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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.5194/ESSD-13-741-2021

Annual 30-meter Dataset for Glacial Lakes in High Mountain Asia from 2008 to 2017

02 Mar 2021-Earth System Science Data (Copernicus GmbH)-Vol. 13, Iss: 2, pp 741-766
Abstract: . Climate change is intensifying glacier melting and lake development in High Mountain Asia (HMA), which could increase glacial lake outburst flood hazards and impact water resource and hydroelectric power management. However, quantification of variability in size and type of glacial lakes at high resolution has been incomplete in HMA. Here, we developed a HMA Glacial Lake Inventory (Hi-MAG) database to characterize the annual coverage of glacial lakes from 2008 to 2017 at 30 m resolution using Landsat satellite imagery. It is noted that a rapid increase in lake number and moderate area expansion was influenced by a large population of small glacial lake (≤ 0.04 km2), and faster growth in lake number occurred above 5300 m elevation. Proglacial lake dominated areas showed significant lake area expansion, while unconnected lake dominated areas exhibited stability or slight reduction. Small glacial lakes accounted for approximately 15% of the lake area in Eastern Hindu Kush, Western Himalaya, Northern/Western Tien Shan, and Gangdise Mountains, but contributed > 50 % of lake area expansion in these regions over a decade. Our results demonstrate proglacial lakes are a main contributor while small glacial lakes are an overlooked element to recent lake evolution in HMA. Regional geographic variability of debris cover, together with trends in warming and precipitation over the past few decades, largely explain the current distribution of supra- and proglacial lake area across HMA. The Hi-MAG database are available at: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3700282 , it can be used for studies on glacier-climate-lake interactions, glacio-hydrologic models, glacial lake outburst floods and potential downstream risks and water resources.

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Topics: Glacial lake outburst flood (70%), Glacial lake (69%), Glacial period (59%) ... show more
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25 results found


Open access
01 Dec 2013-
Abstract: Glacial melting in the Tibetan Plateau affects the water resources of millions of people. This study finds that—partly owing to changes in atmospheric circulations and precipitation patterns—the most intensive glacier shrinkage is in the Himalayan region, whereas glacial retreat in the Pamir Plateau region is less apparent.

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Topics: Plateau (68%), Glacier (54%)

1,196 Citations


Open access
15 Dec 2015-
Abstract: article i nfo No glacial lake census exists for the Third Pole region, which includes the Pamir-Hindu Kush-Karakoram- Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, comprehensive information is lacking about the distribution of and changes in glacial lakes caused by current global warming conditions. In this study, the first glacial lake in- ventories for the Third Pole were conducted for ~1990, 2000, and 2010 using Landsat TM/ETM+ data. Glacial lake spatial distributions, corresponding areas and temporal changes were examined. The significant results are as follows. (1) There were 4602, 4981, and 5701 glacial lakes (N0.003 km 2 ) covering areas of 553.9 ± 90, 581.2 ± 97, and 682.4 ± 110 km 2 in ~1990, 2000, and 2010, respectively; these lakes are primarily located in the Brahmaputra (39%),Indus (28%), and AmuDarya (10%) basins. (2) Small lakes (b0.2 km 2 ) are more sensitive to climate changes. (3) Lakes closer to glaciers and at higher altitudes, particularly thoseconnected to glacier ter- mini, have undergone larger area changes. (4) Glacier-fed lakes are dominant in both quantity and area (N70%) and exhibit faster expansion trends overall compared to non-glacier-fed lakes. We conclude that glacier meltwa- ter may play a dominant role in the areal expansion of most glacial lakes in the Third Pole. In addition, the pat- terns of the glacier-fed lakes correspond well with warming temperature trends and negative glacier mass balance patterns. This paper presents an important database of glacial lakes and provides a basis for long-term monitoring and evaluation of outburst flood disasters primarily caused by glacial lakes in the Third Pole.

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Topics: Global warming (60%), Glacial period (58%), Global change (52%)

143 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1017/JOG.2021.18
Abstract: Bedrock overdeepenings exposed by continued glacial retreat can store precipitation and meltwater, potentially leading to the formation of new proglacial lakes. These lakes may pose threats of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) in high mountain areas, particularly if new lakes form in geomorphological setups prone to triggering events such as landslides or moraine collapses. We present the first complete inventory for future glacial lakes in High Mountain Asia by computing the subglacial bedrock for ~100 000 glaciers and estimating overdeepening area, volume and impact hazard for the larger potential lakes. We detect 25 285 overdeepenings larger than 104 m2 with a volume of 99.1 ± 28.6 km3 covering an area of 2683 ± 773.8 km2. For the 2700 overdeepenings larger than 105 m2, we assess the lake predisposition for mass-movement impacts that could trigger a GLOF by estimating the hazard of material detaching from surrounding slopes. Our findings indicate a shift in lake area, volume and GLOF hazard from the southwestern Himalayan region toward the Karakoram. The results of this study can be used for anticipating emerging threats and potentials connected to glacial lakes and as a basis for further studies at suspected GLOF hazard hotspots.

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Topics: Glacial lake outburst flood (60%), Glacial lake (58%), Meltwater (54%) ... show more

9 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12594-021-1691-5
Kalachand Sain1, Amit Kumar1, Manish Mehta1, Akshaya Verma1  +6 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A ground-based and heliborne survey was conducted immediately after the disaster that took place on 7th February, 2021 in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand. Based on these observations and freely available Google Earth imagery, we have arrived at plausible causes of this catastrophe as detachment of a sizeable rock mass and overlying hanging glacier in the Raunthi catchment that dammed the Rishiganga River and led to the devastation of roads, bridges and hydropower projects in downstream.

