.02.446816
de Angeli Dutra1, Fecchio2, Braga, PoulinInstitutions (2)
02 Jun 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Migration can modify interaction dynamics between parasites and their hosts with migrant hosts able to disperse parasites and impact local community transmission. Thus, studying the relationships among migratory hosts and their parasites is fundamental to elucidate how migration shapes host-parasite interactions. Avian haemosporidian parasites are some of the most prevalent, diverse, and important wildlife parasites, and are also widely used as models in ecological and evolutionary research. Here, we contrast parasite taxonomic composition, network centrality and partner fidelity among resident and non-resident hosts using avian haemosporidians as study model. In order to evaluate parasite taxonomic composition, we performed permutational multivariate analyses of variance to quantify dissimilarity in haemosporidian lineages infecting different host migratory categories. Additionally, we ran multilevel Bayesian models to assess the role of migration in determining centrality and partner fidelity in host-parasite networks of avian hosts and their respective haemosporidian parasites. We observed similar parasite taxonomic composition and partner fidelity among resident and migratory hosts. Conversely, we demonstrate that migratory hosts play a more central role in host-parasite networks than residents. However, when evaluating partially and fully migratory hosts separately, we observed that only partially migratory species presented higher network centrality when compared to resident birds. Therefore, migration does not lead to differences in both parasite taxonomic composition and partner fidelity. However, migratory behavior is positively associated with network centrality, indicating migratory hosts play more important roles in shaping host-parasite interactions and influence local transmission.

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References
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193 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1034/J.1600-0706.2003.12559.X
01 Nov 2003-Oikos
Abstract: Long distance migration has evolved in many organisms moving through different media and using various modes of locomotion and transport. Migration continues to evolve or become suppressed as shown by ongoing dynamic and rapid changes of migration patterns. This great evolutionary flexibility may seem surprising for such a complex attribute as migration. Even if migration in most cases has evolved basically as a strategy to maximise fitness in a seasonal environment, its occurrence and extent depend on a multitude of factors. We give a brief overview of different factors (e.g. physical, geographical, historical, ecological) likely to facilitate and/or constrain the evolution of long distance migration and discuss how they are likely to affect migration. The basic driving forces for migration are ecological and biogeographic factors like seasonality, spatiotemporal distributions of resources, habitats, predation and competition. The benefit of increased resource availability will be balanced by costs associated with the migratory process in terms of time (incl. losses of prior occupancy advantages), energy and mortality (incl. increased exposure to parasites). Furthermore, migration requires genetic instructions (allowing substantial room for learning in some of the traits) about timing, duration and distance of migration as well as about behavioural and physiological adaptations (fuelling, organ flexibility, locomotion, use of environmental transport etc) and control of orientation and navigation. To what degree these costs and requirements put constraints on migration often depends on body size according to different scaling relationships. From this expos it is clear that research on migration warrants a multitude of techniques and approaches for a complete as possible understanding of a very complex evolutionary syndrome. In addition, we also present examples of migratory distances in a variety of taxons. In recent years new techniques, especially satellite radio telemetry, provide new information of unprecedented accuracy about journeys of individual animals, allowing re-evaluation of migration, locomotion and navigation theories. (Less)

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917 Citations


Open accessBook
22 Nov 2016-
Abstract: Evolutionary ecologists and population biologists have recently considered that ecological and evolutionary changes are intimately linked and can occur on the same time-scale. Recent theoretical developments have shown how the feedback between ecological and evolutionary dynamics can be linked, and there are now empirical demonstrations showing that ecological change can lead to rapid evolutionary change. We also have evidence that microevolutionary change can leave an ecological signature. We are at a stage where the integration of ecology and evolution is a necessary step towards major advances in our understanding of the processes that shape and maintain biodiversity. This special feature about ‘eco-evolutionary dynamics’ brings together biologists from empirical and theoretical backgrounds to bridge the gap between ecology and evolution and provide a series of contributions aimed at quantifying the interactions between these fundamental processes.

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Topics: Evolutionary ecology (62%), Niche construction (62%), Evolutionary dynamics (58%) ... read more

735 Citations


BookDOI: 10.1515/9781400846184
31 Jan 2013-
Abstract: "Meta-analysis is a powerful statistical methodology for synthesizing research evidence across independent studies. This is the first comprehensive handbook of meta-analysis written specifically for ecologists and evolutionary biologists, and it provides an invaluable introduction for beginners as well as an up-to-date guide for experienced meta-analysts. The chapters, written by renowned experts, walk readers through every step of meta-analysis, from problem formulation to the presentation of the results. The handbook identifies both the advantages of using meta-analysis for research synthesis and the potential pitfalls and limitations of meta-analysis (including when it should not be used). Different approaches to carrying out a meta-analysis are described, and include moment and least-square, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, all illustrated using worked examples based on real biological datasets. This one-of-a-kind resource is uniquely tailored to the biological sciences, and will provide an invaluable text for practitioners from graduate students and senior scientists to policymakers in conservation and environmental management. Walks you through every step of carrying out a meta-analysis in ecology and evolutionary biology, from problem formulation to result presentation Brings together experts from a broad range of fields Shows how to avoid, minimize, or resolve pitfalls such as missing data, publication bias, varying data quality, nonindependence of observations, and phylogenetic dependencies among species Helps you choose the right software Draws on numerous examples based on real biological datasets "--

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714 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1194694
21 Jan 2011-Science
Abstract: Animal migrations are often spectacular, and migratory species harbor zoonotic pathogens of importance to humans. Animal migrations are expected to enhance the global spread of pathogens and facilitate cross-species transmission. This does happen, but new research has also shown that migration allows hosts to escape from infected habitats, reduces disease levels when infected animals do not migrate successfully, and may lead to the evolution of less-virulent pathogens. Migratory demands can also reduce immune function, with consequences for host susceptibility and mortality. Studies of pathogen dynamics in migratory species and how these will respond to global change are urgently needed to predict future disease risks for wildlife and humans alike.

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604 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/1941192
01 Mar 1995-Ecology
Abstract: Diseases and pathogens are receiving increasing recognition as sources of mortality in animal populations Immune system strength is clearly important in fending off pathogen attack Physical barriers to pathogen entry are also important Various individual behaviors are efficacious in reducing contact with diseases and pests This paper focuses on a fourth mode of defense: social barriers to transmission Various social behaviors have pathogen transmission consequences Selective pressures on these social behaviors may therefore exist Effects on pathogen transmission of mating strategies, social avoidance, group size, group isolation, and other behaviors are explored It is concluded that many of these behaviors may have been affected by selection pressures to reduce transmission of pathogens 84 refs, 1 tab

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Topics: Social behavior (50%)

457 Citations


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YearCitations
20217