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Journal ArticleDOI

Anti-allergic rhinitis activity of α-lipoic acid via balancing Th17/Treg expression and enhancing Nrf2/HO-1 pathway signaling

TL;DR: It is suggested that LA could be a potential therapeutic agent in OVA-induced allergic rhinitis by virtue of its role in controlling the Th17/Treg balance and enhancing Nrf2/HO-1 pathway signaling.
Abstract: An ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) mouse model was established to investigate whether α-Lipoic acid (LA) has a protective effect against upper respiratory tract inflammation. BALB/c mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection and challenged by intranasal application of OVA. Mice were orally administered various doses of LA once daily (2, 10, 50 mg/kg) and dexamethasone (Dex; 2.5 mg/kg) 1 h before OVA challenge. Allergic nasal symptoms, levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulins, cytokines, and transcription factors were measured. Nasal and lung histopathology were evaluated. LA administration significantly alleviated the nasal symptoms such as rubbing and sneezing, markedly reduced both serum OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels. The LA treatment group showed markedly up-regulated levels of the Treg cytokine IL-10 and Treg transcription factor Foxp3. In contrast, it showed down-regulated levels of the Th17 cytokine IL-17 and the Th17 transcription factor STAT3, and RORγ. LA greatly enhanced the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2/heme oxygenase 1 (Nrf2/HO-1) pathway signaling and inhibited the activation of NF-κB/IκB, markedly suppressed the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and chemokine COX-2. The histologic alterations of nasal and lung tissues of AR mice were effectively ameliorated by LA. Based on these results, we suggest that LA could be a potential therapeutic agent in OVA-induced AR by virtue of its role in controlling the Th17/Treg balance and enhancing Nrf2/HO-1 pathway signaling.

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953 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Wang et al. as discussed by the authors showed that LA supplements significantly attenuated I/R injuries of many organs, though clinic investigations were short at present, which would enlighten further investigations and prepare for clinic applications in the future.
Abstract: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury often occurred in some pathologies and surgeries. I/R injury not only harmed to physiological functions of corresponding organ and tissue but also induced multiple tissue or organ dysfunctions (even these in distant locations). Although the reperfusion of blood attenuated I/R injury to a certain degree, the risk of secondary damages was difficult to be controlled and it even caused failures of these tissues and organs. Lipoic acid (LA), as an endogenous active substance and a functional agent in food, owns better safety and effects in our body (e.g., enhancing antioxidant activity, improving cognition and dementia, controlling weight, and preventing multiple sclerosis, diabetes complication, and cancer). The literature searching was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and SCOPUS from inception to 20 May 2021. It had showed that endogenous LA was exhausted in the process of I/R, which further aggravated I/R injury. Thus, supplements with LA timely (especially pretreatments) may be the prospective way to prevent I/R injury. Recently, studies had demonstrated that LA supplements significantly attenuated I/R injuries of many organs, though clinic investigations were short at present. Hence, it was urgent to summarize these progresses about the effects of LA on different I/R organs as well as the potential mechanisms, which would enlighten further investigations and prepare for clinic applications in the future.

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the effect of ICA on primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) mice and its effect on immune regulation was investigated, where three groups of female BALB/c mice were randomized into three groups: control, POI, and POI + ICA.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a 41-day experiment was performed on BALB/c OVA-sensitized mice to investigate the regulatory effect of LTA intervention on intestine-specific immunity.
Abstract: Ovalbumin (OVA), a common food protein, can cause deadly allergies with intestine-specific immune reactions. L-Theanine (LTA) shows great potential for regulating intestinal immunity. To investigate the regulatory effect of LTA intervention on intestine-specific immunity, a 41 day experiment was performed on BALB/c OVA-sensitized mice. The results show that injecting female mice intraperitoneally with 50 μg of OVA and administering 30 mg of OVA 4 times can successfully establish an OVA-sensitized mouse model. LTA intervention significantly increased weight gain and thymus index (p < 0.05), decreased allergy and diarrhea scores (p < 0.05), and improved jejunum structure. Meanwhile, the histological score and degranulation of mast cells decreased. LTA intervention increased Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillus, Prevotella, and Ruminococcus abundance while decreasing Helicobacter abundance. Flow cytometry and Western blotting results indicated that 200 and 400 mg/kg of LTA upregulated the expression of T-bet and Foxp3 proteins (p < 0.05), thus promoting the differentiation of jejunum CD4+ T cells to Th1 and Tregs and increasing the cytokines IFN-γ, IL-10, and TGF-β (p < 0.05). We found that 200 and 400 mg/kg of LTA downregulated the expression of RORγt and GATA3, thus inhibiting the differentiation of Th2 and Th17 cells and decreasing cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17A (p < 0.05). LTA inhibited the degranulation of mast cells and significantly decreased the serum levels of OVA-IgE, HIS, and mouse MCPT-1 (p < 0.05). Therefore, LTA intervention alleviated OVA allergy by improving intestine-specific immunity.