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5 Citations



References
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63 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/01621459.1968.10480934
Pranab Kumar Sen1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The least squares estimator of a regression coefficient β is vulnerable to gross errors and the associated confidence interval is, in addition, sensitive to non-normality of the parent distribution. In this paper, a simple and robust (point as well as interval) estimator of β based on Kendall's [6] rank correlation tau is studied. The point estimator is the median of the set of slopes (Yj - Yi )/(tj-ti ) joining pairs of points with ti ≠ ti , and is unbiased. The confidence interval is also determined by two order statistics of this set of slopes. Various properties of these estimators are studied and compared with those of the least squares and some other nonparametric estimators.

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Topics: Theil–Sen estimator (63%), Estimator (60%), Generalized least squares (58%) ... show more

6,342 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/01431160600589179
Hanqiu Xu1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The normalized difference water index (NDWI) of McFeeters (1996) was modified by substitution of a middle infrared band such as Landsat TM band 5 for the near infrared band used in the NDWI. The modified NDWI (MNDWI) can enhance open water features while efficiently suppressing and even removing built‐up land noise as well as vegetation and soil noise. The enhanced water information using the NDWI is often mixed with built‐up land noise and the area of extracted water is thus overestimated. Accordingly, the MNDWI is more suitable for enhancing and extracting water information for a water region with a background dominated by built‐up land areas because of its advantage in reducing and even removing built‐up land noise over the NDWI.

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2,248 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE20584
15 Dec 2016-Nature
Abstract: A freely available dataset produced from three million Landsat satellite images reveals substantial changes in the distribution of global surface water over the past 32 years and their causes, from climate change to human actions. The distribution of surface water has been mapped globally, and local-to-regional studies have tracked changes over time. But to date, there has been no global and methodologically consistent quantification of changes in surface water over time. Jean-Francois Pekel and colleagues have analysed more than three million Landsat images to quantify month-to-month changes in surface water at a resolution of 30 metres and over a 32-year period. They find that surface waters have declined by almost 90,000 square kilometres—largely in the Middle East and Central Asia—but that surface waters equivalent to about twice that area have been created elsewhere. Drought, reservoir creation and water extraction appear to have driven most of the changes in surface water over the past decades. The location and persistence of surface water (inland and coastal) is both affected by climate and human activity1 and affects climate2,3, biological diversity4 and human wellbeing5,6. Global data sets documenting surface water location and seasonality have been produced from inventories and national descriptions7, statistical extrapolation of regional data8 and satellite imagery9,10,11,12, but measuring long-term changes at high resolution remains a challenge. Here, using three million Landsat satellite images13, we quantify changes in global surface water over the past 32 years at 30-metre resolution. We record the months and years when water was present, where occurrence changed and what form changes took in terms of seasonality and persistence. Between 1984 and 2015 permanent surface water has disappeared from an area of almost 90,000 square kilometres, roughly equivalent to that of Lake Superior, though new permanent bodies of surface water covering 184,000 square kilometres have formed elsewhere. All continental regions show a net increase in permanent water, except Oceania, which has a fractional (one per cent) net loss. Much of the increase is from reservoir filling, although climate change14 is also implicated. Loss is more geographically concentrated than gain. Over 70 per cent of global net permanent water loss occurred in the Middle East and Central Asia, linked to drought and human actions including river diversion or damming and unregulated withdrawal15,16. Losses in Australia17 and the USA18 linked to long-term droughts are also evident. This globally consistent, validated data set shows that impacts of climate change and climate oscillations on surface water occurrence can be measured and that evidence can be gathered to show how surface water is altered by human activities. We anticipate that this freely available data will improve the modelling of surface forcing, provide evidence of state and change in wetland ecotones (the transition areas between biomes), and inform water-management decision-making.

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Topics: Surface water (61%), Climate change (53%), Hydrology (agriculture) (51%) ... show more

1,602 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RSE.2011.10.028
Zhe Zhu1, Curtis E. Woodcock1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A new method called Fmask (Function of mask) for cloud and cloud shadow detection in Landsat imagery is provided. Landsat Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance and Brightness Temperature (BT) are used as inputs. Fmask first uses rules based on cloud physical properties to separate Potential Cloud Pixels (PCPs) and clear-sky pixels. Next, a normalized temperature probability, spectral variability probability, and brightness probability are combined to produce a probability mask for clouds over land and water separately. Then, the PCPs and the cloud probability mask are used together to derive the potential cloud layer. The darkening effect of the cloud shadows in the Near Infrared (NIR) Band is used to generate a potential shadow layer by applying the flood-fill transformation. Subsequently, 3D cloud objects are determined via segmentation of the potential cloud layer and assumption of a constant temperature lapse rate within each cloud object. The view angle of the satellite sensor and the illuminating angle are used to predict possible cloud shadow locations and select the one that has the maximum similarity with the potential cloud shadow mask. If the scene has snow, a snow mask is also produced. For a globally distributed set of reference data, the average Fmask overall cloud accuracy is as high as 96.4%. The goal is development of a cloud and cloud shadow detection algorithm suitable for routine usage with Landsat images.

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Topics: Cloud top (71%), Cloud fraction (68%), Cloud computing (56%) ... show more

1,317 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1580
Tandong Yao1, Lonnie G. Thompson1, Lonnie G. Thompson2, Wei Yang1  +12 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Glacial melting in the Tibetan Plateau affects the water resources of millions of people. This study finds that—partly owing to changes in atmospheric circulations and precipitation patterns—the most intensive glacier shrinkage is in the Himalayan region, whereas glacial retreat in the Pamir Plateau region is less apparent.

... read more

Topics: Plateau (61%), Glacier mass balance (60%), Glacial period (56%) ... show more

1,290 Citations


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