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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2020.110114

Anorexia nervosa and gut microbiota: A systematic review and quantitative synthesis of pooled microbiological data.

02 Mar 2021-Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (Elsevier)-Vol. 106, pp 110114
Abstract: Background Alterations of gut microbiota may play a role in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) through perturbations of the gut-brain axis. Some studies found differences in the gut microbiota of patients with AN compared to healthy controls, but results are heterogeneous. The aim of this work was to systematically review the existing studies comparing gut microbial composition in AN and healthy controls, and to perform a quantitative synthesis of the pooled clinical and microbiological data, when available. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify human studies investigating relationships between AN and gut microbiota. Microbiome datasets from studies were pooled and analysed focusing on alpha and beta-diversity and the relative abundance of microbial species in patients' gut microbiota compared to healthy controls. Results Nine studies were eligible for the systematic review, of which 4 were included in the quantitative synthesis. Preserved alpha-diversity and decreased beta-diversity in AN emerged from the qualitative synthesis, while a slight increase of alpha-diversity (d Conclusions The decrease of butyrate-producing species and the increase of mucine-degrading species may represent hallmarks of the gut microbiota alterations in AN, and therefore potentially interesting therapeutic targets. The heterogeneity of clinical and methodological characteristics hampers the generalizability of the results. Standardized research methods could improve comparability among studies to better identify the alterations of gut microbiota in AN.

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Topics: Dysbiosis (57%), Gut flora (55%), Microbiome (53%) ... read more
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1192/J.EURPSY.2020.109
Abstract: Background There is growing interest in new factors contributing to the genesis of eating disorders (EDs). Research recently focused on the study of microbiota. Dysbiosis, associated with a specific genetic susceptibility, may contribute to the development of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder, and several putative mechanisms have already been identified. Diet seems to have an impact not only on modification of the gut microbiota, facilitating dysbiosis, but also on its recovery in patients with EDs. Methods This systematic review based on the PICO strategy searching into PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and Cochrane Library examined the literature on the role of altered microbiota in the pathogenesis and treatment of EDs. Results Sixteen studies were included, mostly regarding AN. Alpha diversity and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels were lower in patients with AN, and affective symptoms and ED psychopathology seem related to changes in gut microbiota. Microbiota-derived proteins stimulated the autoimmune system, altering neuroendocrine control of mood and satiety in EDs. Microbial richness increased in AN after weight regain on fecal microbiota transplantation. Conclusions Microbiota homeostasis seems essential for a healthy communication network between gut and brain. Dysbiosis may promote intestinal inflammation, alter gut permeability, and trigger immune reactions in the hunger/satiety regulation center contributing to the pathophysiological development of EDs. A restored microbial balance may be a possible treatment target for EDs. A better and more in-depth characterization of gut microbiota and gut–brain crosstalk is required. Future studies may deepen the therapeutic and preventive role of microbiota in EDs.

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Topics: Dysbiosis (64%), Gut flora (56%), Bulimia nervosa (50%)

7 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2020.110201
Tetyana Rocks1, Madeline West1, Meghan Hockey1, Hajara Aslam1  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Anorexia nervosa is a serious psychiatric disorder with high morbidity and mortality rate. Evidence for the optimal psychopharmacological approach to managing the disorder remains limited, with nutritional treatment, focused on weight restoration through the consumption of high energy diet, regarded as one of the fundamental steps in treatment. The human gut microbiome is increasingly recognised for its proposed role in gastrointestinal, metabolic, immune and mental health, all of which may be compromised in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Dietary intake plays an important role in shaping gut microbiota composition, whilst the use of fermented foods, foods with potential psychobiotic properties that deliver live bacteria, bacterial metabolites, prebiotics and energy, have been discussed to a lesser extent. However, fermented foods are of increasing interest due to their potential capacity to affect gut microbiota composition, provide beneficial bacterial metabolites, and confer beneficial outcomes to host health. This review provides an overview of the role of the gut microbiota in relation to the disease pathology in anorexia nervosa and especially focuses on the therapeutic potential of fermented foods, proposed here as a recommended addition to the current nutritional treatment protocols warranting further investigation.

