Open accessJournal Article

# Antidepressant drugs act by directly binding to TRKB neurotrophin receptors

04 Mar 2021-Cell (Elsevier)-Vol. 184, Iss: 5, pp 1299
Abstract: Summary It is unclear how binding of antidepressant drugs to their targets gives rise to the clinical antidepressant effect. We discovered that the transmembrane domain of tyrosine kinase receptor 2 (TRKB), the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) receptor that promotes neuronal plasticity and antidepressant responses, has a cholesterol-sensing function that mediates synaptic effects of cholesterol. We then found that both typical and fast-acting antidepressants directly bind to TRKB, thereby facilitating synaptic localization of TRKB and its activation by BDNF. Extensive computational approaches including atomistic molecular dynamics simulations revealed a binding site at the transmembrane region of TRKB dimers. Mutation of the TRKB antidepressant-binding motif impaired cellular, behavioral, and plasticity-promoting responses to antidepressants in vitro and in vivo. We suggest that binding to TRKB and allosteric facilitation of BDNF signaling is the common mechanism for antidepressant action, which may explain why typical antidepressants act slowly and how molecular effects of antidepressants are translated into clinical mood recovery.

Topics: , Neurotrophin (51%), Neurotrophic factors (50%) ... read more
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Open accessJournal Article
Yan Wei1, Lijia Chang1, Kenji Hashimoto1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The discovery of robust antidepressant actions exerted by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist (R,S)-ketamine has been a crucial breakthrough in mood disorder research. (R,S)-ketamine is a racemic mixture of equal amounts of (R)-ketamine (arketamine) and (S)-ketamine (esketamine). In 2019, an esketamine nasal spray from Johnson & Johnson was approved in the United States of America and Europe for treatment-resistant depression. However, an increasing number of preclinical studies show that arketamine has greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant-like effects than esketamine in rodents, despite the lower binding affinity of arketamine for the NMDAR. In clinical trials, non-ketamine NMDAR-related compounds did not exhibit ketamine-like robust antidepressant actions in patients with depression, despite these compounds showing antidepressant-like effects in rodents. Thus, the rodent data do not necessarily translate to humans due to the complexity of human psychiatric disorders. Collectively, the available studies indicate that it is unlikely that NMDAR plays a major role in the antidepressant action of (R,S)-ketamine and its enantiomers, although the precise molecular mechanisms underlying antidepressant actions of (R,S)-ketamine and its enantiomers remain unclear. In this paper, we review recent findings on the molecular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant actions of (R,S)-ketamine and its potent enantiomer arketamine. Furthermore, we discuss the possible role of the brain-gut-microbiota axis and brain-spleen axis in stress-related psychiatric disorders and in the antidepressant-like action of arketamine. Finally, we discuss the potential of arketamine as a treatment for cognitive impairment in psychiatric disorders, Parkinson's disease, osteoporosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and stroke.

Topics: Arketamine (59%), Antidepressant (51%)

15 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Hydroxynorketamines (HNKs) are formed in vivo after (R,S)-ketamine (ketamine) administration. The 12 HNK stereoisomers are distinguished by the position of cyclohexyl ring hydroxylation (at the 4, 5, or 6 position) and their unique stereochemistry at two stereocenters. Although HNKs were initially classified as inactive metabolites because of their lack of anesthetic effects, more recent studies have begun to reveal their biologic activities. In particular, (2R,6R)- and (2S6)-HNK exert antidepressant-relevant behavioral and physiologic effects in preclinical models, which led to a rapid increase in studies seeking to clarify the mechanisms by which HNKs exert their pharmacological effects. To date, the majority of HNK research has focused on the actions of (2R,6R)-HNK because of its robust behavioral actions in tests of antidepressant effectiveness and its limited adverse effects. This review describes HNK pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as well as the putative cellular, molecular, and synaptic mechanisms thought to underlie their behavioral effects, both following their metabolism from ketamine and after direct administration in preclinical studies. Converging preclinical evidence indicates that HNKs modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission and downstream signaling pathways in several brain regions, including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Effects on other neurotransmitter systems, as well as possible effects on neurotrophic and inflammatory processes, and energy metabolism, are also discussed. Additionally, the behavioral effects of HNKs and possible therapeutic applications are described, including the treatment of unipolar and bipolar depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, chronic pain, neuroinflammation, and other anti-inflammatory and analgesic uses. Significance Statement Preclinical studies indicate that hydroxynorketamines (HNKs) exert antidepressant-relevant behavioral actions and may also have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and other physiological effects that are relevant for the treatment of a variety of human diseases. This review details the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the HNKs, as well as their behavioral actions, putative mechanisms of action, and potential therapeutic applications.