6 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: DAP mitigates OVA-induced AR in mice by activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling and inactivating TLR4/NF-κB signaling and activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 (NRF2/ HO-1) signaling in murine nasal mucosa.
Abstract: Background Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an inflammatory disorder of nasal mucosa resulting from allergen exposure. Daphnetin (DAP) is a coumarin derivative that has various bioactivities. Nevertheless, its specific function in AR is unclear. Objectives This study is aimed to explore the specific function of DAP in AR. Methods An AR murine model was established by ovalbumin (OVA) induction. Murine sneezing and rubbing behaviors were observed. Hematoxylin-eosin was used for histopathological observation of nasal mucosa. ELISA was utilized for detection of cytokine production in murine serum. Oxidative stress-associated markers were assessed by commercial assay kits. Western blotting was utilized for evaluating protein levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in nasal mucosa. Results DAP alleviated OVA-induced nasal symptoms, inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the AR murine model. DAP activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) signaling and inactivated TLR4/NF-κB signaling in murine nasal mucosa. Conclusion DAP mitigates OVA-induced AR in mice by activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling and inactivating TLR4/NF-κB signaling.

5 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
11 May 2006-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that IL-6, an acute phase protein induced during inflammation, completely inhibits the generation of Foxp3+ Treg cells induced by TGF-β, and the data demonstrate a dichotomy in thegeneration of pathogenic (TH17) T cells that induce autoimmunity and regulatory (Foxp3+) T Cells that inhibit autoimmune tissue injury.
Abstract: On activation, T cells undergo distinct developmental pathways, attaining specialized properties and effector functions. T-helper (T(H)) cells are traditionally thought to differentiate into T(H)1 and T(H)2 cell subsets. T(H)1 cells are necessary to clear intracellular pathogens and T(H)2 cells are important for clearing extracellular organisms. Recently, a subset of interleukin (IL)-17-producing T (T(H)17) cells distinct from T(H)1 or T(H)2 cells has been described and shown to have a crucial role in the induction of autoimmune tissue injury. In contrast, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (T(reg)) cells inhibit autoimmunity and protect against tissue injury. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a critical differentiation factor for the generation of T(reg) cells. Here we show, using mice with a reporter introduced into the endogenous Foxp3 locus, that IL-6, an acute phase protein induced during inflammation, completely inhibits the generation of Foxp3+ T(reg) cells induced by TGF-beta. We also demonstrate that IL-23 is not the differentiation factor for the generation of T(H)17 cells. Instead, IL-6 and TGF-beta together induce the differentiation of pathogenic T(H)17 cells from naive T cells. Our data demonstrate a dichotomy in the generation of pathogenic (T(H)17) T cells that induce autoimmunity and regulatory (Foxp3+) T cells that inhibit autoimmune tissue injury.

6,643 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review will discuss the activation and function of NF-κB in association with inflammatory diseases and highlight the development of therapeutic strategies based on NF-σB inhibition.
Abstract: The transcription factor NF-κB regulates multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immune functions and serves as a pivotal mediator of inflammatory responses. NF-κB induces the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes, including those encoding cytokines and chemokines, and also participates in inflammasome regulation. In addition, NF-κB plays a critical role in regulating the survival, activation and differentiation of innate immune cells and inflammatory T cells. Consequently, deregulated NF-κB activation contributes to the pathogenic processes of various inflammatory diseases. In this review, we will discuss the activation and function of NF-κB in association with inflammatory diseases and highlight the development of therapeutic strategies based on NF-κB inhibition.