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4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13020507
04 Feb 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: Alterations in the gut microbiome and fecal metabolites have been detected in anorexia nervosa (AN), but differences in those profiles between restricting AN (ANR) and binge-purging AN (ANBP) type have not been explored. We made a secondary analysis of our previous data concerning microbiome and metabolomics profiles of 17 ANR women, six ANBP women and 20 healthy controls (HC). Twelve fecal metabolites differentiating ANR patients, ANBP patients and HC were identified. Both patient groups showed decreased intra-individual bacterial richness with respect to healthy controls (HC). Compared to ANR subjects, ANBP patients had a significant increase in relative abundances of Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacteriaceae, Bifidobacteriales, and Eubacteriacae and a significant decrease in relative abundances of Odoribacter, Haemophilus, Pasteurellaceae, and Pasteurellales. The heatmaps of the relationships of selected fecal metabolites with microbial families showed different structures among the three groups, with the heatmap of ANBP patients being drastically different from that of HC, while that of ANR patients resulted more similar to HC. These findings, although preliminary because of the relatively small sample size, confirm the occurrence of different gut dysbiosis in ANR and ANBP and demonstrate different connections between gut microorganisms and fecal metabolites in the two AN types.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TEM.2021.07.010
Abstract: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious and often fatal illness. Despite decades of research, investigators have failed to adequately advance our understanding of the biological aspects of AN that could inform the development of effective interventions. Genome-wide association studies are revealing the important role of metabolic factors in AN, and studies of the gastrointestinal tract are shedding light on disruptions in enteric microbial communities and anomalies in gut morphology. In this opinion piece, we review the state of the science through the lens of the clinical presentation of illness. We project how the integration of rigorous science in genomics and microbiology, in collaboration with experienced clinicians, has the potential to markedly enhance treatment outcome via precision interventions.

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2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COEMR.2021.06.003
Abstract: The intestinal microbiota is a diverse microbial community that colonizes the gastrointestinal tract of animals. Abnormal changes in intestinal microbiota has been associated with multiple diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases and obesity; however, emerging evidence suggests a role for the gut microbiota in anxiety and depression via the gut-brain axis. As this microbial community is associated with weight dysregulation and host behavior it is not surprising that the intestinal microbiota may have a role to play in anorexia nervosa (AN). In this review we examine recent studies linking the gut microbiota with nutrition, psychopathology, and ultimately AN. We also review potential gut microbiota-based therapies for AN.

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2 Citations


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65 results found



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PMED.1000097
David Moher1, David Moher2, Alessandro Liberati3, Jennifer Tetzlaff1  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
21 Jul 2009-PLOS Medicine
Abstract: David Moher and colleagues introduce PRISMA, an update of the QUOROM guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses

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Topics: Systematic review (53%)

53,418 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
David Moher1, David Moher2, Alessandro Liberati3, Jennifer Tetzlaff1  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
21 Jul 2009-Open Medicine
Abstract: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have become increasingly important in health care. Clinicians read them to keep up to date with their field,1,2 and they are often used as a starting point for developing clinical practice guidelines. Granting agencies may require a systematic review to ensure there is justification for further research,3 and some health care journals are moving in this direction.4 As with all research, the value of a systematic review depends on what was done, what was found, and the clarity of reporting. As with other publications, the reporting quality of systematic reviews varies, limiting readers' ability to assess the strengths and weaknesses of those reviews. Several early studies evaluated the quality of review reports. In 1987, Mulrow examined 50 review articles published in 4 leading medical journals in 1985 and 1986 and found that none met all 8 explicit scientific criteria, such as a quality assessment of included studies.5 In 1987, Sacks and colleagues6 evaluated the adequacy of reporting of 83 meta-analyses on 23 characteristics in 6 domains. Reporting was generally poor; between 1 and 14 characteristics were adequately reported (mean = 7.7; standard deviation = 2.7). A 1996 update of this study found little improvement.7 In 1996, to address the suboptimal reporting of meta-analyses, an international group developed a guidance called the QUOROM Statement (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analyses), which focused on the reporting of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.8 In this article, we summarize a revision of these guidelines, renamed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses), which have been updated to address several conceptual and practical advances in the science of systematic reviews (Box 1). Box 1 Conceptual issues in the evolution from QUOROM to PRISMA

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Topics: Systematic review (63%), Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (52%), Meta-analysis (51%) ... read more

42,533 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/ARCHPSYC.1961.01710120031004
Abstract: The difficulties inherent in obtaining consistent and adequate diagnoses for the purposes of research and therapy have been pointed out by a number of authors. Pasamanick12in a recent article viewed the low interclinician agreement on diagnosis as an indictment of the present state of psychiatry and called for "the development of objective, measurable and verifiable criteria of classification based not on personal or parochial considerations, but on behavioral and other objectively measurable manifestations." Attempts by other investigators to subject clinical observations and judgments to objective measurement have resulted in a wide variety of psychiatric rating scales.4,15These have been well summarized in a review article by Lorr11on "Rating Scales and Check Lists for the Evaluation of Psychopathology." In the area of psychological testing, a variety of paper-and-pencil tests have been devised for the purpose of measuring specific

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33,299 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 1970-
Abstract: The STAI serves as an indicator of two types of anxiety, the state and trait anxiety, and measure the severity of the overall anxiety level.The STAI, which is appropriate for those who have at least a sixth grade reading level, contains four-point Likert items. The instrument is divided into two sections, each having twenty questions. Approximately 15 minutes are required for adults to complete the both STAI. The number on the scale is positively correlated to the anxiety related to in the question.

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24,199 Citations