10 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Eero Castrén1, Lisa M. Monteggia2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Neurotrophic factors, particularly BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), have been associated with depression and antidepressant drug action. A variety of preclinical and clinical studies have implicated impaired BDNF signaling through its receptor TrkB (neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 2) in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, but many of the initial findings have not been fully supported by more recent meta-analyses, and more both basic and clinical research is needed. In contrast, increased expression and signaling of BDNF has been repeatedly implicated in the mechanisms of both typical and rapid-acting antidepressant drugs, and recent findings have started to elucidate the mechanisms through which antidepressants regulate BDNF signaling. BDNF is a critical regulator of various types of neuronal plasticities in the brain, and plasticity has increasingly been connected with antidepressant action. Although some equivocal data exist, the hypothesis of a connection between neurotrophic factors and neuronal plasticity with mood disorders and antidepressant action has recently been further strengthened by converging evidence from a variety of more recent data reviewed here.

Topics: , Neurotrophic factors (62%),  ... read more

7 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
26 Apr 2021-CNS Drugs
Abstract: The efficacy of standard antidepressants is limited for many patients with mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar depression, underscoring the urgent need to develop novel therapeutics. Both clinical and preclinical studies have implicated glutamatergic system dysfunction in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. In particular, rapid reductions in depressive symptoms have been observed in response to subanesthetic doses of the glutamatergic modulator racemic (R,S)-ketamine in individuals with mood disorders. These results have prompted investigation into other glutamatergic modulators for depression, both as monotherapy and adjunctively. Several glutamate receptor-modulating agents have been tested in proof-of-concept studies for mood disorders. This manuscript gives a brief overview of the glutamate system and its relevance to rapid antidepressant response and discusses the existing clinical evidence for glutamate receptor-modulating agents, including (1) broad glutamatergic modulators ((R,S)-ketamine, esketamine, (R)-ketamine, (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine [HNK], dextromethorphan, Nuedexta [a combination of dextromethorphan and quinidine], deudextromethorphan [AVP-786], axsome [AXS-05], dextromethadone [REL-1017], nitrous oxide, AZD6765, CLE100, AGN-241751); (2) glycine site modulators (d-cycloserine [DCS], NRX-101, rapastinel [GLYX-13], apimostinel [NRX-1074], sarcosine, 4-chlorokynurenine [4-Cl-KYN/AV-101]); (3) subunit (NR2B)-specific N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists (eliprodil [EVT-101], traxoprodil [CP-101,606], rislenemdaz [MK-0657/CERC-301]); (4) metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) modulators (basimglurant, AZD2066, RG1578, TS-161); and (5) mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activators (NV-5138). Many of these agents are still in the preliminary stages of development. Furthermore, to date, most have demonstrated relatively modest effects compared with (R,S)-ketamine and esketamine, though some have shown more favorable characteristics. Of these novel agents, the most promising, and the ones for which the most evidence exists, appear to be those targeting ionotropic glutamate receptors.

Topics: Apimostinel (56%), NMDA receptor (54%), Glutamatergic (53%) ... read more

7 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are an extracellular matrix structure rich in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), which preferentially encase parvalbumin-containing (PV+) interneurons. PNNs restrict cortical network plasticity but the molecular mechanisms involved are unclear. We found that reactivation of ocular dominance plasticity in the adult visual cortex induced by chondroitinase ABC (chABC)-mediated PNN removal requires intact signaling by the neurotrophin receptor TRKB in PV+ neurons. Additionally, we demonstrate that chABC increases TRKB phosphorylation (pTRKB), while PNN component aggrecan attenuates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-induced pTRKB in cortical neurons in culture. We further found that protein tyrosine phosphatase σ (PTPσ, PTPRS), receptor for CSPGs, interacts with TRKB and restricts TRKB phosphorylation. PTPσ deletion increases phosphorylation of TRKB in vitro and in vivo in male and female mice, and juvenile-like plasticity is retained in the visual cortex of adult PTPσ-deficient mice (PTPσ+/−). The antidepressant drug fluoxetine, which is known to promote TRKB phosphorylation and reopen critical period-like plasticity in the adult brain, disrupts the interaction between TRKB and PTPσ by binding to the transmembrane domain of TRKB. We propose that both chABC and fluoxetine reopen critical period-like plasticity in the adult visual cortex by promoting TRKB signaling in PV+ neurons through inhibition of TRKB dephosphorylation by the PTPσ-CSPG complex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Critical period-like plasticity can be reactivated in the adult visual cortex through disruption of perineuronal nets (PNNs) by chondroitinase treatment, or by chronic antidepressant treatment. We now show that the effects of both chondroitinase and fluoxetine are mediated by the neurotrophin receptor TRKB in parvalbumin-containing (PV+) interneurons. We found that chondroitinase-induced visual cortical plasticity is dependent on TRKB in PV+ neurons. Protein tyrosine phosphatase σ (PTPσ, PTPRS), a receptor for PNNs, interacts with TRKB and inhibits its phosphorylation, and chondroitinase treatment or deletion of PTPσ increases TRKB phosphorylation. Antidepressant fluoxetine disrupts the interaction between TRKB and PTPσ, thereby increasing TRKB phosphorylation. Thus, juvenile-like plasticity induced by both chondroitinase and antidepressant treatment is mediated by TRKB activation in PV+ interneurons.