4,110 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review includes different topics essential for understanding oxidative stress phenomena and provides tools for those intending to conduct study and research in this field.
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other radicals are involved in a variety of biological phenomena, such as mutation, carcinogenesis, degenerative and other diseases, inflammation, aging, and development. ROS are well recognized for playing a dual role as deleterious and beneficial species. The objectives of this review are to describe oxidative stress phenomena, terminology, definitions, and basic chemical characteristics of the species involved; examine the biological targets susceptible to oxidation and the defense mechanisms of the organism against these reactive metabolites; and analyze methodologies, including immunohistochemical markers, used in toxicological pathology in the visualization of oxidative stress phenomena. Direct detection of ROS and other free radicals is difficult, because these molecules are short-lived and highly reactive in a nonspecific manner. Ongoing oxidative damage is, thus, generally analyzed by measurement of secondary products including derivatives of amino acids, nuclei acids, and lipid peroxidation. Attention has been focused on electrochemical methods based on voltammetry measurements for evaluating the total reducing power of biological fluids and tissues. This approach can function as a tool to assess the antioxidant-reducing profile of a biological site and follow changes in pathological situations. This review thus includes different topics essential for understanding oxidative stress phenomena and provides tools for those intending to conduct study and research in this field.

2,102 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The NF-kappaB pathway is a paradigm for understanding general principles of signal transduction and gene regulation as well as other pathway-specific mediators, and the transcription factors are themselves extensively modified.
Abstract: Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) consists of a family of transcription factors that play critical roles in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Inducible NF-κB activation depends on phosphorylation-induced proteosomal degradation of the inhibitor of NF-κB proteins (IκBs), which retain inactive NF-κB dimers in the cytosol in unstimulated cells. The majority of the diverse signaling pathways that lead to NF-κB activation converge on the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, which is responsible for IκB phosphorylation and is essential for signal transduction to NF-κB. Additional regulation of NF-κB activity is achieved through various post-translational modifications of the core components of the NF-κB signaling pathways. In addition to cytosolic modifications of IKK and IκB proteins, as well as other pathway-specific mediators, the transcription factors are themselves extensively modified. Tremendous progress has been made over the last two decades in unraveling the elaborate regulatory networks that control the NF-κB response. This has made the NF-κB pathway a paradigm for understanding general principles of signal transduction and gene regulation.

2,093 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is indicated that IL-10 and v-IL-10 can completely prevent antigen-specific T cell proliferation by inhibition of the antigen-presenting capacity of monocytes through downregulation of class II MHC antigens on monocytes.
Abstract: Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and viral IL-10 (v-IL-10) strongly reduced antigen-specific proliferation of human T cells and CD4+ T cell clones when monocytes were used as antigen-presenting cells. In contrast, IL-10 and v-IL-10 did not affect the proliferative responses to antigens presented by autologous Epstein-Barr virus-lymphoblastoid cell line (EBV-LCL). Inhibition of antigen-specific T cell responses was associated with downregulation of constitutive, as well as interferon gamma- or IL-4-induced, class II MHC expression on monocytes by IL-10 and v-IL-10, resulting in the reduction in antigen-presenting capacity of these cells. In contrast, IL-10 and v-IL-10 had no effect on class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression on EBV-LCL. The reduced antigen-presenting capacity of monocytes correlated with a decreased capacity to mobilize intracellular Ca2+ in the responder T cell clones. The diminished antigen-presenting capacities of monocytes were not due to inhibitory effects of IL-10 and v-IL-10 on antigen processing, since the proliferative T cell responses to antigenic peptides, which did not require processing, were equally well inhibited. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of IL-10 and v-IL-10 on antigen-specific proliferative T cell responses could not be neutralized by exogenous IL-2 or IL-4. Although IL-10 and v-IL-10 suppressed IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and IL-6 production by monocytes, it was excluded that these cytokines played a role in antigen-specific T cell proliferation, since normal antigen-specific responses were observed in the presence of neutralizing anti-IL-1, -IL-6, and -TNF-alpha mAbs. Furthermore, addition of saturating concentrations of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha to the cultures had no effect on the reduced proliferative T cell responses in the presence of IL-10, or v-IL-10. Collectively, our data indicate that IL-10 and v-IL-10 can completely prevent antigen-specific T cell proliferation by inhibition of the antigen-presenting capacity of monocytes through downregulation of class II MHC antigens on monocytes.

1,981 citations

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