Topics: Perineuronal net (57%), , PTPRS (54%) ... read more

6 Citations

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131 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.445869
Abstract: Classical Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out for liquid water in the NPT ensemble at 25 °C and 1 atm using six of the simpler intermolecular potential functions for the water dimer: Bernal–Fowler (BF), SPC, ST2, TIPS2, TIP3P, and TIP4P. Comparisons are made with experimental thermodynamic and structural data including the recent neutron diffraction results of Thiessen and Narten. The computed densities and potential energies are in reasonable accord with experiment except for the original BF model, which yields an 18% overestimate of the density and poor structural results. The TIPS2 and TIP4P potentials yield oxygen–oxygen partial structure functions in good agreement with the neutron diffraction results. The accord with the experimental OH and HH partial structure functions is poorer; however, the computed results for these functions are similar for all the potential functions. Consequently, the discrepancy may be due to the correction terms needed in processing the neutron data or to an effect uniformly neglected in the computations. Comparisons are also made for self‐diffusion coefficients obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. Overall, the SPC, ST2, TIPS2, and TIP4P models give reasonable structural and thermodynamic descriptions of liquid water and they should be useful in simulations of aqueous solutions. The simplicity of the SPC, TIPS2, and TIP4P functions is also attractive from a computational standpoint.

Topics: Water model (53%), Solvent models (52%), Water dimer (51%) ... read more

29,424 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.448118
Abstract: In molecular dynamics (MD) simulations the need often arises to maintain such parameters as temperature or pressure rather than energy and volume, or to impose gradients for studying transport properties in nonequilibrium MD A method is described to realize coupling to an external bath with constant temperature or pressure with adjustable time constants for the coupling The method is easily extendable to other variables and to gradients, and can be applied also to polyatomic molecules involving internal constraints The influence of coupling time constants on dynamical variables is evaluated A leap‐frog algorithm is presented for the general case involving constraints with coupling to both a constant temperature and a constant pressure bath

Topics: Coupling (52%), ,  ... read more

22,197 Citations

Journal Article
William G. Hoover1Institutions (1)
01 Mar 1985-Physical Review A
Abstract: Nos\'e has modified Newtonian dynamics so as to reproduce both the canonical and the isothermal-isobaric probability densities in the phase space of an N-body system. He did this by scaling time (with s) and distance (with ${V}^{1/D}$ in D dimensions) through Lagrangian equations of motion. The dynamical equations describe the evolution of these two scaling variables and their two conjugate momenta ${p}_{s}$ and ${p}_{v}$. Here we develop a slightly different set of equations, free of time scaling. We find the dynamical steady-state probability density in an extended phase space with variables x, ${p}_{x}$, V, \ensuremath{\epsilon}\ifmmode \dot{}\else \.{}\fi{}, and \ensuremath{\zeta}, where the x are reduced distances and the two variables \ensuremath{\epsilon}\ifmmode \dot{}\else \.{}\fi{} and \ensuremath{\zeta} act as thermodynamic friction coefficients. We find that these friction coefficients have Gaussian distributions. From the distributions the extent of small-system non-Newtonian behavior can be estimated. We illustrate the dynamical equations by considering their application to the simplest possible case, a one-dimensional classical harmonic oscillator.

15,380 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.470117
Ulrich Essmann1, Lalith Perera1, Max L. Berkowitz, Tom Darden2  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: The previously developed particle mesh Ewald method is reformulated in terms of efficient B‐spline interpolation of the structure factors This reformulation allows a natural extension of the method to potentials of the form 1/rp with p≥1 Furthermore, efficient calculation of the virial tensor follows Use of B‐splines in place of Lagrange interpolation leads to analytic gradients as well as a significant improvement in the accuracy We demonstrate that arbitrary accuracy can be achieved, independent of system size N, at a cost that scales as N log(N) For biomolecular systems with many thousands of atoms this method permits the use of Ewald summation at a computational cost comparable to that of a simple truncation method of 10 A or less

Topics: P3M (68%), Ewald summation (66%), Particle Mesh (56%) ... read more

15,288 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.328693
Abstract: A new Lagrangian formulation is introduced. It can be used to make molecular dynamics (MD) calculations on systems under the most general, externally applied, conditions of stress. In this formulation the MD cell shape and size can change according to dynamical equations given by this Lagrangian. This new MD technique is well suited to the study of structural transformations in solids under external stress and at finite temperature. As an example of the use of this technique we show how a single crystal of Ni behaves under uniform uniaxial compressive and tensile loads. This work confirms some of the results of static (i.e., zero temperature) calculations reported in the literature. We also show that some results regarding the stress‐strain relation obtained by static calculations are invalid at finite temperature. We find that, under compressive loading, our model of Ni shows a bifurcation in its stress‐strain relation; this bifurcation provides a link in configuration space between cubic and hexagonal close packing. It is suggested that such a transformation could perhaps be observed experimentally under extreme conditions of shock.